CpG Sites Preferentially Methylated by Dnmt3a in Vivo
Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are two major de novo DNA methyltransferases essential for embryonic development in mammals. It has been shown that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b have distinct substrate preferences for certain genomic loci, including major and minor satellite repeats. However, the exact target CpG sites where Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b catalyze DNA methylation remains largely unknown. To identify a CpG site that is specifically methylated by Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b, we screened methylated genomic loci by methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting using genomic DNA from wild-type, Dnmt3a null, Dnmt3b null, and Dnmt3a-Dnmt3b double null ES cells. Interestingly, one of the CpG sites was preferentially methylated in wild-type and Dnmt3b null ES cells but not in Dnmt3a null or Dnmt3a-Dnmt3b double null ES cells, suggesting that the site-specific methylation was Dnmt3a-dependent. Sequencing results revealed that the isolated CpG site is located within the 1st exon of the G isoform of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf-1.G) on mouse chromosome 18. Exogenous expression of Dnmt3a but not Dnmt3b in the double null ES cells restored DNA methylation of this CpG site. When we examined alternative transcription initiation sites, we determined that another CpG site in the 5'-flanking region of the Fgf-1.A isoform was also methylated specifically by Dnmt3a. Using chimeric constructs between Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, we further determined that the NH(2)-terminal regulatory domain of Dnmt3a was responsible for establishing its substrate specificity. These results indicate that certain CpG sites within the Fgf-1 gene locus are preferentially methylated by Dnmt3a but not by Dnmt3b. Selective methylation by a specific member of Dnmt3 may therefore play a role in the orchestration of gene expression during embryonic development.
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