The Evaluation of Cognitive–Behavioral Group Therapy on Patient Depression and Self-Esteem

ArticleinArchives of Psychiatric Nursing 20(1):3-11 · March 2006with31 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.apnu.2005.08.005 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
We evaluated the impact of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on the depression and self-esteem of clinically depressed patients. This longitudinal study involved 26 experimental group patients who received 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral group therapy and 25 comparison subjects. Two weeks before the study, immediately upon therapy completion, and 1 month later, all the participants underwent pretest, posttest, and follow-up, respectively. The experimental group patients experienced greater cognitive improvements (i.e., depression relief, self-esteem increase) as compared with the comparison group subjects. One month after therapy completion, the depressive symptoms and self-esteem of the experimental group patients remained slightly but significantly better than those of the comparison group subjects.
    • "Taking into consideration that CBT has a broad evidence base for the management of depression problem, it is expected that psychiatric nurses will have an important role in providing CBT as a means of satisfying patient expectations, quality improvement, cost-reasonable care and increased effectiveness (Fortinash & Holsay-Worret, 2012). CBT is favorable, advisable and patients imply high degrees of satisfaction Chen, Lu, Chang, Chu, & Chou, 2006). Høifødt et al. (2013 reported a high satisfaction rate of 89% from sample of 65 depression patients. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is acknowledged as the most empirically supported psychotherapy treatment for depression. CBT for depression was first developed by Aaron Beck in the 1960s, and since then it has been expanded and studied extensively. Purpose: This paper provides a brief overview of depression and summarizes evidence supporting the effectiveness of CBT for depression management. Findings: At present, treatments for depression incorporate antidepressant medications, psychotherapies such as CBT, electroconvulsive therapy, support groups, and counseling in outpatient clinic. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that CBT is effective on treating depression in diverse patient groups. Furthermore, CBT's effects on the symptoms of depression are similar to the effects of medication in the short-term. More research needs to be done to establish whether CBT is superior to other available, but less researched, forms of psychotherapy. Implications For Nursing Practice: Psychiatric nurses have an important role in providing CBT as a means of satisfying patient expectations and quality improvement. Offering proper CBT training programmes for the psychiatric nurses is imperative. Moreover, nursing education programmes should make steps towards integration of CBT into nursing curriculum.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Computers in Human Behavior
    • "Indeed, a number of studies indicate that individuals with high self-esteem report lower stress and greater adjustment following relationship dissolution, whilst individuals with negative self-beliefs tend to have more difficulty adjusting to divorce, and report greater avoidance and traumatic distress after non-marital relationship dissolution (Boelen & Reijtenies, 2009; Chung et al., 2000;). These findings are encouraging as, research indicates that self-esteem can be enhanced via clinical intervention, and that such interventions improve psychological functioning (Chen et al., 2006; Fairburn, 45 2002; Hall & Tarrier, 2003). Together these findings suggest that high self-esteem is a positive psychological factor that may be cultivated to protect one's wellbeing in the wake of a relationship breakup. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development and maintenance of romantic relationships has been a central focus of psychological research over the past few decades, whilst the dissolution of such relationships has received significantly less attention. This is of growing concern, as sociological changes indicate that the number of individuals experiencing non-marital relationship breakups is on the rise. Whilst previous research suggests that the dissolution of such relationships is likely to end in heartache, recent studies indicate that some individuals bounce back and exhibit positive adjustment. To date, little is known about how and why some individuals fare better than others. Furthermore, available research has primarily focused on trait-like factors that predict post-breakup distress, offering little opportunity for intervention. This raises two important questions: What individual characteristics and coping strategies are related to positive post-breakup adjustment? And, can we identify trainable factors that offer opportunity for intervention? This thesis sought to explore these questions in two research studies and a research practicum. Study one aimed to identify positive psychological factors (e.g. mindfulness, optimism, hope, self-esteem and self-compassion) associated with adjustment following the breakdown of a non-marital relationship. Findings indicated that positive psychological factors were strongly related on post-breakup adjustment, over and above the circumstances of a relationship breakup. Further, the factors related to poor adjustment (lower mindfulness, self-esteem and optimism) differed somewhat from those related to positive adjustment (greater mindfulness, hope and self-compassion). These findings suggest that clinicians could usefully focus on building dual pathways to post-breakup resilience. Based on the findings of study one, an experimental single case design study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic benefits of a brief online self-compassion intervention designed to help people cope with relationship breakups. Findings indicated that a majority of participants reported improvements in self-compassion, breakup distress, affect and wellbeing after the intervention. These findings offer preliminary evidence that self-compassion may be a useful clinical tool for supporting individuals after the breakdown of a romantic relationship. Study two qualitatively explored the range and helpfulness of coping strategies employed by males and females after a relationship breakup. The main findings of the study indicated (i) a general consensus in the coping strategies reported most frequently by males and females, (ii) females tended to rate active forms of coping as more helpful, whilst males rated more avoidant forms of coping as more helpful, (iii) females and males who rated the helpfulness of coping strategies in this way, also tended to report greater wellbeing following the breakup. These surprising results are interpreted and discussed through the lens of role constraint theory. Taken together, these studies indicate that clinical interventions developed to assist individuals in the aftermath of a relationship breakup should consider the role of individual characteristics, social roles and coping strategies, and should seek to not only reduce distress but also build wellbeing and positive adaptation.
    Thesis · Aug 2015 · Computers in Human Behavior
    • "To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of a Veteran-peer supported cCBT intervention (i.e., Beating the Blues) for the treatment of Veterans with mild to moderate depressive episodes in the VHA. Relatively high rates of completion were seen among Veterans initiating this treatment, comparable to or exceeding the rates observed in studies examining in-person individual (Arch et al., 2012; Mohr et al., 2012; Persons, Burns, & Perloff, 1988) and in-person group CBT(Chen, Lu, Chang, Chu, & Chou, 2006), as well as cCBT interventions (for review Kaltenthaler, Parry,). More specifically, completion rates of the current study were similar to other studies investigating the Beating the Blues program using professional staff assistance (Cavanagh et al., 2006; Learmonth et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depressive disorders are a serious public health concern and treatment priority for the Veterans Health Administration. Computer-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (cCBT) is an effective intervention for patients with major depressive disorders; however, rates of program completion are an area of concern, which may be improved through the assistance of peers. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of a Veteran-peer assisted cCBT intervention. Participants were patients diagnosed with depression at an Outpatient Mental Health (OMH) or Primary Care Mental Health (PCMH) clinic at a single VHA facility. Participants were paired with a Veteran-peer and given access to a widely used cCBT program via the Internet. Measures of depressive symptoms were obtained at baseline, 4-, and 8-weeks follow-up. Completion rates and program satisfaction were also assessed. At 8 weeks, symptom reductions and completion rates were comparable to study results of brief individual, group CBT, and staff assisted computerized CBT interventions. Significant reductions in depressive symptoms were observed in patients from both clinics, although ratings of program usefulness, relevance, and ease of use were higher for individuals recruited from the PCMH clinic. Peer-assisted cCBT for depression is feasible but further research is needed to determine the clinical efficacy of this approach.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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