Article

Antidepressant-like activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in mouse models of immobility tests

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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Family: Fabaceae), popularly known as liquorice, on depression in mice using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The extract of G. glabra (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally for 7 successive days in separate groups of Swiss young male albino mice. The dose of 150 mg/kg of the extract significantly reduced the immobility times of mice in both FST and TST, without any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The efficacy of extract was found to be comparable to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.). Liquorice extract reversed reserpine-induced extension of immobility period of mice in FST and TST. Sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.; a selective D2 receptor antagonist) and prazosin (62.5 microg/kg i.p.; an alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist) significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. On the other hand, p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg i.p.; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) did not reverse antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract. This suggests that antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract seems to be mediated by increase of brain norepinephrine and dopamine, but not by increase of serotonin. Monoamine oxidase inhibiting effect of liquorice may be contributing favorably to the antidepressant-like activity. Thus, it is concluded that liquorice extract may possess an antidepressant-like effect.

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... In vivo-oral administration to Swiss young male albino mice Production of antidepressant-like effect in mice in forced swim test and tail suspension test, probably by interaction with adrenergic and dopaminergic system (Dhingra & Sharma, 2006) G. glabra aqueous extract 75-300 mg/kg, 7 days In vivo-oral administration to mice Dose of 150 mg/kg significantly improved learning and memory of mice (Parle, Dhingra, & Kulkarni, 2004) Sedative activity (Cho et al., 2010) Antidepressive activity G. glabra aqueous extract 75-300 mg/kg In vivo-forced swim test and tail suspension test applied to mice Antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract seems to be mediated by increase of brain norepinephrine and dopamine, but not by increase of serotonin (Dhingra & Sharma, 2006) Oestrogenic activity female Wistar rats Stimulation of creatine kinase specific activity (Tamir, Eizenberg, Somjen, Izrael, & Vaya, 2001) Liquorice root extract 25 μg/day, 2 weeks In vivo-oral administration to female rats Increase in creatine kinase activity (Tamir et al., 2000) Liquiritigenin 2-10 μg/ml In vitro-MCF-7 and T47D cells Induction of oestrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, oestrogen responsive element luciferase in MCF-7 cells and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells (Somjen et al., 2004) Isoliquiritigenin 0-0.04 mg/ml In vivo-intraperitoneal injection of female ICR mice Improvement of IVF rate (Tung, Shoyama, Wada, & Tanaka, 2014) Skin effects Glycyrrhizinic acid ...
... In vivo-oral administration to Swiss young male albino mice Production of antidepressant-like effect in mice in forced swim test and tail suspension test, probably by interaction with adrenergic and dopaminergic system (Dhingra & Sharma, 2006) G. glabra aqueous extract 75-300 mg/kg, 7 days In vivo-oral administration to mice Dose of 150 mg/kg significantly improved learning and memory of mice (Parle, Dhingra, & Kulkarni, 2004) Sedative activity (Cho et al., 2010) Antidepressive activity G. glabra aqueous extract 75-300 mg/kg In vivo-forced swim test and tail suspension test applied to mice Antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract seems to be mediated by increase of brain norepinephrine and dopamine, but not by increase of serotonin (Dhingra & Sharma, 2006) Oestrogenic activity female Wistar rats Stimulation of creatine kinase specific activity (Tamir, Eizenberg, Somjen, Izrael, & Vaya, 2001) Liquorice root extract 25 μg/day, 2 weeks In vivo-oral administration to female rats Increase in creatine kinase activity (Tamir et al., 2000) Liquiritigenin 2-10 μg/ml In vitro-MCF-7 and T47D cells Induction of oestrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, oestrogen responsive element luciferase in MCF-7 cells and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells (Somjen et al., 2004) Isoliquiritigenin 0-0.04 mg/ml In vivo-intraperitoneal injection of female ICR mice Improvement of IVF rate (Tung, Shoyama, Wada, & Tanaka, 2014) Skin effects Glycyrrhizinic acid ...
... The effects of G. glabra on learning and memory were investigated in mice (Dhingra & Sharma, 2006;Parle et al., 2004). In 2004, Parle et al. (2004) administered the extract of G. glabra orally to mice during 7 days at different concentrations (75-300 mg/kg). ...
Article
In the last years, consumers are paying much more attention to natural medicines and principles, mainly due to the general sense that natural compounds are safe. On the other hand, there is a growing demand by industry for plants used in traditional medicine that could be incorporated in foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, or even pharmaceuticals. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. belongs to the Fabaceae family and has been recognized since ancient times for its ethnopharmacological values. This plant contains different phytocompounds, such as glycyrrhizin, 18β‐glycyrrhetinic acid, glabrin A and B, and isoflavones, that have demonstrated various pharmacological activities. Pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that different extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibit a broad range of biological properties, including antibacterial, anti‐inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities. A few toxicological studies have reported some concerns. This review addresses all those issues and focuses on the pharmacological activities reported for G. glabra. Therefore, an updated, critical, and extensive overview on the current knowledge of G. glabra composition and biological activities is provided here in order to explore its therapeutic potential and future challenges to be utilized for the formulation of new products that will contribute to human well‐being.
... Jack. has MAO-B (monoamine oxidase B) inhibition (Lin et al., 2003;Dhingra and Sharma, 2006;Stafford et al., 2007). From past six decades, synthetic MAO inhibitors, such as moclobemide (MAO-A selective, reversible inhibitor) and deprenyl (MAO-B selective, irreversible inhibitor) have been widely used for the treatment of depression and PD respectively (Riederer et al., 2004;Youdim and Bakhle, 2009). ...
... Antidepressant (Dhingra and Sharma, 2006) Gynostemma pentaphyllum Thunb. Makino (Cucurbitaceae) ...
Article
Background: Catecholamines (CAs) have been reported to be involved in numerous functions including central nervous system. CA release from the intra neuronal storage vesicles aid in the therapy of various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders where the catecholaminergic neurotransmission is compromised. Bioavailability of CA at the synapse can be increased through stimulated neurotransmitter release, monoamine oxidase and CA reuptake inhibition. Plant based galenicals are reported to have similar CA enhancement activities and have been used for the management of neurological disorders. Aim: To review evidence-based literature with plant extracts, bioactive compounds, and composite extracts that modulate central catecholaminergic system, thereby enhancing CA activity for beneficial neurological effect. Methods: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were used to search scientific contributions until January 2018, using relevant keywords. Literature focusing plant-derived CA enhancing compounds, extracts and/or composite extracts were identified and summarized. In all cases, dose, route of administration, the model system and type of extract were accounted. Results: A total of 49 plant extracts, 31 compounds and 16 herbal formulations have shown CA activity enhancement. Stimulated CA release from the storage vesicles, monoamine oxidase and CA reuptake inhibition were the major mechanisms involved in the increase of CA bioavailability by these phytoconstituents. Conclusion: This review provides an overview on the phytoconstituents with CA enhancement property that have been used for neuropsychiatric disorders. Such herbal remedies will provide an avenue for cost effective and easily available medication which have holistic approach towards disease management. There is also scope for alternate medicines or prototype drug development utilizing these phytomedicines for treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, hurdles are to be met for analyzing the mode and mechanism of action associated with these phytomedicines and their proper scientific documentation.
... In a randomized, double-blind study, 30 mg of saffron extract (in capsules) given for 6 weeks resulted in significant alleviation of depression compared to placebo group, and no side effects were recorded. Many follow-ups double blind trials carried out on saffron preparation compared with imipramine and fluoxetine; showed that saffron possessed antidepressant effects [59,[45][46][47]. ...
... On the other hand, p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg ip, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) did not reverse antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract. It seemed that the antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract mediated by increase of brain norepinephrine and dopamine, but not by increase of serotonin [59][60]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants can exert antidepressant activity by many mechanisms included neutralization of various stress mediators (regulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and reduce CRF, and ACTH and corticosterone) [5], interaction with serotonergic systems (5-HT3, 5HT2A, 5-HT1A), noradrenergic (α1 and α2 receptors) and dopaminergic (D1 and D2) receptors [6],restoring monoamine transmitters and their receptors to normal limits in certain regions of the cortex, in addition to reducing of oxidative stress and amelioration of inflammatory mediators. The current review discussed the antidepressant activity of medicinal plants, with emphasis on their mechanisms of action.
... Monoamine oxidase prohibiting the impact of liquorice could be also involved in the observed antidepressant-like activity. Hence, it could be concluded that liquorice extract might have an antidepressant-like function (Dhingra & Sharma, 2006). The prescription of both aqueous and ethanol extract of G. glabra root (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 consecutive days in albino rats revealed a dose dependent and remarkable reduction in immobility duration in FST and TST. ...
... Reverting serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5hydroxy indole acetic acid, serum corticotropinreleasing factor, and cortisol concentrations Fusar-Poli et al. (2019) -Inhibiting the expression of MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes Kulkarni and Dhir (2010) -ERK-regulated enhancement in the expression of BDNF in the amygdala Zhang et al. (2012) -Hippocampal neurogenesis Xu et al. (2006) -Prohibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β via NF-κB pathway Buhrmann et al. (2011) Preventing MAO-A and MAO-B mechanisms Zhong, Pan, and Kong(1994)-Increasing the sucrose consumption Pan, Zhang, Xia, and Kong(2006)-Reducing serum CRF and cortisol amounts -Reversing the atypical amounts of serum IL-6 and TNF-α to the normal levelGinkgo biloba-Affecting the action of the HPA axis Wu, Shui, Wang, Song, and Tai(2016)-Deducting the expression of S100B Dai, Hu, Shang, and Xie(2018)-Decreasing the amounts of 5-HT, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the hippocampus Zhang, Liu, Ge, and Liu(2019)-Blocked the serotonin release in the peripheral blood -Stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1 aroused antiapoptotic mechanism Glycyrrhiza glabra L.-Enhancing dopamine and norepinephrine amount -Prohibiting monoamine oxidaseDhingra and Sharma (2006) -Reducing the brain MAO-A and MAO-B functionChowdhury, Bhattamisra, and Charana Das (2011) Hordeum vulgare L.-Inhibiting NGF -Intervening serotoninergic and dopaminergic transmission pathwaysYamaura et al. (2012) -Having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory propertiesZaki and Rizk (2013) Hypericum perforatum -Augmenting brain serotonin amount -Preventing serotonin (re)uptake -Increasing serotonin 5-HT2 receptorsKientsch, Burgi, Ruedeberg, Probst, and Honegger (2001),Butterweck (2003),and Uchida, Kato, Hirano, Kagawa, and Yamada (2007) ...
Chapter
Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders affecting several people worldwide. The synthetic medicines that are available as the standard treatment for depressed patients have various side effects that can impair their therapeutic properties. Therefore, there is an increment in demand for alternative and complementary drugs. A search of English articles in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was carried out on probable mechanisms of action of herbal antidepressants. Herbal medicines stated in folk medicine face acceptance concerns by the medical community because of the lack of scientific documents regarding their neurochemical mechanisms. Henceforth, there has been increased attention to reveal the underlying mechanisms of herbal psychotropics. In this chapter, the antidepressant mechanisms of several medicinal plants such as Curcuma longa, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Crocus sativus, and Ginkgo biloba have been reviewed to show their potential physio-pharmacological effects including affecting the action of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, interaction with dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems, and attenuating monoamine oxidase A and B activities. In the main body of this chapter, the most frequently used herbs (24 cases) being assessed for the treatment of depression have been discussed. However, the safety and efficacy of these herbal remedies for depression have to be confirmed by more clinical studies.
... Glycyrrhizin, a component of the aqueous Glycyrrhiza root extract showed anti-depressant effects in mice using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in an experiment [128]. The extracts were administered orally for 7 successive days in male mice at a dose of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg in separate groups. ...
... The extracts were administered orally for 7 successive days in male mice at a dose of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg in separate groups. In both the FST and TST, the dose of 150 mg/kg showed reduced immobility time without compromising locomotor activity [128]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nature has always been an excellent source for many therapeutic compounds providing us with many medicinal plants and microorganisms producing beneficial chemicals. Therefore, the demand for medicinal plants, cosmetics, and health products is always on the rise. One such plant from the Leguminosae family is licorice and the scientific name is Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. It is an herb-type plant with medicinal value. In the following article, we shall elaborately look at the plants' phytochemical constituents and the pharmacological impact of those substances. Several compounds such as glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizinic acid, isoliquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid have been found in this plant, which can provide pharmacological benefit to us with its anti-cancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and antispasmodic activity. Alongside, these products have a different role in hepatoprotective, immunologic, memory-enhancing activity. They can stimulate hair growth, control obesity, and have anti-depressants, sedatives, and anticoagulant activity. This review examines recent studies on the phytochemical and pharmacological data and describes some side effects and toxicity of licorice and its bioactive components.
... GA was found to be a neuroprotectant, which was demonstrated through a study on a focal cerebral ischemic model of mice. It was well documented that GA has strong antiinflammatory, antioxidant properties [15][16][17], general cognitive enhancement [18] and anti-depressant activity [19,20]. ...
... CCH was modelled using the two-vessel occlusion method (2VO) through permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (bCCAO) [19]. The rats were anesthetized by 5% isoflurane in oxygen for induction and 2% for maintenance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a concern for neurocognitive health, is linked to various vascular ailments and other comorbidities. This study primarily aims to explain the mitigating effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on cognitive health challenged by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated into four groups: (i) Sham, (ii) Lesion (2VO), (iii) GA treated (20 mg/kg), and (iv) lithium chloride (Li) treated (40 mg/kg). On 30th postoperative day the rats were tested for cognitive behaviour through a repertoire of tests. Rats were transcardially perfused and the brain samples were obtained for histological assessments. For biochemical assessments, hippocampus isolated from fresh brain was utilized. Results: The antioxidant propensity of GA curtailed ROS generation by restoring mitochondrial complex I and IV, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. However, Li group exhibited significantly reduced antioxidant defence, when compared with GA. The strong antioxidant defence had caused considerable restoration of pyramidal neurons, myelin and dendritic spine density in GA treated than Li treated. GA treated rats showed a remarkable amelioration of cognitive deficits when compared with lesion rats. Finally, GA also reduced the cytochrome-c release, thus creating a blockade for further succession of apoptotic events. Conclusion: The outcome of this study clearly implies that GA shows promising neuroprotection in CCH-induced rats by enhancing the endogenous antioxidants and curtails the apoptosis by reducing cytochrome-c release. GA was also found to be much better than Li through modulation of GSK3β/Nrf2 pathway, in turn, mitigates the adverse consequences of CCH.
... On the other hand, p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg ip, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) did not reverse antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract. It seemed that the antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract mediated by increase of brain norepinephrine and dopamine, but not by increase of serotonin [72]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent studies showed that many plants affected the central nervous system and exerted many pharmacological effects including sedative, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-Parkinson, memory-enhancing, locomotor and neuroprotective effects. The current review discuss the central nervous effects of the medicinal plants with special focus on their mode of action.
... Forced swim test (FST): Forced swim test was proposed as a model to test for antidepressant activity by Porsolt et al 17 . The procedure was same as followed earlier 18,19 . Mice were forced to swim individually in a glass jar (25 × 12 × 25 cm 3 ) containing fresh water of 15 cm height and maintained at 25°C (± 3°C). ...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is a disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. Herbal medicine holds a valuable place in the treatment of depression. It is also a reasonable alternative for developing novel drugs. The present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of Terminalia Bellirica on depression in mice using force swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The extracts were administered by oral route for 7 days in separate group of mice. Mice of either sex were divided into 6 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group were vehicle of aqueous extracts, Imipramine (15mg/kg), Terminalia Bellirica aqueous extract 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, Terminalia Bellirica aqueous extract 100mg/kg + Imipramine (15mg/kg) and Terminalia Bellirica aqueous extract 200mg/kg + Imipramine (15mg/kg). Aqueous extracts of Terminalia Bellirica (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced the immobility time of mice. The efficacies of aqueous extract (200mg/kg) were found to be similar to that imipramine (15mg/kg, p.o.) administered for 7 days. The aqueous extracts of Terminalia Bellirica give a significant anti-depressant like effect in mice by interaction with adrenergic, dopominergic and serotonergic systems.
... In modern medicine, several biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant (Chin et al., 2007), anti-tumor (Sheela et al., 2006), anti-depressant (Dhingra and Sharma, 2006), memory enhancement (Dhingra et al., 2004), neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties (Yu et al., 2008) have been reported for different licorice preparations. Several phytoconstituents have been isolated from licorice but it is still believed that poly phenolics including different flavonoids and tannins along with its saponins and polysaccharides are responsible for its biological activities (Asl and Hosseinzadeh, 2008). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Licorice preparations are used as neuroprotective remedies in Persian ethnomedicine, in order to prevent from disabilities in neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson's disease (PD). Aim of the study: This study was designed to determine the licorice (root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) effectiveness as an adjunct treatment in the PD management. Material and methods: In this double-blinded trial, 128 patients were assessed for eligibility criteria. Seventy-eight patients were ineligible and 11 of them refused from participating. Thirty-nine PD patients (YAHR staging ≤ 3) were divided into two groups by random. The patients received oral licorice or placebo syrups with a dose of 5 cc, twice a day for 6 months. High-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric instruments determined licorice syrup constituents. The patients' situation for Unified Parkinson's rating scale (UPDRS) was assessed every 6 weeks for the duration of six months. In addition, patients' blood pressure, blood glucose, sodium and potassium levels, quality of life and dizziness were determined. Results: Six weeks after intervention, total UPDRS, daily activities and tremor were significantly improved with a considerable effect size. A significant better motor test and rigidity scores were observed 4 months after licorice intake (p > 0.05). No electrolyte abnormality, significant changes in blood pressure or blood glucose levels were observed during the study. Each 5cc of syrup contained 136 mg of licorice extract with 12.14 mg glycyrrhizic acid, and also 136 μg of polyphenols. Conclusion: The licorice intake could improve the symptoms in PD patients without serious adverse events.
... One of the most commonly used TCM formulas, employing the roots of bupleurum (Bupleurum Chinense), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), peony (Paeonia lactiflora), and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), focuses on liver function and strengthening the blood ( Dhingra et al., 2006). ...
... Studies on mice model have speculated Yashtimadhu to be neuroprotective and to enhance the functioning of the brain; therefore, it might be used to develop the treatment of diseases like Alzheimer where the patient loses the memory, in lammation of certain parts of the brain and eventually suffers from dementia as one of the symptoms. (Chakravarthi and Avadhani, 2013;Dhingra and Sharma, 2006) This study showed that YashtimadhuChurnaand YashtimadhuKalpa have the same proportion of glycyrrhizin, indicating that the novel Yashti-madhuKalpaformulation might also have similar effects as conferred by the conventional Yashtimad-huChurna. In the study, YashtimadhuChurnawas transformed into YashtimadhuKalpa, which rendered it increased shelf-life and more palatability. ...
Article
The present study was aimed to develop an adapted formulation of the MedhyaRasayan, i.e. YashtimadhuKalpa to make Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) more palatable and well-preserved. The classical reference from CharakSamhita (ChikitsaSthana 1-3/30) elaborates the use of YashtimadhuChurna (coarse powder) along with milk as a MedhyaRasayana. The novel modified version, i.e. YashtimadhuKalpa (formulation), was prepared from YashtimadhuChurna. In HPTLC finger printing clear evident bands with medium intensity were observed at Rf values 0.19 (pink), 0.24 (light brown), and 0.49 (yellow) in YashtimadhuKalpa as well as YashtimadhuChurna. The content of glycyrrhizin was quantified from YashtimadhuChurna and YashtimadhuKalpa by HPLC and HPTLC by comparing the peak area of the standard. It was confirmed that the same active component was present in the YashtimadhuKalpa and YashtimadhuChurna. The content of glycyrrhizin was identified and quantified and showed the same comparable amounts in YashtimadhuKalpa and YashtimadhuChurna. In this study, we presented the classic Ayurvedic Medhya Rasayan in a novel formulation -YashtimadhuKalpa- in a simplified manner. The authenticity of the formulation was corroborated by HPTLC and HPLC. This study enforces the fact that the modification of classic Ayurvedic formulations is possible such that simplified and adapted formulations can be generated.
... Forced swim test (FST): Forced swim test was proposed as a model to test for antidepressant activity by Porsolt et al 17 . The procedure was same as followed earlier 18,19 . Mice were forced to swim individually in a glass jar (25 × 12 × 25 cm 3 ) containing fresh water of 15 cm height and maintained at 25°C (± 3°C). ...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is a disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. Herbal medicine holds a valuable place in the treatment of depression. It is also a reasonable alternative for developing novel drugs. The present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of Terminalia Bellirica on depression in mice using force swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The extracts were administered by oral route for 7 days in separate group of mice. Mice of either sex were divided into 6 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group were vehicle of aqueous extracts, Imipramine (15mg/kg), Terminalia Bellirica aqueous extract 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, Terminalia Bellirica aqueous extract 100mg/kg + Imipramine (15mg/kg) and Terminalia Bellirica aqueous extract 200mg/kg + Imipramine (15mg/kg). Aqueous extracts of Terminalia Bellirica (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced the immobility time of mice. The efficacies of aqueous extract (200mg/kg) were found to be similar to that imipramine (15mg/kg, p.o.) administered for 7 days. The aqueous extracts of Terminalia Bellirica give a significant anti-depressant like effect in mice by interaction with adrenergic, dopominergic and serotonergic systems.
... Thus, it is all over that liquorice extract could possess associate degree antidepressant-like effect. 30 ...
... Some of the plant drugs investigated in recent years for antidepressant activity have demonstrated promising results. For example St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) (Butterweek, et al., 1997), Hypericum reflexum L (Sánchez-Mateo et al., 2007), Glycyrrhiza glabra L (Dinesh and Amandeep, 2006), Kielmeyera cariacea (Martins, et al., 2006), Withania somnifera (Bhattacharya et al., 2000), etc have been reported to produce significant antidepressant effect. Similarly, a compound formulation having Valeriana velchii, Convolvulus microphylus, Plumbago zeylanica, Boswellia serrata, Acorus calamus as its ingredients, has been reported to possess antidepressant activity (Shalam, 2007). ...
Research
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Depression, Malikholiya, Unani Medicine, Majoon Najah
... Kakjangha in the Bengali [4]. As it is known that inflammation is the complex method which is normally associated with the pain and involves incidences like the raise of the vascular permeability, raise of the protein denaturation in addition to membrane alteration [5]. ...
... Active compounds in Guduchi, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 11-hydroxymustakone, cordifolioside A, N-formylannonain, tinocordiside magnoflorine, have possible immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects by enhancing the phagocytic activity of macrophages, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophil cells of human, improvement in the production of Nitric Oxide (NO) by stimulation of splenocytes and macrophages suggestive of anti-tumor effects [43,44]. various studies on Yashtmadhu showed its effectiveness as Antimicrobial [45], anti-oxidant [46], Antidepressant [47], antitussive [48], Antiviral [49], properties. ...
Article
The ongoing coronavirus pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2) and unique in various facets. The earlier experience from the past severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemics seem to be insufficient and there is need for better strategies in public health and medical care. Ayurved & Yog are well known for their preventive and therapeutic aspect, but not getting utilized properly for prevention of Covid 19 crisis which may also be helpful as supportive therapy along with current line of management. This paper is aimed at unrevealing the role of Ayurved and Yoga guidelines established by Department of AYUSH for prevention from SARS-CoV-2 by providing help to improving the quality of supportive/prophylactic therapy in relation with their immunity.
... The results of the current study revealed that, oral administration of reserpine resulted in a significant decrease in 5-HT and DA and increase in DOPAC and HVA respectively as compared to their levels of control rats. This finding agrees with (Dhingra and Sharma, 2006) who demonstrated that reserpine produces a significant depletion in biogenic amines (NE, 5HT and DA) rats' brains. Moreover, (Yoshitake 2004) reported that reserpine reduced the extracellular 5HT, NE and DA concentrations and (Ahmed, et al., 1997) reported that reserpine impairs the storage of biogenic amines resulting in depletion of NE, DA, and 5HT in both the central and peripheral nervous systems consequently disturbs the digestive system and decreases food intake. ...
... The antidepressant effects and heart palpitation relief of Melissa officinalis leaves' ethanolic extract were demonstrated in the forced swim test (29,30). The antidepressant effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra has been proven, as well (21,31,32). In a similar investigation, the effect of 24 days of oral administration of abnormal "Monzej-e soda" (ASMq), which had some similarity with our product, Iran Red Crescent Med J. ...
... Glycyrrhiza uralensis is an important medicinal plant for its roots as key ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine that contains many components with a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory , antidepressant (Dhingra and Sharma, 2006), antiviral (Fiore et al., 2008), hepatoprotective , and anticancer (Aipire et al., 2017) properties. Glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin have been known to play a role in the prevention and treatment of the new coronavirus pneumonia (Chai et al., 2020;Zhu et al., 2020a,b). ...
Article
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Glycyrrhiza uralensis contains many secondary metabolites with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Drought stress acts as a positive regulator to stimulate the production of medicinal active component in G. uralensis, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate the accumulation and regulatory mechanism of pharmaceutical active ingredients in G. uralensis under drought stress. The materials of the aerial and underground parts of G. uralensis seedlings treated by 10% PEG6000 for 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h were used for RNA sequencing and determination of phytohormones and pharmaceutical active ingredients. PEG6000, ibuprofen (IBU), and jasmonic acid (JA) were utilized to treat G. uralensis seedlings for content detection and gene expression analysis. The results showed that, the contents of glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, and flavonoids (licochalcone A, glabridin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, and liquiritin) were significantly accumulated in G. uralensis underground parts under drought stress. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis of the transcriptome data of drought-treated G. uralensis indicated that up-regulated differentially expressed genes (UDEGs) involved in glycyrrhizic acid synthesis in the underground parts and flavonoids synthesis in both aerial and underground parts were significantly enriched. Interestingly, the UDEGs participating in jasmonic acid (JA) signal transduction in both aerial and underground parts were discovered. In addition, JA content in both aerial and underground parts under drought stress showed the most significantly accumulated. And drought stress stimulated the contents of JA, glycyrrhizic acid, and flavonoids, coupled with the induced expressions of genes regulating the synthesis and transduction pathway. Moreover, In PEG6000- and JA-treated G. uralensis, significant accumulations of glycyrrhizic acid and flavonoids, and induced expressions of corresponding genes in these pathways, were observed, while, these increases were significantly blocked by JA signaling inhibitor IBU. JA content and expression levels of genes related to JA biosynthesis and signal transduction were also significantly increased by PEG treatment. Our study concludes that drought stress might promote the accumulation of pharmaceutical active ingredients via JA-mediated signaling pathway, and lay a foundation for improving the medicinal component of G. uralensis through genetic engineering technology.
... The effects of G. glabra on learning and memory were investigated in mice. 36 Administered the extract of G. glabra orally to mice during 7 days at different concentrations (75-300 mg/kg). Studied the effects of G. glabra root aqueous extract on the learning and memory of 1-month-old male Wistar albino mice at doses between 75 and 300 mg/kg, orally administered during six successive weeks. ...
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Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines for human being and animals since the ancient time. Herbal medicines have attained popularity at global level to replace the synthetic chemicals as they have shown less adverse reactions. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn is a herb belonging to the family Leguminosae, also known as Liquorice and sweetwood, is native to the Mediterranean and certain areas of Asia. Historically, the dried rhizome and root of this plant were employed medicinally by the Egyptian, Chinese, Greek, Indian and Roman civilizations as an expectorant and carminative. It is widely used in ayurvedic formulations and herb for different diseases. Present review article deals with chemical constituents present in various parts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and pharmacological activities. Present article object to comply all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities which were performed by widely different methods. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, antimalarial, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyper glycemic properties. Various other effects like antiulcer, antiviral, antifungal have also been discussed. A large number of components have been isolated from liquorice including triterpene saponins, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and chalcones, glycyrrhizic acid normally being considered to be the main biologically active component. This will be helpful to create interest towards liquorice and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value.
... Antidepressant-like effect of liquorice extract is attributed to its ability to restore of brain monoamines, like norepinephrine and dopamine levels. Glycyrrhizin has been found to be the chief constituent of liquorice that showed MAO (Monoamine Oxidase) inhibiting activity (Dhingra and Sharma, 2006). ...
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The study examines the impact of qualities of board members on the financial performance of listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. The study used secondary data from the annual reports and accounts of a sample of 12 banks for the period of six years from 2012-2017. The study used return on assets (ROA) to measure financial performance and uses multiple regression to examine the impact of board qualities on financial performance. The study found that multiple directorship has a negative and significant relationship with financial performance of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria, while directors’ remuneration has a positive and significant relationship with the financial performance of listed deposit money banks. Based on the findings, the study recommends that regulators should impose restrictions on the number of outside board membership that a director can hold simultaneously to make him more effective. In addition, good and sound corporate governance should be put in place to restrict excessive payments being made to directors and remuneration should be largely determined by the firm’s performance
... Quan Bi and Hua Yao have contributed equally to this work. anti-virus, and memory enhancement performed by its active pharmaceutical components (Shim et al. 2000;Dhingra et al. 2004;Dhingra and Sharma 2006;Kim et al. 2006;Lee et al. 2007;Nagai et al. 2007;Sato et al. 2007;Shin et al. 2007;Fiore et al. 2008;Tohma and Gulcin 2010;Jiang et al. 2018). Flavonoid compounds are considered to be the main active ingredients containing liquiritin that has recently been validated to play important roles in inhibiting the replication of novel coronavirus (Zhu et al. 2020). ...
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The aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis supply substantial raw material for the extraction of active pharmaceutical ingredients comprehensively utilized in many industries. Our previous study indicated that salt stress increased the content of active ingredients. However, the regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the aerial parts of G. uralensis treated with 150 mM NaCl for 0, 2, 6, and 12 h was performed to identify the key genes and metabolic pathways regulating pharmacological active component accumulation. The main active component detection showed that liquiritin was the major ingredient and exhibited more than a ten-fold significant increase in the 6 h NaCl treatment. Temporal expression analysis of the obtained 4245 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) obtained by RNA-seq revealed two screened profiles that included the significant up-regulated DEGs (UDEGs) at different treatment points. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of these UDEGs identified phenylpropanoid metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis as the most significantly enriched pathways in 2 h treated materials. Interestingly, the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway that is related to ABA synthesis was also discovered, and the ABA content was significantly promoted after 6 h NaCl treatment. Following ABA stimulation, the content of liquiritin demonstrated a significant and immediate increase after 2 h treatment, with the corresponding consistent expression of genes involved in the pathways of ABA signal transduction and flavonoid biosynthesis, but not in the pathway of glycyrrhizic acid biosynthesis. Our study concludes that salt stress might promote liquiritin accumulation through the ABA-mediated signaling pathway, and provides effective reference for genetic improvement and comprehensive utilization of G. uralensis.
... reported a significant improvement in learning and memory in mice after pre-treatment with aqueous extract for 7-days 48 . Also a reversal in scopolamine-induced amnesia 49 , decrease in brain AChE activity 50 , and production of antidepressant-like effect 51 were reported. Various studies reported significant enhancement in spatial memory retention 52 and learning 53 by pretreatment with its aqueous extract. ...
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Ageing and related ailments especially mental health conditions imparts a greater burden in elderly population. Age related dementia including both memory loss and cognitive impairment is a leading contributor of disability. Due to the concern over safety of available pharmacological therapies many people with dementia turn to complementary medicine. Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine recognises this condition as Medhakshaya (deterioration of intellect) and has given much emphasis on drugs which will promote Medha. Several rasayana drugs in ayurveda are primarily claimed as medhya since they have the ability of mental upliftment. Naladadi ghrita is such a formulation described in rasayana prakarana of Ashtanga hridaya and in this review we tried to analyse individual drug action and their synergetic action. Role of drugs in neuroprotection, learning and memory was analysed by electronic database search. And drugs were also reviewed by ayurveda parameters. Results of the review revealed the role of individual drugs in digestion and various brain functions. Combination of drugs may produce an extra therapeutic effectiveness by synergism and can be utilised for the treatment of various CNS disorders including jarajanya medhakshaya.
... This antidepressant activity could be due to the ascorbic acid, tannins, flavonoids, and polyphenols present in its fruit (Pemminati et al., 2010;Dhingra et al., 2011). Another plant extract that acts through MAO (MAO-A and MAO-B) activity inhibition is Glycyrrhiza glabra L. The aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic root extracts of G. glabra L. elevates norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in the brain (Dhingra and Sharma, 2006;Chowdhury et al., 2011;Biswas et al., 2012). The petroleum ether stem extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) ...
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Depression, a neurological disorder, is a universally common and debilitating illness where social and economic issues could also become one of its etiologic factors. From a global perspective, it is the fourth leading cause of long-term disability in human beings. For centuries, natural products have proven their true potential to combat various diseases and disorders, including depression and its associated ailments. Translational informatics applies informatics models at molecular, imaging, individual, and population levels to promote the translation of basic research to clinical applications. The present review summarizes natural-antidepressant-based translational informatics studies and addresses challenges and opportunities for future research in the field.
... As the antidepressant-like effect in the G and M and G and DZ treatments seemed more significant than that in the M and DZ treatment group, licorice (G) might play a major role in the effectiveness of GMDZ. It has been documented that licorice induces an antidepressant-like effect in animals [25,26]. GanCao (licorice) contains triterpenoid glycosides and flavonoid glycosides. ...
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Gan-Mai-Da-Zao (GMDZ) is a well-known product in Chinese traditional medicine and includes three major plants: blighted wheat (Fu Mai), licorice (Gan Cao), and jujube (Da Zao). GMDZ is widely used as an efficacious and well-tolerated prescription for depression in clinics. The present study was designed to investigate the main plant of GMDZ for its antidepressant-like effect using the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model on rats who received an injection with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) to produce the chemical model. In rats subjected to the UCMS model, forced swim tests, open field tests, and sucrose preference tests were applied to estimate the chronic effect of GMDZ. We found that the oral administration of GMDZ for 21 days significantly alleviated the behavior in rats with depression induced by either UCMS or PCPA. The expression levels of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of the rats with depression were markedly increased by GMDZ. Additionally, rats that received the herbal mixture without licorice showed a markedly lower response than GMDZ. These results suggest that GMDZ may alleviate the depressive-like behaviors in depressive rats, possibly via licorice (Gan Cao), to increase 5-HTT and BDNF signals in the hippocampus. The present study confirmed the antidepressant-like effects of GMDZ. Additionally, licorice (Gan Cao) may play a key role in the effectiveness of GMDZ.
... Hasanein (2011) Neuroprotective activity Dhingra and Sharma (2006) 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid ...
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Gurez is situated along the Kishanganga river in Kashmir valley. It is remotely located but the most beautiful valley. Owing to connectivity problems, this valley has largely remained unexplored and thereby its various features have generally gone unnoticed. This beautiful valley harbors a diversity of the medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are not only used in traditional health care system for the treatment of various diseases but also provide an edge for socio-economic upliftment for households. The socio-economic profile of the people of this remote area depicts that these people live in underprivileged conditions. The medicinal plants indigenous to Gurez, like Bunium persicum, Achillea Millefolium, and Carum carvi besides others, have high commercial value and can be utilized as a source of income. These phytochemically rich plant species can contribute to the development of various formulations of herbal therapies. However, overexploitation of these plant species has caused a decline in the frequency of these species in the past few years. Planned cultivation, proper exploitation, and the commercialization of these medicinal plants can serve as a primary source of income to the people of this downtrodden community of Gurez, particularly marginalized farmers and landless poor people. These plants have the potential to broaden livelihood opportunities of these people by framing proper policy that can give topmost priority to proper exploration of these plants.
... Thus, development of safe and effective antidepressants for MDD treatment is imperative. Considering that increases in monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain are the main mechanisms of action of traditional antidepressants, a considerable quantity of studies focusing on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) related pathway have received attention in resent drug discovery study [3]. However, drug development targeting monoamine transmitters have their limitations, mainly from at least 7-10 days delayed therapeutic effect and severe adverse reactions, such as increased suicide tendency before the drug takes effect. ...
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental disorder, which is closely related to the deficiency of monoamine neurotransmitters. Our previous study suggested that acute treatment with J147, a novel curcumin derivative, produced antidepressant-like effects in mouse model of depression by regulation of 5-HT receptor subtypes. However, it is still unknown whether the antidepressant-like effects of J147 are involved in activation of central monoaminergic system. In this study, a series of classical behavior tests were employed to assess the involvement of monoaminergic system in antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects after sub-acute treatment of mice with J147 for 3 days. The results suggested that J147 at 10 mg/kg significantly reduced the immobility time in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, but didn’t show effects in the sucrose preference test. Similarly, sub-acute treatment of J147 did not induce amelioration in novelty suppressed feeding test. J147 increased duration and crossing time in the central area, but did not show significant change in rearing counts in the open field test. In neurochemical assays, studies suggested that serotonin and noradrenaline levels were significantly increased in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after treatment of J147 by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector. Moreover, J147-induced significant inhibition of monoamine oxidase A activity. These findings suggest that the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of J147 might be related to the monoaminergic system by the evidence that high dose of J147 inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity and increases synaptic monoamines in the mouse brain.
... Recently, Zhang et al. [187] described the compoundʼs antidepressant-like activities and the improved cardiac function in mice with heart failure (SPT and OFT), with the compound reducing levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and 5-HT in the hippocampus, blocking the release of 5-HT in peripheral blood and triggering HIF-1-induced anti-apoptotic pathways [187]. Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) reduced the immobility times of mice in both the FST and TST, with various monoamine receptor antagonists (D 2 and α 1 ) reducing the effect, indicating that the extractʼs antidepressant-like effects are due to an increase of DA and NA (but not of 5-HT) activity in the brain, [188]. In the case of G. uralensis, similar effects were observed in the same tests when the isolated compounds liquiritin (40) and isoliquiritin (41, Fig. 5S, Supplementary Information) were used, but in these experi-▶ Table 1 Some relevant in vivo studies on the antidepressant-like activity of curcumin. ...
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Medicinal plants and their extracts are natural remedies with enormous potential for treating various diseases, including depression and anxiety. In the case of depression, hundreds of plants have traditionally been used in folk medicine for generations. Different plant extracts and natural products have been analyzed as potential antidepressant agents with validated models to test for antidepressant-like effects in animals, although other complementary studies have also been employed. Most of these studies focus on the possible mediators implicated in these potential effects, with dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline being the principal neurotransmitters implicated, both through interference with receptors and with their metabolism by monoamino oxidases, as well as through neuro-endocrine and neuroprotective effects. There are approximately 650 reports of antidepressant-like medicinal plants in PubMed; 155 of them have been compiled in this review, with a relevant group yielding positive results. Saffron and turmeric are the most relevant species studied in both preclinical and clinical studies; St. Johnʼs wort or kava have also been tested extensively. To the best of our knowledge, no review to date has provided a comprehensive understanding of the biomolecular mechanisms of action of these herbs or of whether their potential effects could have real benefits. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an update regarding medicinal plants from the year 2000 to the present to examine the therapeutic potential of these antidepressant-like plants in order to contribute to the development of new therapeutic methods to alleviate the tremendous burden that depression causes worldwide.
... [31][32][33] The antidepressant-like effect of G. glabra seems to be mediated by the increase of brain norepinephrine and dopamine and the inhibition of monoamine oxidase. [34,35] Foeniculum vulgare has shown antidepressant effects via monoamine oxidase inhibitory effects. [36,37] Adianthum capillusveneris has shown a decrease in immobility time in mice, which is related to the antidepressant property. ...
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, whose treatment with modern therapeutics leads to a plethora of side effects with prolonged usage. Therefore, the management of PD with complementary and alternative medicine is often pursued. In the Ayurveda system of alternative medicine, Yashtimadhu choorna, a Medhya Rasayana (nootropic), prepared from the dried roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice), is prescribed for the management of PD with a favorable outcome. We pursued to understand the neuroprotective effects of Yashtimadhu choorna against a rotenone-induced cellular model of PD using differentiated IMR-32 cells. Cotreatment with Yashtimadhu choorna extract rescued rotenone-induced apoptosis and hyperphosphorylation of ERK-1/2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of six peptide fractions from independent biological replicates acquired 1,561,169 mass spectra, which when searched resulted in 565,008 peptide-spectrum matches mapping to 30,554 unique peptides that belonged to 4864 human proteins. Proteins commonly identified in biological replicates and >4 PSMs were considered for further analysis, leading to a refined set of 3720 proteins. Rotenone treatment differentially altered 144 proteins (fold ≥1.25 or ≤0.8), involved in mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum, and autophagy functions. Cotreatment with Yashtimadhu choorna extract rescued 84 proteins from the effect of rotenone and an additional regulation of 4 proteins. Network analysis highlighted the interaction of proteins and pathways regulated by them, which can be targeted for neuroprotection. Validation of proteomics data highlighted that Yashtimadhu confers neuroprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis. This discovery will pave the way for understanding the molecular action of Ayurveda drugs and developing novel therapeutics for PD.
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The aim of the experiment was to prepare licorice flavonoids nanoparticles (LFNs) by a liquid antisolvent re-crystallization (LAR) method to improve its oral bioavailability. The experimental data suggested that the saturation solubility of LFNs was 25 times of raw licorice flavonoids (LFs), and at 720 min, the dissolution rates of LFNs in artificial intestinal juice and artificial gastric juice were 9.36 times and 11.66 times of raw LFs, respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of LFNs was also superior to raw LFs, and the oral bioavailability of echinatin and licochalcone A in the LFNs was 10.63 times and 6.54 times higher than that of raw LF. LFNs had good biosafety for SD rats at dosages up to 800 mg/kg. Overall, the results manifested that LFNs can be helpful to the enhancement of its oral bioavailability and have a promising application value in the field of food and health care.
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There is enough data available now to believe that nature has provided cure of almost every ailment through herbal medicine or management. Therefore, now there is lot of emphasis on identification, evaluation, development and characterization of numerous plants and their active constituents against several diseases including depression. Depression is not only one of the most common ailments but also a highly complex condition to study. Even though several antidepressant drugs are available now, yet their effectiveness and usefulness are highly questionable especially because of their side effects. As herbal remedies are generally associated with favourable safety profiles therefore they have the possible potential to deliver effective replacements to currently available synthetic antidepressants. More recently, efforts have been focused on characterization of pharmacologically active ingredients and to identify the mode of action of herbal antidepressant medicines. This review describes a brief introduction of different animal models for depression and discusses the advantages and disadvantages for each approach. Then we have summarized possible plant phytochemicals as antidepressant drug and the underlying mechanisms. In the main body of the review, we have discussed in detail the most frequently used plants (21) being investigated for the treatment of depression. Additionally, we have provided the list of medicinal plants (92) representing their origin, parts used, extraction method, evaluation method and possible active ingredient. In the final part of the review we have presented the summary of clinical trials on the use of medical plants for depression and their active constituents.
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Glycyrrhiza glabra is a perennial herb, belonging to family fabaceae. It is also known as Licorice, sweet wood, Liquorice. It is a popular ingredient and well known remedy for coughs, syrups and various medicines with its relieving properties. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Is one of the most important herb which is used in Ayurvedic medication since thousands of years. Medicinal plants are often used for treating various diseases. Now a days, the demand various herbal medicines, pharmaceuticals & health related products is increasing widely. Herbal medicine, include fruit, vegetables, as dry material on the extract of Glycyrrhiza to cure different diseases and maintenance of health. Glycyrrhiza is used in herbal preparation which is obtained from licorice roots for the treatment of liver related diseases. The root can help to heal gastric ulceration. It is also used in traditional medicine for its ethnobotanical and pharmacological value. It possesses anti-oxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, skin whitening, anti-diuretic agent. The present article on Glycyrrhiza glabra is an effort to compile with the medicinal uses, ethnobotanical, pharmaceuticals and therapeutic effects.
Thesis
Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 15% that encompasses high disability, social and financial burden. More studies are needed for better treatment of this disorder, therefore pre-clinical models are important for the development of new drug candidates and the improvement of our knowledge on available therapies. Here, the effects of the administration via food or drinking water of a low dose of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, which is used as a reference compound in animal models of depression were tested. The objectives were to assess whether 1) these two methods of drug delivery are effective in the induction of behavioural effects in mouse models of depression and anxiety and 2) a selected dose of imipramine elicits, at the same time, general effects on locomotion, water intake and body weight, which were previously described for a higher drug dose in the same study design and considered as signs of toxicity. To address the first question, naive C57BL6 mice were treated with imipramine (7 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks either with drinking water and food and tested in the sucrose preference, forced swim and tail suspension tests. Body weight, open field locomotion and novel cage activity were evaluated in order to address the second question. First, the results of this work suggest positive answer to both questions. Second, more pronounced effects of the antidepressant on both types of behavioural read-outs were found in mice treated via drinking water. The present work shows that both ways of imipramine dosing are effective in mice and that the employed dose elicits anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects. However, as the applied treatment results in changes in animals’ weight, locomotion and drinking patterns that may compromise behavioural measurements during pre-clinical studies which use it, the usefulness of such treatment in antidepressant drug development is questioned. Key words: Depression, imipramine, food, water, pre-clinical studies.
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Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) play important role in response to environmental stress as crucial signal receptors or sensors. Our previous study indicated that salt stress acts as a positive factor to stimulate the production of pharmacodynamic metabolites in the medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Currently, little is known about the MPK gene family and their functions in the medicinal plant G. uralensis. Objective: Identification, comprehensive bioinformatic analysis, expression profiling, and response pattern under salt stress of the G. uralensis GuMPK gene family. Methods: Genome-wide investigation and expression profiling of the MPK gene family in G. uralensis, and their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary characteristics, gene structure, motif distribution, promoter cis-acting element, and expression pattern under salt stress in two different salt-tolerant Glycyrrhiza species were performed. Results: A total of 20 G. uralensis GuMPK genes were identified and categorized into five groups, and had conserved gene structure and motif distribution. Expression profiling of GuMPK genes suggested their potentially diverse functions in plant growth and in response to phytohormones and environmental stress, particularly GuMPK1, 2, 5, and 10 as key components for G. uralensis in response to abiotic stress. Further expression analysis under NaCl treatment in two different salt-tolerant Glycyrrhiza species displayed the MPKs' different response patterns, emphasizing the role of MPK2, 5, 7, and 16 as potentially crucial genes for Glycyrrhiza to respond to salt stress. Conclusion: Our results provide a genome-wide identification and expression profiling of MPK gene family in G. uralensis, and establish the foundation for screening key responsive genes and understanding the potential function and regulatory mechanism of GuMPKs in salt responsiveness.
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Licorice (or “liquorice”) is one of most widely used in foods, herbal medicine, and extensively researched medicinal plants of the world. In traditional medicine licorice roots have been used against treating many ailments including lung diseases, arthritis, kidney diseases, eczema, heart diseases, gastric ulcer, low blood pressure, allergies, liver toxicity, and certain microbial infections. Licorice extract contains sugars, starch, bitters, resins, essential oils, tannins, inorganic salts, and low levels of nitrogenous constituents such as proteins, individual amino acids, and nucleic acids. A large number of biological active compounds have been isolated from Glycyrrhiza species, where triterpene saponins and flavonoids are the main constitutes which show broad biological activity. This review examines recent studies on the phytochemical and pharmacological data and describes some side effects and toxicity of licorice and its bioactive components.
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Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and Lippia triphylla (Verbenaceae) are two plants known for their therapeutic effects in conventional medicine for the treatment of a wide extent of diseases, including the ones on the central nervous system. In the present study, the impact of aqueous extract from the leaves of these two herbs for the treatment of depression was examined. The phytochemical profile highlighted the presence of eighteen and ten polyphenolic compounds in Salvia officinalis and Lippia triphylla, respectively. The antidepressant effects of such extracts were assessed using two tests: the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in swiss albino mice. Five mice were partitioned into each group: control (distilled water), standard (Imipramine hydrochloride, 25 mg/kg) and three test ones treated with increased doses of aqueous extracts (250-500-1000 mg/kg), orally administered for two weeks. The acute treatment of the mice with aqueous extracts of Salvia officinalis and Lippia triphylla reduced significantly the time of immobility in the forced swimming test (p < 0.001) as compared to control group, and also decreased significantly the time of immobility of mice in the tail suspension test (p < 0.001). The findings attained in this work show how both plants possess potential anti-depressant-like effects; however, the translation from the results presented in this work to a potential use as therapeutic agents would require the acquisition of a stronger scientific evidence.
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Depression is a common psychiatric disease and one of the main causes of disability worldwide. In spite of certain developments in this field, chemical and synthetic drugs used for the treatment of depression disrupt the treatment process due to numerous side effects and high cost. Today, the goal of using a potential method for treating depression involves the use of medicinal and phytochemical plants, which have many therapeutic benefits. Studies have shown that medicinal plants affect the nervous system and exert antidepressant effects in various ways, including synaptic regulation of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine, and inflammatory mediators. In this study, depression as well as the factors and mechanisms involved in its development are first addressed, and then medicinal plants effective in the treatment of depression along with their mechanisms of actions are reported.
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Objectives This study sought to determine the most common oral herbal formula for menopausal symptoms in classical Chinese medicine textbooks and investigate its clinical effectiveness and potential mechanisms of action. Methods The most common formula used for menopause-like symptoms in past eras was identified from the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken and findings from relevant experimental studies were summarized. Results Licorice (Glycyrrhiza spp.) and jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) formula (LJF) was used in 63 of the 175 citations (36%) in the classical literature. Evidence from four RCTs showed that while LJF may improve sleep symptoms, there is insufficient evidence to provide recommendations for clinical practice. Experimental studies showed sedative, antidepressant-like, estrogenic and antiprogestogenic actions. Conclusions LJF has a long history of use for menopause-like symptoms, but further research is needed to confirm its clinical effects and guide clinical decision-making.
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Neurodegeneration is one of the greatest threats to global public health. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease are among the major causes of chronic neurological conditions in the elderly populations. Hence, neuroprotection is at the epicenter of the current 21st-century research agenda in biomedicine. Yet, novel molecular targets are limited and solely needed for neuroprotection. Marked person-to-person variations in outcomes require a deeper understanding of drug targets in neurology and clinical neurosciences. In this context, traditional medicines offer untapped potentials for discovery and translation of novel molecular targets to human neurodegenerative disease research and clinical neurology. This expert review offers a synthesis of the prospects and challenges of harnessing new molecular targets from traditional medicines, with a view to applications for neuroprotection in human neurodegenerative diseases.
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The high number of poisoning food and diarrheal diseases caused by Bacillus cereus bacteria has been treated with chemical drugs and traditionally herbal plants. One of the commonly used herbal plants is sweet root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). This study aims to extract and fractionate sweet root plants, determine the antibacterial activity and identify the types of bioactive compounds as antibacterial compounds. The extraction process uses a maceration technique and fractionation using buthanol, ethyl acetate, and hexan solvents. Antibacterial activity was carry out by the diffusion method and identification of bioactive compounds by GCMS analysis. This study showed that greatest antibacterial activity was found in ethyl acetate fraction with a strong category and MIC value of 12,5%. This study for the first time also revealed that the types of bioactive compounds from sweet root plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) as antibacterial compounds are n-Hexadecanoic as a fatty acid group and 4H-Pyran 4-one 2.3 dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6 methyl from the flavonoid group.
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Plants have been one of the important sources of therapeutics or other human health benefits since the beginning of human civilization throughout history. Currently, there is increasing awareness and general acceptability of the use of herbs, as a medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. Traditional system of medicine including Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha etc. contributed in Health care dealing worldwide. The Unani system of medicine (USM) is an age old system of medicine which has a holistic approach to treat various kind of disease; most of the time the drugs mentioned in this system has tremendous effects in chronic disease. Asl-Us-Soos (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), is a widely used herb in USM. Although the review articles on this plant are already published, this review article is presented to comply all the updated information on its therapeutic potency based on phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities and the potency which is described by renowned Unani physicians and scholars. The evidence based studies provides strengthen to the concept of Unani physicians as the Unani physician used and recommended the drug since along. Moreover the evidence based studies indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, antimalarial, antispasmodic, expectorant, aphrodisiac, antimycobacterial activity, antiinflammatory and anti-hyper glycemic properties. Various other effects like antiulcer, antiviral, antihepatotoxic, antifungal and herpes simplex have also been studies. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this Unani drug can be studies more extensively with a well-planned and systematic scientific preclinical and clinical approach to explore the promising outcome. Further this review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphological characters, microscopic characters, phytochemistry, and pharmacological actions present in root of Glycyrrhiza glabra along with its actions and therapeutic potential in the perspective of USM. Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, therapeutic potential, USM
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age‐associated progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder, and its management strategies are known to cause complications with prolonged usage. We aimed to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of the Indian traditional medicine Yashtimadhu, prepared from the dried roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) in the rotenone‐induced cellular model of PD. Retinoic acid–differentiated IMR‐32 cells were treated with rotenone (PD model) and Yashtimadhu extract. Mass spectrometry‐based untargeted and targeted metabolomic profiling was carried out to discover altered metabolites. The untargeted metabolomics analysis highlighted the rotenone‐induced dysregulation and Yashtimadhu‐mediated restoration of metabolites involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, amino acids, lipids, and citric acid cycle. Targeted validation of citric acid cycle metabolites showed decreased α‐ketoglutarate and succinate with rotenone treatment and rescued by Yashtimadhu co‐treatment. The dysregulation of the citric acid cycle by rotenone‐induced energetic stress via dysregulation of the mTORC1‐AMPK1 axis was prevented by Yashtimadhu. Yashtimadhu co‐treatment restored rotenone‐induced ATG7‐dependent autophagy and eventually caspases‐mediated cell death. Our analysis links the metabolic alterations modulating energy stress and autophagy, which underlies the Yashtimadhu‐mediated neuroprotection in the rotenone‐induced cellular model of PD.
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Introduction- Many environmental risk factors are associated with some form of chronic inflammation. The spread of COVID-19 across the world has impacted every one of us. The first case of coronavirus was reported on 30 January 2020 in India originating from China. Study Area- India has a tremendous capacity to deal with the coronavirus outbreak because of its high immunity and climatic conditions. Maintaining social distancing and hand washing is not a sufficient step for preventing COVID-19. Indian system of traditional medicine has a potential worth to enhance immunity, which can resist a novel coronavirus. Material & Methods- A detailed study was carried out by analyzing national and international scientific databases (PubMed, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science, Mendeley), thesis, and recognized books. Only Indian herbs with high immunity resistant power were analyzed. Epidemiologic studies with information on COVID-19 risk factors and precautions also considered for study purposes. Results- Some herbs like Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice), Curcuma domestica Vahl (Turmeric), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy), Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Cinnamon (Dalchini), Shoot of Triticumaestivum Linn. (Wheatgrass), Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh), can help in boosting immunity for COVID-19 disease. Discussion- Despite the shreds of evidence for the efficacy of these herbs in treating coronavirus induced infections; the proper dose with ideal timing for such interventions needs to verify in clinical trials. Researchers must have to take the privilege to explore the potential of herbs to reduce such epidemics of environmental threats.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Cognitive symptom is a “core” symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with clear deficit in memory, social and occupational function, and may persist during the remitting phase. Therefore, the remission of cognitive symptom has been considered as one of the main objectives in the treatment of MDD. Herbal antidepressants have been used to treat MDD, and there has been great advances in the understanding of the ability of these herbs to improve cognitive deficit linked to brain injury and various diseases including depression, Alzheimer disease, diabetes and age-related disorders. This systematic review summarizes the evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials of herbal antidepressants with positive effects on cognitive deficit. The potential mechanisms by which herbal antidepressants prevent cognitive deficit are also reviewed. This review will facilitate further research and applications. Materials and methods We conducted an open-ended, English restricted search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus for all available articles published or online before 31 December 2019, using terms pertaining to medical herb/phytomedicine/phytochemical/Chinese medicine and depression/major depressive disorder/antidepressant and/or cognitive impairment/cognitive deficit/cognitive dysfunction. Results 7 prescriptions, more than 30 individual herbs and 50 phytochemicals from China, Japan, Korea and India with positive effects on the depressive state and cognitive deficit are reviewed herein. The evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials proves that these herbal antidepressants exhibit positive effects on one or more aspects of cognitive defect including spatial, episodic, aversive, and short- and long-term memory. The action mode of the improvement of cognitive deficit by these herbal antidepressants is mediated mainly through two pathways. One pathway is to promote hippocampal neurogenesis through activating brain derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling. The other pathway is to prevent neuronal apoptosis through the inhibition of neuro-inflammation and neuro-oxidation. Conclusion These herbal antidepressants, having potential therapy for cognitive deficit, may prevent pathological processes of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, these herbal medicines should provide a treasure trove, which will accelerate the development of new antidepressants that can effectively improve cognitive symptom in MDD. Studies on their molecular mechanisms may provide more potential targets and therapeutic approaches for new drug discovery.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Depression, one of the most common psychiatric disorders, is the fourth leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. A series of causes triggered depression, including psychological stress and conflict, as well as biological derangement, among which stress has a pivotal role in the development of depression. Traditional herbal medicine has been used for the treatment of various disorders including depression for a long history with multi-targets, multi-levels and multi-ways, attracting great attention from scholars. Recently, natural products have been commercialized as antidepressants which have become increasingly popular in the world health drug markets. Major research contributions in ethnopharmacology have generated and updated vast amount of data associated with natural products in antidepressant-like activity. Aims of the review This review aims to briefly discuss the pathological mechanism, animal models of stress-induced depression, traditional use of herbal medicines and especially recapitulate the natural products with antidepressant activity and their pharmacological functions and mechanism of action, which may contribute to a better understanding of potential therapeutic effects of natural products and the development of promising drugs with high efficacy and low toxicity for the treatment of stress-induced depression. Materials and methods The contents of this review were sourced from electronic databases including PubMed, Sci Finder, Web of Science, Science Direct, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Chinese Knowledge On frastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang, Chinese Scientific and Technological Periodical Database (VIP) and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM). Additional information was collected from Yao Zhi website (https://db.yaozh.com/). Data were obtained from April 1992 to June 2021. Only English language was applied to the search. The search terms were ‘stress-induced depression’, ‘pathological mechanism’ in the title and ‘stress’, ‘depression’, ‘animal model’ and ‘natural products’ in the whole text. Results Stress-induced depression is related to the monoaminergic system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, neuronal plasticity and a series of inflammatory factors. Four main types of animal models of stress-induced depression were represented. Fifty-eight bioactive phytochemical compounds, fifty-six herb medicines and five formulas from traditional Chinese medicine were highlighted, which exert antidepressant effects by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) reaction, alleviating dysfunction of the HPA axis and nerve injury, and possessing anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusions Natural products provide a large number of compounds with antidepressant-like effects, and their therapeutic impacts has been highlighted for a long time. This review summarized the pathological mechanism and animal models of stress-induced depression, and the natural products with antidepressant activity in particular, which will shed light on the action mechanism and clinical potential of these compounds. Natural products also have been a vital and promising source for future antidepressant drug discovery.
Chapter
The operation of the central nervous system (CNS) has been a mystery until recently when its structures are being linked to activity and/or pathologies. The drugs that influence the CNS were seen as spiritual manipulators, and often times they were used to invite the spirit into the human body. Researches have proven that these myths are unfounded and have provided explanations for the observed effect of the agents on the brain and human behavior. Most of the agents used to influence the brain in prescience ages were derived from plants. These actions of plant-related substances were termed as mystical. Science has unraveled the causes of the actions of plants on the CNS. The substances in plants that influence the brain are the biomolecules it contained. This chapter examines these biomolecules and their effects and mechanism of action. The biomolecules could produce stimulant, depressive, antidepressant, cognitive, toxic, and dependence effect on the brain. Substances like caffeine, cocaine, tobacco, ergot, opioids, etc., have been well studied to obtain an explanation for their effects on the brain and behavior. This review also revealed that biomolecules that influence the CNS does so by: acting as an agonist or antagonist at receptor sites, releasing neurotransmitters, inhibiting enzymes that are involved in neurotransmitter physiology, altering intracellular enzyme or protein levels, altering ion level in the brain, interacting with gamma aminobutyric acid receptors at different sites, or acting as precursor/false precursor for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. These effects could be beneficial or harmful to the human body. Some may result in the amelioration of disease or cure of CNS disease conditions. The beneficial effects of herbal biomolecules are indeed enormous and have contributed to the advancement of CNS science and the quantity of life of human race.
Chapter
Plants are incredibly significant in the lives of people around the world. People rely on plants to satisfy basic human needs like food, clothing, shelter, and health care. Because of a rising world population, increasing wages, and urbanization, these needs are growing rapidly. Of course, plants provide food directly and often feed livestock that is then eaten on their own. The value of plants is likely to become fairer among countries as world economies become more accessible and market-oriented through trade agreements such as those from the World Trade Organization. The socio-economic significance of such an understanding of plants is defined in this chapter by providing evidence of the multiple benefits of plant breeding in and beyond agriculture based on reproducible findings and scientific evidence for arable crops.
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A novel test procedure for antidepressants was designed in which a mouse is suspended by the tail from a lever, the movements of the animal being recorded. The total duration of the test (6 min) can be divided into periods of agitation and immobility. Several psychotropic drugs were studied: amphetamine, amitriptyline, atropine, desipramine, mianserin, nomifensine and viloxazine. Antidepressant drugs decrease the duration of immobility, as do psychostimulants and atropine. If coupled with measurement of locomotor activity in different conditions, the test can separate the locomotor stimulant doses from antidepressant doses. Diazepam increases the duration of immobility. The main advantages of this procedure are (1) the use of a simple, objective test situation, (2) the concordance of the results with the validated "behavioral despair" test from Porsolt and, (3) the sensitivity to a wide range of drug doses.
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Objective: To study the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra in albino rats and mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (10, 30, 100 and 500 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice was assessed using maximum electroshock seizure (MES) test and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) using albino mice. The lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus was also used to assess the anticonvulsant activity in rats. Results: The ethanolic extract of G. glabra did not reduce the duration of tonic hindleg extension in the MES test even in the dose of 500 mg/kg. However, the extract significantly and dose-dependently delayed the onset of clonic convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The dose of 100 mg/kg afforded protection to all animals. The extract also protected rats against seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. glabra inhibits PTZ and lithium-pilocarpine-induced convulsions but not MES-induced convulsions.
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The above analysis of haemodynamic, behavioral, physiological and pharmacological factors concord in suggesting that the Tail Suspension Test is considerably less stressful to experimental animals than the traditional “behavioral despair” test. It should always be borne in mind, however, that any attempt to model depression in animals by definition does not render them happy. The aim is therefore to reduce the animal's discomfort to a minimum which is still compatible with the research goal, the discovery of new antidepressant agents. This important ethical consideration, together with the greater pharmacological sensitivity of the procedure, suggests that the Tail Suspension Test is a useful addition to the battery of behavioral tests available for evaluating antidepressant activity in animals.
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Background The older population increases all over the world and so also does the number of older psychiatric patients, which manifest certain specific and unique characteristics. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the international literature on unipolar depression with onset at old age. Methods The authors reviewed several pages and books relevent to the subject but did not search the entire literature because of it's overwhelming size. They chose to review those considered most significant. Results The prevalence of major depression is estimated to be 2% in the general population over 65 years of age. The clinical picture of geriatric depression differs in many aspects from depression in younger patients. It is not yet clear whether it also varies across cultures and different socio-economic backgrounds. Biological data suggest that it is associated with an increased severity of subcortical vascular disease and greater impairment of cognitive performance. Many authors consider the existence of a somatic disorder to be related to the presence of depression in late life, even constituting a negative prognostic factor for the outcome of depression. Most studies support the opinion that geriatric depression carries a poorer prognosis than depression in younger patients. The therapeutic intervention includes pharmacotherapy, mainly with antidepressants, which is of established value and psychotherapy which is not equally validated. Conclusion A significant number of questions regarding the assessment and treatment of geriatric depression remain unanswered, empirical data are limited, and further research is necessary.
Article
Objective: To investigate the antidepressant effect of selective alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade in mice. Methods: The study was done in Laka mice employing forced swimming-induced despair behaviour as test model. They were acutely treated with dose of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, sc and effect of 1 mg/kg of idazoxan was seen at different time intervals of 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. The reversal of effect of idazoxan by reserpine (2 mg/kg, ip), isoprenaline (8 mg/kg, ip) and clonidine (0.15 mg/kg, ip) was also studied. The antidepressant effect of idazoxan (1 mg/kg) was compared with imipramine (10 mg/kg, ip) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, ip) in acute study and with imipramine (10 mg/kg, ip) in chronic study. Duration of immobility in seconds during the 6 min test session was recorded and used to assess the antidepressant effect. Results: Idazoxan produced antidepressant effect in a dose dependent manner with maximum effect observed at 30 min. Prior administration of idazoxan (1 mg/kg) reversed isoprenaline- and clonidine- induced increase in immobility time. Further, the chronic idazoxan treatment (1 mg/kg x 9 d) reversed isoprenaline-induced despair behaviour but the effect was not statistically significant. Also the dose of 0.5 and 2 mg/kg of idazoxan did not reverse clonidine (0.15 mg/kg) induced increased immobility time. Idazoxan also reversed reserpine (2 mg/kg) -induced despair behaviour after 4 h and 24 h. In acute study, idazoxan (1 mg/kg) produced significant and better effect as compared to imipramine and fluoxetine. The chronic effect of idazoxan was also more pronounced than chronic imipramine treatment. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate involvement of presynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors in the antidepressant effect of idazoxan.
Article
A depressed state can be induced in mice by forcing them to swim in a narrow cylinder from which they cannot escape. After a brief period of vigorous activity the mice adopt a characteristic immobile posture which is readily identifiable. Immobility was reduced by tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and atypical antidepressants, as well as by electroconvulsive shock. Psychostimulants also reduced immobility but in contrast to antidepressants caused marked motor stimulation. Immobility was not affected by minor or major tranquilisers. These findings, closely parallel to those we have previously reported in rats, suggest that the procedure is selectively sensitive to antidepressant treatments. The mouse procedure is, however, more rapid and less costly than that with rats and is thus more suitable for the primary screening of antidepressant drugs.
Article
Objective: To study anxiolytic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Materials and methods: Mice received varying doses (10-300mg/kg i.p.) of hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and anxiolytic activity was assessed using different paradigms like elevated plus maze, foot shock-induced aggression, and amphetamine-induced stereotypy. Diazepam or ondansetron served as standard anxiolytic agents. Results: In all the animal models of anxiety, lower doses of hydroalcoholic extract were more effective in alleviating anxiety. The extract and standard anxiolytic agents increased duration of occupancy of mice in open arm, increased latency to foot shock induced aggression and reduced number of fighting bouts and delayed the onset of amphetamine induced grooming, biting, sniffing and repetitive head movements. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra possesses anxiolytic activity.
Article
This study demonstrated that distinct patterns of active behaviors are produced by antidepressants that selectively inhibit norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) uptake in the rat forced swimming test (FST). A behavior sampling technique was developed to score the active behaviors swimming, climbing and diving, as well as immobility. The rat's behavior was recorded at the end of each 5-s period during the test session. The sampling technique was both reliable, as demonstrated by test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability, and valid, as shown by comparison to the timing of behavior durations. Five different antidepressant drugs which block monoamine uptake and two 5-HT1A receptor agonists were shown to decrease immobility in the FST; however, they produced distinct patterns of active behaviors. The selective NE uptake inhibitors desipramine and maprotiline selectively increased climbing, whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine, sertraline and paroxetine selectively increased swimming. The 5-HT1A receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and gepirone also selectively increased swimming. These results show that:1) SSRIs are not false negatives in the FST; 2) at least two behaviorally distinct processes occur in the FST; and 3) enhancement of NE neurotransmission may mediate climbing in the FST, whereas enhancement of 5-HT neurotransmission may mediate swimming.
Article
Rats when forced to swim in a cylinder from which they cannot escape will, after an initial period of vigorous activity, adopt a characteristic immobile posture which can be readily identified. Immobility was reduced by various clinically effective antidepressant drugs at doses which otherwise decreased spontaneous motor activity in an open field. Antidepressants could thus be distinguished from psychostimulants which decreased immobility at doses which increased general activity. Anxiolytic compounds did not affect immobility whereas major tranquilisers enhanced it. Immobility was also reduced by electroconvulsive shock, REM sleep deprivation and "enrichment" of the environment. It was concluded that immobility reflects a state of lowered mood in the rat which is selectively sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Positive findings with atypical antidepressant drugs such as iprindole and mianserin suggest that the method may be capable of discovering new antidepressants hitherto undetectable with classical pharmacological tests.
Article
Quantitative determinations of glycyrrhizic acid in liquorice roots and extracts were made by TLC–densitometry, which directly determined glycyrrhizic acid. The glycyrrhizic acid content was 2.20–6.53 per cent in liquorice roots and 7.50–9.30 per cent in extracts.
Article
Rats were forced to swim in a restricted space will rapidly cease apparent attempts to escape and adopt a characteristic posture which we have termed "immobility". We show in previous experiments that immobility was reduced by a variety of antidepressant agents and thus suggested that the method could serve as a screening model for antidepressants. The present experiments showed that immobility was reduced by drugs which increase central dopaminergic and alpha-adrenergic activity but was less affected by drugs which act mainly on central serotonin. Conversely, immobility could be increased by drugs which diminish central catecholamine activity but not by drugs which inhibit central serotonin. It was concluded that immobility depended primarily on the activity of central catecholamines but that caution was required before ascribing immobility exclusively to activity within a single system.
Article
Two new phenolic compounds, glicoricone (3) and licofuranone (4), were isolated from a species of licorice brought from the northwestern region of China, and their structures were assigned. Among the twelve licorice constituents examined for the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO), six compounds, 3, 4, genistein (6), licopyranocoumarin (7), licocoumarone (14) and glycyrrhisoflavone (15), inhibited the enzyme with the IC50 (concentration required for 50% inhibition of the enzyme activity) values of 6.0 x 10(-5)-1.4 x 10(-4) M. Glycyrrhizin (1) also inhibited MAO with the IC50 value of 1.6 x 10(-4) M.
Article
The most familiar usage of animal models of depression is as antidepressant screening tests. Paul Willner reviews their usage in a different context--as simulations of depression. The behavioural features of animal models of depression are compared with clinical symptomatology, and the contribution of animal models to understanding the following aspects of depression are reviewed: sources of population variability, natural history, psychological aspects, symptomatology and mechanisms of antidepressant action. Finally, the role of animal models of depression is considered as a critical interface between basic behavioural neuroscience and the clinic.
Article
In the forced swimming-induced immobility (despair) test model, adenosine, and 2-chloroadenosine treatment prolonged the immobilization period in mice. Dipyridamole, which is known to inhibit adenosine uptake, potentiated the adenosine effect. The purinoceptor antagonists caffeine and theophylline blocked purine nucleoside-induced enhancement of immobilization. Tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine and desipramine, the MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine, and amphetamine, a psychostimulant, reversed purine nucleoside-induced immobility. On the other hand, quipazine, fluoxetine, and amitriptyline failed to reverse purine nucleosides-induced prolongation of immobility. None of the antidepressants in the doses investigated had any effect by themselves. Reserpine also prolonged forced swimming-induced immobility in mice. The antidepressants fluoxetine and quipazine, but not methylxanthine pretreatment, reversed reserpine-induced immobility in this test model. These results indicate that adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine probably reduce norepinephrine outflow through their action on presynaptic purinoceptors on noradrenergic neurons and thereby cause prolongation of immobility in animals.
Article
Thousands of studies have been conducted of the functioning of the many neurotransmitter systems in order to explore the biologic basis of major depressive disorder. Instead of reviewing this literature exhaustively, we have attempted to propose a model that accommodates the clinical observation that chronic stress early in life in vulnerable persons predisposes them to major depression with contemporary observations of the potential consequences of repeated central nervous system exposure to effectors of the stress response. This model accords with current clinical judgment that major depression is best treated with a combination of psychopharmacologic agents and psychotherapy. Accordingly, whereas psychopharmacologic intervention may be required to resolve an active episode of major depression and to prevent recurrences, psychotherapy may be equally important to lessen the burden of stress imposed by intense inner conflict and counterproductive defenses.
Article
Eighteen animal models of depression are reviewed in relation to three sets of validating criteria. Of the 18 models, five could only be assessed for predictive validity, seven could be assessed for predictive and face validity, and six could potentially have predictive, face and construct validity. Some traditional models (reserpine reversal, amphetamine potentiation) are rejected as invalid; the models with the highest overall validity are the intracranial self-stimulation, chronic stress and learned helplessness models in rats, and the primate separation model.
Article
Glycyrrhizin in licorice root and its extract was determined by HLC with a reverse phase column. Glycyrrhizin was separated for about 10 min under the following operating conditions : column, μ-Bondapak C-18 ; mobile phase, 2% acetic acid-acetonitrile (20 : 11) ; internal standard, butyl p-hydroxybenzoate / temperature, room temperature. By comparing with thin layer chromatography, colorimetric method and gas chromatography, this HLC method was found to be excellent one in its simplicity, rapidity and accuracy. Commercially available white monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, monopotassium glycyrrhizinate, dipotassium glycyrrhizinate and glycyrrhizic acid were determined to be as low as 60-75% (as glycyrrhizic acid content) by using monoammonium glycyrrhizinate separated by HLC as a standard sample.
Article
Since monoamine oxidase is an enzyme catalyzing bioactive monoamines, inhibitors of monoamines are expected to prolong the activity of monoamines in tissue. Monoamine oxidase type B is an active form in brain, and its preferential substrate is dopamine that is the most constantly reduced monoamine in Parkinson's disease brain. Therefore, it is natural to expect that monoamine oxidase inhibitors, deprenyl or lazabemide, could exhibit beneficial effects on parkinsonism, i.e. symptomatic effects. This short review summarizes characteristics of monoamine oxidase from biochemical and pharmacological points, and then briefly mentions the situation of clinical evaluation studies of deprenyl and lazabemide in terms of antiparkinsonian effects in Japan.
Article
Licorice, the root of Glycyrrhiza spp. (Fabaceae), has been used since ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman times in the West and since the Former Han era (the 2nd-3rd century B.C.) in ancient China in the East. In traditional Chinese medicine, licorice is one of the most frequently used drugs. In Japan, the oldest specimen of licorice introduced from China in the middle of the 8th century still exists in Shosoin, the Imperial Storehouse, in Nara. Extracts of licorice were recommended as a remedy for gastric ulcer by Revers of the Netherlands in 1946, which was soon withdrawn owing to its side effects. Carbenoxolon sodium, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) hemisuccinate Na, was prepared from licorice to treat peptic ulcer in the UK. In Japan for the past 60 years, a glycyrrhizin (GL) preparation under the name of Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC) has been used clinically as an antiallergic and antihepatitis agent. GL and GA sometimes induce edema, hypertension, and hypokalemia in patients treated with higher doses and long-term administration. The mechanism of this side effect, pseudoaldosteronism, has been explained as due to the 11-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase inhibitory activity of GL and GA. The excess of endogenous cortisol produced combines with the renal mineral corticoid receptor, which promotes an aldosterone-like action. GL and GA reduce alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) values in the serum. This hepatoprotective effect has recently been explained as the inhibitory effects of GL and GA on immune-mediated cytotoxicity against hepatocytes and on nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B, which activates genes encoding inflammatory cytokines in the liver. To exclude the side effects and enhance the therapeutic activities, chemical modification of GL and GA has been performed. Deoxoglycyrrhetol (DG), homo- and heteroannular diene homologs of dihemiphthalates, showed a remarkable improvement in antiinflammatory, antiallergic, and antiulcer activities in animal experiments. Immunomodulating effects of GL, GA, and DG derivatives, which induce interferon-gamma and some other cytokines, have been demonstrated in relation with their antiviral activities. Antiinflammatory, antitumorigenic, and antimalarial effects of licorice flavonoids have also been investigated.
Article
Farm animal populations harbour rich collections of mutations with phenotypic effects that have been purposefully enriched by breeding. Most of these mutations do not have pathological phenotypic consequences, in contrast to the collections of deleterious mutations in model organisms or those causing inherited disorders in humans. Farm animals are of particular interest for identifying genes that control growth, energy metabolism, development, appetite, reproduction and behaviour, as well as other traits that have been manipulated by breeding. Genome research in farm animals will add to our basic understanding of the genetic control of these traits and the results will be applied in breeding programmes to reduce the incidence of disease and to improve product quality and production efficiency.
Article
The antidepressant-like effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from aerial parts of Siphocampylus verticillatus, a Brazilian medicinal plant, was investigated in two models of depression in mice and against synaptosomal uptake of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. The immobility times in the forced swimming test (FST) and in the tail suspension test (TST) were significantly reduced by the extract (dose range 100-1000 mg/kg, i.p.), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in an open-field. In addition when given orally the extract was also effective in reducing the immobility time in the TST. The efficacy of extract in the TST was comparable to that of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and with fluoxetine (32 mg/kg, i.p.). The anti-immobility effect of the extract (600 mg/kg, i.p.) assessed in the TST was not affected by pre-treatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) or L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p., a nitric oxide precursor). In contrast, the extract (600 mg/kg, i.p.) antidepressant-like effect was significantly reduced by pre-treatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a selective D2 receptor antagonist), prazosin (62.5 microg/kg, i.p., an alpha1 adrenoreceptor antagonist) or by guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP, 250 mg/kg, i.p., a nucleotide known to block some actions elicited by NMDA). The biochemical data show that the extract of S. verticillatus inhibited in a graded manner the uptake of monoamines. However, at the IC50 level, the extract was approximately 3.2 to 3.4-fold more potent and also more efficacious in inhibiting the synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline and serotonin than dopamine. Taken together these data demonstrate that the extract of S. verticillatus elicited a significant antidepressant-like effect, when assessed in the TST and FST in mice. Its action seems to involve an interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic systems.
Article
Nineteen flavonoids isolated from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. inflata and G. uralensis) were tested for their antimicrobial activities against methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Article
In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (family: Leguminosae) have been employed clinically for centuries for their anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, expectorant, antimicrobial and anxiolytic activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (popularly known as liquorice) on learning and memory in mice. Elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to test learning and memory. Three doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o.) of aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra were administered for 7 successive days in separate groups of animals. The dose of 150 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of liquorice significantly improved learning and memory of mice. Furthermore, this dose significantly reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) and scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.). Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of liquorice may be contributing favorably to the memory enhancement effect. Since scopolamine-induced amnesia was reversed by liquorice, it is possible that the beneficial effect on learning and memory was due to facilitation of cholinergic-transmission in mouse brain. However, further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action. In the present investigation, Glycyrrhiza glabra has shown promise as a memory enhancing agent in all the laboratory models employed.
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