Article

Patterns of Mean-Level Change in Personality Traits Across the Life Course: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

Maastricht University, Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.76). 02/2006; 132(1):1-25. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The present study used meta-analytic techniques (number of samples = 92) to determine the patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course. Results showed that people increase in measures of social dominance (a facet of extraversion), conscientiousness, and emotional stability, especially in young adulthood (age 20 to 40). In contrast, people increase on measures of social vitality (a 2nd facet of extraversion) and openness in adolescence but then decrease in both of these domains in old age. Agreeableness changed only in old age. Of the 6 trait categories, 4 demonstrated significant change in middle and old age. Gender and attrition had minimal effects on change, whereas longer studies and studies based on younger cohorts showed greater change.

  • Source
    • "Furthermore, for this group of persons, social role changes associated with older age are imminent and they might thus invest in these roles (Roberts et al, 2005). And finally, personality changes in older age have been reported especially for people aged 50-65 (Roberts et al., 2006), making this a suitable period to detect influences on personality change. Of the selected participants, 94 % were white, 56% female, 73.3 % married, 61.6 % had at least some college education, and 62.4% rated their health as somewhat or much better compared to most women/men their age. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Age stereotypes as social role expectations for older adults were hypothesized to influence personality development in later life for specific stereotype domain x personality trait combinations. N = 965 participants aged 50-60 from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study provided ratings about “people in their late sixties” in four domains at T1 and completed a personality questionnaire at T1 and at T2 ten years later. Personality at T2 was regressed on age stereotypes and personality at baseline. Age stereotypes in the domains Family/Relationships and Wisdom were related to changes in both Agreeableness and Extraversion over ten years. The findings provide tentative support for the role of positive age stereotypes in personality development in older age.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Research in Personality
  • Source
    • "For example, the sample used in Bergman et al. (2014b) was recruited from a high-quality residential treatment program that integrated SUD and evidence-based psychiatric treatments, resources that are rarely available in typical treatment settings. Fourth, longitudinal personality data suggests emerging adults are likely to demonstrate lower levels of conscientiousness than their older counterparts (Rammstedt, 2007; Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer, 2006). It is not uncommon for emerging adults with SUD to miss appointments without notice or to have difficulty responding to provider phone calls. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substance use and substance-related disorders are among the most prodigious public health problems in the United States. Emerging adults (ages 18–25) appear to carry a disproportionately large share of this societal burden, as they are more than twice as likely as adolescents and older adults to be diagnosed with substance use disorders (SUD), and comprise more than 20% of SUD treatment seekers. Described as the "age of feeling in-between," emerging adulthood is associated with a biopsychosocial profile distinct from both adolescence and older adulthood, making members of this age group unique and challenging clinical cases. Data suggest that although emerging adults can benefit from cognitive-behavioral (CB) and other psychosocial treatments for SUD, they are likely to have poorer treatment response than their younger and older counterparts. Therefore, we propose several theoretically and empirically-grounded treatment modifications for this vulnerable group, such as parent counseling (or "coaching") to facilitate better treatment engagement and benefit via contingency management. A case example is used to illustrate challenges typical in SUD treatment for emerging adults and how a CB practitioner might choose to modify his/her approach based on the proposed modifications. We also offer several recommendations for practitioners who wish to address their patients' substance misuse or SUD when it is not the primary focus of treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
  • Source
    • "Bezogen auf die Mittelwertstabilität konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch hier eine zunehmende Stabilisierung stattfindet, die Größen der Veränderung also mit zunehmendem Alter geringer werden und im höheren Lebensalter wieder leicht zunehmen (Roberts et al., 2006; Specht et al., 2011). Die Persönlichkeit wird im Laufe des Lebens zwar stabiler, gleichwohl ist sie weit davon entfernt, in Stein gemeißelt zu sein (vgl. "

    Full-text · Chapter · Oct 2015
Show more