Biliary cystic neoplasm: biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma
Biliary cystic tumors, such as cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma, are rare cystic tumors of liver accounting for fewer than 5% of all intrahepatic cysts of biliary origin. Most biliary cystic tumors arise from intrahepatic bile duct and 10-20% arise from extrahepatic bile duct like common hepatic duct, common bile duct, and gallbladder. The first case report of biliary cystic neoplasm in Korea dated back to 1975 by Bae et al, and over 40 cases of cystadenoma and 35 cases of cystadenocarcinoma were reported since then. These tumors usually present in middle-aged women with a mean age of 50 years. Biliary cystadenomas are lined by single layer of cuboidal or columnar epithelium and are very often multilocular with septal or papillary foldings. Over 80% of cystadenoma have dense mesenchymal stroma composed of dense spindle cells, like ovary. The epithelial lining of cystadenocarcinoma exhibits cellular atypia, mitotic activity, and infiltrative growth, but part of lining epithelium retain the feature of cystadenoma, which support the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The size of tumors varies from 1.5 to 35 cm. Many patients are asymptomatic, except for the presence of palpable mass. When symptoms are present, they include epigastric or right upper quadrant pain or jaundice by enlarged mass. Biliary cystic tumor should be considered when a single or multilocular cystic lesion with papillary infoldings is detected in the liver by computed tomogram (CT) or ultrasound (US). Cystic wall and internal foldings can be seen enhanced by enhanced CT. US reveals a hypoechoic cystic mass with echogenic septation or papillary infoldings. Cystadenocarcinoma should be suspected when there is elevated mass or nodule in the wall or foldings, or thickened cystic wall on CT or US. But it is extremely difficult to differentiate between cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma by imaging alone. Increased tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, in serum or cystic fluid have been reported in biliary cystic tumor. But tumor markers cannot distinguish cystadenocarcinoma from cystadenoma or both from other cystic lesions of liver. Malignant cells are not usually recovered in patients with cystadenocarcinoma who underwent cystic fluid cytology before and during surgery. The treatment of choice is radical excision of the mass by means of lobectomy or wide tumor excision. Aspiration, marsupialization, and drainage must be avoided. Inadequate excision of both cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma may lead to recurrence. Prognosis after complete excision is excellent.
Available from: Sarath Sistla
- "Sampling errors are also a problem in these predominantly cystic lesions. Fluid cytology was not found to be useful in detecting malignancy in biliary cystic neoplasms . "
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ABSTRACT: While biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma involving the liver are not uncommon, biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is an extremely rare lesion and can be very difficult to diagnose.
A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with pain and swelling in the right hypochondrium. An ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion arising from the gallbladder fossa. This lesion was initially managed with aspiration and antibiotics by the treating physician. The patient was referred for surgical management because the abscess was not resolved through conservative treatment. A diagnosis of an infected nonparasitic cyst was made and deroofing of the cyst was performed. A histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a successful surgical excision of the lesion.
Infective lesions of the liver are common in developing countries and are usually managed through aspiration and antibiotics. Cystadenocarcinoma of the gallbladder needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions arising from the gallbladder fossa. A high index of suspicion and cytological examination from the wall of such complex lesions will help in the timely management of such lesions.
Available from: Biao Jiang
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ABSTRACT: Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: Biliary cyst tumors (cystadenoma and cystadeno-carcinoma) are an indication for liver resection. They account for only 5% of all solitary cystic lesions of the liver, but differential diagnosis with multiloculated or complicated biliary cysts, atypical hemangiomas, hamartomas and lymphangiomas may be difficult. The most frequent challenge is to differentiate biliary cyst tumors from hemorrhagic cysts. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often not diagnostic and in these cases fine needle aspiration (FNA) is used to confirm the presence of atypical biliary cells. FNA, however, lacks adequate sensitivity and specificity and should always be used in conjunction with imaging. Pre-operative differentiation of cystadenoma from cystadenocarcinoma is impossible and surgery must be performed if a biliary cyst tumor is suspected. When multiple cystic lesions are observed throughout the liver parenchyma, it is important to exclude liver metastasis, of which colonic cancer is the most common primary site. Multiple biliary hamartomas (von Meyenburg complex) can appear as a mixture of solid and cystic lesions and can be confused with cystic metastasis. Strong and uniform T2 hyperintensity on MRI is usually diagnostic, but occasionally a percutaneous biopsy may be required.
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