Article

The antioxidant activity of a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the berries of Hedera colchica: 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-hederagenin

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Abstract

The antioxidant activity of a triterpenoid glycoside [3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-hederagenin; OGH] isolated from the berries of Hedera colchica, an ivy species endemic in Georgia, was investigated. The antioxidant properties of OGH were evaluated using different antioxidant assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH.) scavenging, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical (O2*-)) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging and metal chelating activities. The total antioxidant activity was measured according to the ferric thiocyanate method. alpha-Tocopherol and trolox, a water-soluble analogue of tocopherol, were used as reference antioxidant compounds. At a 30 microg/mL concentration, the inhibitory effects of OGH on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion was found to be 95.3%, whereas alpha-tocopherol and trolox exhibited 88.8% and 86.2% inhibition of peroxidation in the system, respectively. In addition, OGH had effective DPPH. scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, total reducing power and metal chelation of ferrous ions activities. These various antioxidant activities were compared with alpha-tocopherol and trolox.

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... Recently, there have been growing demands and many studies for the validation, production and utilization of herbal secondary metabolites in medicines to treat many diseases. [12,16] Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are described as short-lived molecules, ions and radicals. Their halflives differ from nanoseconds to hours. ...
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... Structure activity relationship claims the presence of hydroxyl group in the ortho or para position and carbonyl functional moieties, such as acid, ester, or lactone markedly enhances the antioxidant activity. [36] The activities are controlled by a number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule. To complement these observations it is known that L-dopa has higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activity than that of L-tyrosine [37,38] (Figure 3f, g). ...
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Electrophysiological systems are prone to release free radicals for functioning of biological system with proper balancing of antioxidant–prooxidant ratio for establishing a healthy living system. The biostress condition releases different reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl, alkoxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxyl, ozone, singlet oxygen, hypochlorus acid, thiyl radical, etc. This review tries to discuss the general aspects of the antioxidant assay methodologies that are currently used for the detection of antioxidant property. The entire review has been divided into three different sections. The first deals with the release of free radical by mitochondrial dysfuctioning and its curbing action by local antioxidants. The second and third sections discuss the general procedure adopted and reaction mechanism involved in the assay procedure along with the limitations and advantages.
... Ferric ions (Fe 3+ ) also produce radicals from peroxides, although the rate is ten-fold less than that of ferrous ion. Ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) are the most powerful pro-oxidant among the various species of metal ions (Gülçin et al., 2006). ...
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The present study investigated the total content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, reducing power and chelating of ferrous ion in aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The total phenolic content was 77.2 mg/g and 87.7 mg/g for the aqueous and alcoholic extracts, respectively. The antioxidant activity was equal in rates for both the roselle alcoholic extract and artificial antioxidant BHT (75.67%), alcoholic extract showed the highest reducing ability with rate 222.60%, the chelating of ferrous ion in both aqueous and alcoholic extracts were 73.97 and 32.29% at 5 mg/ml concentration. The antibacterial activity of roselle extracts against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed varying degrees of inhibition on the tested organisms.
... More recently research in food science and nutrition has focused on plant products that possessed antimicrobial and potential antioxidant activities [54][55][56] . Antioxidant properties, particularly radical scavenging are of high value due to the detrimental role of free radicals in biological systems and in foods [57][58][59][60][61] . DPPH • assay provided data on the reactivity of test molecules with constant free radicals [62] . ...
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In this study, phytochemical components and antioxidant capacity of extracts obtained from Iris taochia plant, which is endemic to Caucasus, were investigated. Fifteen new compounds were detected and identified using a GC-MS system, which were isolated from Iris taochia for the first time. From the calibration curve, the amount of α-amyrin in dry powder of Iris taochia was calculated. The mean amount of α-amyrin found in whole plant powder of Iris taochia was 4.598 μg/10 mg with a percent recovery of 0.045 % for α-amyrin. Antioxidant properties of Iris taochia, in vitro using Fe³⁺-Fe²⁺, Cu²⁺-Cu⁺ and Fe³⁺-2,4,6-tripyridyl-s-triazine reducing, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine scavenging and Fe²⁺ chelating activities were measured. The antioxidative effects of Iris taochia have not been reported earlier. These results shown that crude ethanol and water extracts of Iris taochia had effective reducing effect, radical scavenging activity and metal chelating effects when compared to standard antioxidants. The results indicated that the ethanol and water extracts of Iris taochia could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants by the pharmaceutical industry or as a conceivable food supplement.
... Investigation of antioxidant activity of Ethanol extract of Ocimum basilicum (EEB) on B. alexandrina snails: B. alexandrina snails as groups each group 10 snails exposed for each concentration of EEB (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 amd 100 ppm) for 24 hours then recovery for 24 hours then observe number of dead snails there is no dead in exposed snails so EEB have powerful antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems in vitro, moreover, these extracts can be used as easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement or in pharmaceutical applications. It can also be used in stabilizing food against oxidative deterioration (Gulcin et al.,.2007) and it was reported that extracts obtained from spices had antioxidant activities (Gülçin, 2006b). ...
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Bestacid E.C. is a commercial insecticide may contaminate the snail habitats.. Biomphalaria alexandrina snails act as bioindicators of environmental pollution. Ocimum basilicum plant showed many pharmacological effects. The present investigation studied the potential protective effect of O. basilicum ethanol extract on Bestacid- induced toxicity on B. alexandrina snails. The results indicated that Bestacid E.C. had a molluscicidal effect on snails, where, LC 50 was 25 mg/l. Continous exposure of snails to the sublethal concentration (LC 25 ) of Bestacid for two weeks followed by two weeks of recovery decreased their survival, reproductive rates (R O ) and total blood count than the control ones and caused several histopathological alterations in the hermaphrodite gland. Treating B. alexandrina snails with Bestacid and the same equivalent or double concentration of the ethanolic extract of O. basilicum plant for two weeks led to an improvement of the biological, histological and hematological alterations induced by Bestacid E.C., where, it caused amelioration in the tissues of the hermaphrodite gland histology and this mirrored on survival and reproductive rates and increased the mean total number of hemocytes. It was concluded that using eco-friendly material like O. basilicum may help in the amelioration of the toxic effects of the chemical pollution. © 2019, Egyptian Society for the Development of Fisheries and Human Health. All rights reserved.
... The DPPH assay is a free radical method based on the radical scavenging activity of antioxidants (AH) towards the purple coloured DPPH $ in MeOH. The free radical DPPH $ was reduced to the corresponding stable diamagnetic molecule hydrazine (yellow coloured) when it reacted with hydrogen donors (AH, antioxidants with acidic hydrogens) [14] . Antioxidants could be polar or non-polar in nature and they can act as radical scavenger by electron donating mechanism or by hydrogen donating mechanism. ...
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Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic content and compare the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts and fractions from the aerial parts of Coronopus didymus through various assays. Methods: Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the in vitro antioxidant activity of a number of different extracts was investigated in a dose-dependent manner with three different methods: the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A flavone was isolated from the most active ethanolic extract with high antioxidant activity using size exclusion chromatography. IC50values were calculated for the DPPH and ABTS methods. The FRAP activity was assessed in terms of μM Fe (II) equivalent. Results: The phenolic content was found to be highest in the ethanol extract (CDA Et; 47.8 mM GAE) and the lowest in the dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM; 3.13 mM GAE). The ethanol extract showed high radical scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC50values of (7.80 × 102) and (4.32 × 102) μg/mL, respectively. The most active ethanol extract had a FRAP value of 1921.7 μM Fe (II) equivalent. The isolated flavone F10C (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone) was far more effective for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH and ABTS assays with IC50of 43.8 and 0.08 μg/mL, than the standard trolox, with IC50values of 97.5 and 21.1 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the flavone F10C and the standard ascorbic acid had FRAP values of 1621.7 and 16 038.0 μM Fe (II) equivalents, respectively. Conclusions: The total phenolic content of extracts in decreasing order is ethanol extract (CDA Et) > acetone extract (CDA ACE) > phenolic extract (CDA MW) > n-hexane extract (CDA nHX)> chloroform extract (CDA CHL) > dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM). The ordering of extracts in terms of antioxidant activity from highest to lowest is CDA Et > CDA MW > CDA DCM > CDA CHL > CDA ACE > CDA nHX in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. A significant relationship is found between antioxidant potential and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of C. didymus.
... The prophylactic uses of phytochemicals in the treatment of chronic diseases such as organ failure, cancer and cardiovascular diseases have continuously been explored. The therapeutic potential of these plants have been attributed to their antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic potentials (10). ...
... More recently research in food science and nutrition has focused on plant products that possessed antimicrobial and potential antioxidant activities [54][55][56] . Antioxidant properties, particularly radical scavenging are of high value due to the detrimental role of free radicals in biological systems and in foods [57][58][59][60][61] . DPPH • assay provided data on the reactivity of test molecules with constant free radicals [62] . ...
Article
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plant, which is endemic to Caucasus, were investigated. Fifteen new compounds were detected and identified using a GC-MS system, which were isolated from Iris taochia for the first time. From the calibration curve, the amount of α-amyrin in dry powder of Iris taochia was calculated. The mean amount of α-amyrin found in whole plant powder of Iris taochia was 4.598 μg/10 mg with a percent recovery of 0.045 % for α-amyrin. Antioxidant properties of Iris taochia, in vitro using Fe3+-Fe2+, Cu2+-Cu+ and Fe3+-2,4,6-tripyridyl-s-triazine reducing, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activities were measured. The antioxidative effects of Iris taochia have not been reported earlier. These results shown that crude ethanol and water extracts of Iris taochia had effective reducing effect, radical scavenging activity and metal chelating effects when compared to standard antioxidants. The results indicated that the ethanol and water extracts of Iris taochia could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants by the pharmaceutical industry or as a conceivable food supplement.
... Revisando lo reportado para glucósidos triterpénicos similares a los identificados en quinua, se destacan los resultados descritos por Gulcin y colaboradores [85] para el compuesto [3-O-(β-D-glucopiranosil)-hederagenina] (OGH). A una concentración de 30 µg/mL, los efectos inhibidores de OGH sobre la peroxidación de la emulsión de ácido linoleico fue del 95,3%, mientras que el α-tocoferol y Trolox exhibieron un 88,8% y 86,2% de inhibición de la peroxidación en el sistema, respectivamente. ...
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... Because of concerns about the safety of synthetic antioxidant, [2] there is increasing interest in the development of non-toxic and healthier antioxidant from natural sources in food industry. [3,4] Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt (PF), commonly referred to as perilla, is an annual short-day plant belonging to the mint family Lamiaceae, which is primarily cultivated and consumed in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. [5][6][7] Perilla is an important crop source of oil and edible vegetable with many beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-carcinogenic effects, and antioxidant. ...
Article
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To comprehensively examine the antioxidant capacity of Perilla frutescens leaves extract, eight assays including hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, ferrous ion-chelating, total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferrous reducing antioxidant assays were employed. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate–soluble fraction of P. frutescens leaves extract displayed the highest antioxidant activities. The antioxidant constituents from ethyl acetate–soluble fraction of P. frutescens leaves extract were screened by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl high-performance liquid chromatography, and 11 compounds were identified after isolation using step-wise high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, luteolin, methyl-rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and 4′,5,7-trimethoxyflavone are the major antioxidant constituents in ethyl acetate–soluble fraction of P. frutescens leaves extract.
... Commercial saponins are extracted mainly from Yucca schidigera and Quillajasaponaria. The non-sugar part of saponins has also a direct antioxidant activity, which may result in other benefits such as reduced risk of cancer and heart diseases [37]. Tannins also called proanthocyanidins, detoxify carcinogens and scavenge harmful free radicals [38]. ...
Research
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Nutraceuticals have received considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects". Pharmaceutical and nutritional companies are aware of the monetary success taking advantage of the more health-seeking consumers and the changing trends resulting in a proliferation of these value-added products aimed at heart health to cancer. Some popular nutraceuticals include glucosamine, ginseng, echinacea, folic acid, cod liver oil, omega-3 eggs, calcium-enriched orange juice, green tea etc. Majority of the nutraceuticals are claimed to possess multiple therapeutic benefits though substantial evidence is lacking for the benefits as well as unwanted effects. The present review has been devoted towards better understanding of the nutraceuticals based on their disease specific indications.
... Of these four commercially available antioxidants, BHA and BHT have aroused suspicions of being responsible for pancreatic damage and carcinogenesis. This situation has led to the growing interest in natural antioxidants [11][12][13][14]. Despite being the main constituent of several medicinal properties, plants are also noted for their toxicity [15]. ...
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Objectives In this present study, antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, cytotoxic and anti-bacterial activities derived from methanol extracts of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Heritiera littoralis were investigated in order to determine their medicinal activities. Materials and methods Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and aluminum chloride methods were used to determine the mangroves’ total phenolics and total flavonoid content, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was assessed via the following methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH), 43 mM H2O2, Fe²⁺ quenching assay, and anti-hemolytic activity. Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) lethality assay was also carried out to determine the cytotoxic potential of the mangroves along with anti-bacterial activity test using five Gram-negative and another two Gram-positive bacterial strains. Results The mangroves yielded 58.917 ± 0.601 and 36.625 ± 0.551 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample and 76.417 ± 0.19 and 113.637 ± 0.17 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g sample in B. gymnorrhiza and H. littoralis, respectively. Methanol extracts of both mangroves exhibited high radical scavenging activity against DPPH, H2O2 and Fe²⁺ radicals. The reductive capacity of the extracts increased with increasing concentrations of samples, and the extracts inhibited H2O2 induced hemolysis in human red blood cells (RBCs). Antioxidant properties were found to be moderately weaker than that of the reference standard, L-ascorbic acid (AA), and Gallic acid (GA). Further, brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) lethality assay revealed significant cytotoxicity (241.4 and 272.6 μg/mL, respectively). Methanol extracts could also inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial strains. Conclusion This study showed that the crude methanol extract of selected mangrove plants possesses free radical scavenging, anti-hemolytic, cytotoxic and anti-bacterial activity. The experimented plant has the potential to be used as a traditional medicine and replace synthetic drugs. Further studies are necessary to isolate active compounds responsible for the overall antioxidant activity of the crude extracts.
... Quinoa can be classified in accordance with the saponins concentration and its content would depend on the quinoa variety: "sweet" (free from or containing less than 0.11% of free saponins) or "bitter" (containing more than 0.11% of free saponins) [10]. Saponins are complex compounds composed of sugar and steroid or triterpenoid moieties which are widely distributed in plants, and have shown beneficial effects such as hypertension prevention [11] as well as anti-inflammatory [12] and antioxidant [13] activities. However, saponins of quinoa are bitter, interfere with quinoa's palatability, and digestibility representing the major drawback concerning commercialization of grain [3,6]. ...
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This research focused on the antioxidant capacity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), being its basic objective to analyze the retention of this property in the case that a previous saponins removal by water washing was undertaken. Chemical analyses related to saponin content and antioxidant behavior were carried out on ethanolic extracts of two quinoa ecotypes (Ancovinto and Cancosa) and compared to quinoa that was not subjected to saponins extraction; comparison to positive control (BHT‐including condition) was also achieved. Lower contents on total polyphenols, total flavonoids and γ‐tocopherol, and antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) were observed in saponin‐free quinoa extracts from both ecotypes when compared with their saponin‐including counterpart. Further, the effect of the different kinds of quinoa extracts was comparatively analyzed in a marine‐oil heated model system. As a result, saponin‐free quinoa extracts led to marked lipid oxidation inhibition assessed by the determination of conjugated dienes, peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and polyenes, this effect being similar to the one produced by saponin‐including quinoa extracts. Consequently, the water‐washing process did not produce a detrimental effect over the inhibitory capacity of lipid oxidation of quinoa grain when evaluated in a lipid‐food system with high degree of unsaturation (i.e., marine‐oil model). Practical application: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly appreciated pseudo‐cereal of Andean origin that has shown a wide range of profitable nutritional and functional properties. However, saponin compounds located in the pericarp of quinoa seed are bitter and interfere with its palatability and digestibility, making difficult to use this grain as a practical food source for commercial processing. In the present study, the antioxidant behavior of a saponin‐free quinoa was investigated and compared to its counterpart saponin‐including quinoa. As a result, although the elimination of saponins of quinoa grain led to a loss of phenolic compounds and a consequent decrease in antioxidant activity (assessed by the method of DPPH), this process did not produce a detrimental effect over the inhibitory capacity of lipid oxidation when evaluated in a marine‐oil model. Such pre‐treatment would avoid the inconveniences of saponins presence while providing a source of potential food additives including antioxidant properties. Total saponin content and antioxidant properties and effectiveness of saponin‐free quinoa (content on total polyphenols, flavonoids and tocopherols, DPPH assay, and antioxidant capacity in a heated marine‐oil model system) are comparatively studied with quinoa including saponin compounds, taking into account two different quinoa ecotypes (i.e., Ancovinto and Cancosa). As a result, saponin‐free quinoa provides a suitable product including lipophilic‐type antioxidant molecules, susceptible to develop an active preservative role in lipid‐food systems with high degree of unsaturation.
... 3 They act by inhibiting the initiation and propagation steps, resulting in the end of the reaction and delaying the oxidation process. 4 In biological systems, antioxidants have multiple functions, eg it defends against oxidative damage by participating in the main cell signaling pathways and by preventing cell damage caused by the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, antioxidant consumption and the addition of antioxidant in food materials protect the body as well as food from deterioration of oxidation. ...
... approfondies. Au cours de ces investigations, cette saponine a montré une activité antioxydante (Gülçin et al., 2006) (Figure 22). Les propriétés antioxydantes sont largement citées lorsqu'il s'agit de prouver l'effet anticancéreux d'un aliment, un sujet sensible qui fait l'objet de nombreux débats dans la communauté scientifique. ...
Thesis
Le quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) est une plante herbacée de la famille des Amaranthaceae. Originaire d’Amérique du Sud, elle se distingue par sa grande capacité d’adaptation aux conditions écologiques difficiles. Cette plante à graines, souvent confondue avec les céréales communes, est aujourd’hui considérée comme une « pseudocéréale ». Domestiqué il y a plusieurs milliers d’années par les peuples autochtones, le quinoa a longtemps représenté un aliment de subsistance précieux, avant de sombrer dans l’oubli au moment de la conquête espagnole au XVe siècle. Dans les années 1970, le monde redécouvre cette culture et commence à plébisciter la qualité nutritionnelle de ses graines, due notamment à une haute teneur en protéines et à une excellente balance en acides aminés essentiels. Cependant, il a pour désavantage de présenter des substances dites « antinutritionnelles » qui influent de façon négative sur la croissance, la digestion et l’utilisation des aliments, et nécessitent donc d’être éliminées. Dépourvu de gluten, le quinoa a su s’imposer dans le régime des sujets souffrant de la maladie coeliaque. De plus, il s’avère renfermer un certain nombre de composés chimiques bioactifs dont l’étude des diverses propriétés thérapeutiques occupe activement le secteur scientifique. Nous proposons d’exposer les aspects botaniques et les différentes étapes de la redécouverte de cette culture ancestrale, mais surtout de procéder à un examen actualisé complet de la composition chimique et de la valeur nutritionnelle des graines de quinoa. Nous répertorions les principales propriétés pharmacologiques et nutritionnelles des composés bioactifs, et étudierons les effets des substances antinutritionnelles tout en discutant des différents moyens mis en oeuvre pour les éliminer. En mettant en avant les nombreux bienfaits de cet aliment, ce travail a pour vocation d’étayer l’importance qu’il pourrait avoir dans l’avenir pour le monde entier, en particulier dans la lutte contre la faim et la malnutrition, mais aussi d’évoquer son potentiel en tant qu’aliment fonctionnel dans le combat contre les maladies de civilisation de plus en plus fréquentes.
... 32 TRR belongs to one of triterpenoids, and many triterpenoids have shown with an antioxidant activity. 33,34 In this study, we showed that administration of TRR increased the size of Langerhans islet cells and less distorted architecture within the pancreas, suggesting that TRR exerts an antioxidant activity within b-cells possibly by increasing radical scavenging and/or decreasing in ROS generation. TRR displayed a protective activity against the cytotoxicity and oxidant stress of STZ within the pancreas. ...
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The study is designed to examine the potential effects and underlying mechanisms of eburicoic acid (TRR), a compound from Antrodia camphorata , in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.
... Many antioxidative compounds in plants are free radical inhibitors, active oxygen scavengers, or in vitro reducing agents [42,43]. Rheum ribes (locally called ışgın) grows in the Eastern Anatolian Mountains, especially in Ağrı, Bingöl, Elazığ, Hakkari, Kars, and Van regions. ...
... [ [37][38][39][40][41][42][43] Antiinflammatory ...
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There is increasing recognition of the potential role of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements in reducing health risks and improving nano-level health quality. In 1989, Dr Stephen DeFelice first coined the term nutraceutical to offer health and medical benefits, including disease prevention and treatment. Attributable to their safety and potential nutritional values and therapeutic effects, nutraceuticals have established substantial interest. Companies of pharmaceutical and nutritional products are aware of the monetary success of consumers seeking more health and the changing trends leading to an exploration of natural nanomedicines that cover a large number of chronic and fatal diseases, including cancer. Some popular nutraceuticals include ginseng, echinacea, folic acid, aloe-vera gels, ephedra, garlic, ginger, glucosamine, omega-3 eggs, orange juice enriched with calcium, green tea, etc. The majority of them are appealed to have numerous therapeutic benefits. This review aims to understand nutraceuticals as nano better-supplements to alter disease conditions with specific indications and their crucial role in pathophysiological interventions.
... In this regard, most antioxidant molecules obtained from natural sources such as plants have been found to be ROS or free radical scavengers [20,21]. For this reason, alternative, natural, and reliable plant-derived antioxidants are preferred as natural antioxidants [22,23]. ...
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Kınkor (Ferulago stellata) is Turkish medicinal plant species and used in folk medicine against some diseases. As far as we know, the data are not available on the biological activities and chemical composition of this medicinal plant. In this study, the phytochemical composition; some metabolic enzyme inhibition; and antidiabetic, anticholinergic, and antioxidant activities of this plant were assessed. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of evaporated ethanolic extract (EEFS) and lyophilized water extract (WEFS) of kınkor (Ferulago stellata), some putative antioxidant methods such as DPPH· scavenging activity, ABTS•+ scavenging activity, ferric ions (Fe3+) reduction method, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing capacity, and ferrous ions (Fe2+)-binding activities were separately performed. Furthermore, ascorbic acid, BHT, and α-tocopherol were used as the standard compounds. Additionally, the main phenolic compounds that are responsible for antioxidant abilities of ethanol and water extracts of kınkor (Ferulago stellata) were determined by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Ethanol and water extracts of kınkor (Ferulago stellata) demonstrated effective antioxidant abilities when compared to standards. Moreover, ethanol extract of kınkor (Ferulago stellata) demonstrated IC50 values of 1.772 μg/mL against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 33.56 ± 2.96 μg/mL against α-glycosidase, and 0.639 μg/mL against α-amylase enzyme respectively.
... Compound 3 (see Table 1) is practically present in all the samples of PTH1, PTH2, PTH3, PTH5 and PTH6 that showed higher metal chelating activities. These findings are in agreement with the reported data in the literature for other triterpenoid analogues (Gülçin et al., 2006). This compound is absent in PTH4 and, for this reason, probably, this extract showed lower activity in the series. ...
Article
The genus Potentilla is interesting for the pharmaceutical field due to its valuable medicinal properties, which have been observed in complementary and alternative medicine. In recent years, studies conducted to estimate the biological activity of several of the Potentilla species have shown a wide spectrum of therapeutic properties. In particular, in the present paper, different extracts obtained from the herb P. thuringiaca were analysed for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. The UHPLC-DAD-MS3 hyphenated techniques reported herein allow for the identification of phytoconstituents. The analyses showed the presence of flavonoids and ellagitannins as major components. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that the analysed extracts revealed a high total antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum assay. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated using DPPH and ABTS assays. The reducing power activity of P. thuringiaca was also determined by FRAP and CUPRAC assays, as well as metal chelating activity. In addition, the total extracts and the different fractions of P. thuringiaca revealed potent inhibitory activities against -amylase and -glucosidase, AChE, tyrosinase and lipase. Surprisingly, no activity against BChE was shown. P. thuringiaca could be a valuable natural source of antioxidants with interesting inhibitory actions against the key enzymes involved in several human diseases, and could represent a valid starting point for the development of new treatment and management strategies, including its use as a food supplement.
... Triterpene saponins from tea seeds showed high metal chelating activity [38] and similar observations have been recorded for triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the berries of Hedera colchica. [39] Gero et al. [40] have reported the ...
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Spermacoce verticillata (L.) G. Mey. is commonly used in the folk medicine by various cultures to manage common diseases. Herein, the chemical and biological profiles of S. verticillata were studied in order to provide a comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds and also to highlight the therapeutic properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity using free‐radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, ferrous‐ion chelating and reducing power assays, and the inhibitory activity against key enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase of S. verticillata extracts (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) were investigated. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in the methanolic and aqueous extracts. Exhaustive 2DNMR investigation has revealed the presence of rutin, ursolic and oleanoic acids. The methanolic extract, followed by aqueous extract have showed remarkable free radical quenching and reducing ability, while the dichloromethane extract was the best source of metal chelators. The tested extracts showed notable inhibitory activity against cholinesterases (AChE: 1.63 ‐ 4.99 mg GALAE/g extract and BChE: 12.40 ‐ 15.48 mg GALAE/g extract) and tyrosinase (60.85 ‐ 159.64 mg KAE/g extract). No inhibitory activity was displayed by ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts against BChE and tyrosinase, respectively. All the tested extracts showed modest α‐amylase inhibitory activity, while only the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts were potent against α‐glycosidase. This study further validates the use of S. verticillata in the traditional medicine, while advocating for further investigation for phytomedicine development.
... No report is known regarding the radical scavenging activity of the tested triterpenoid. Nonetheless, Gulcin et al. 25 , reported that OGH, a hederagenin saponin which was isolated from berries of Hedera colchica (Araliaceae) exhibited strong antioxidant activity on several antioxidant assays including DPPH. ...
Article
Lung cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of anhydrous hederagenin, isolated from Cussonia arborea Hochst. ex A. Rich were evaluated on human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells, OH•and DPPH•. The structure was unambiguously deduced largely bysingle-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The metabolite displayed significant cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 20.27 μg/mL). It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90.2% and bleached purple color of DPPH (IC50 = 49.6 μg/mL) at 1.0 mg/mL.The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21, with unit cell parameters a = 12.2865(19) Å, b = 16.414(3) Å, c = 13.441(2) Å. Our findings suggest that hederagenin may have the potential to provide significant natural defense againsthuman lung cancer.
... Changing living conditions, environmental pollution, industrial wastes, sun rays, exhaust gases, heavy metals, cigarettes and various chemicals have become elements that today's people cannot escape [7,8]. All this causes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, which have hazardous effects for living organisms [9][10][11]. Despite the increasing number of free radicals, the protective effect of antioxidant metabolism can often be insufficient [12][13][14]. ...
Article
Astragalus is a perennial plant that has existed for about 2500-3000 years and consists of more than 250 taxonomic parts. Twenty species of Astragalus are endemic to Turkey, as well as the richest genus with 425 taxa. The roots of Astragalus species are used in folk medicine as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and diuretic. Also, it is used to treat diabetes mellitus, leukemia, nephritis and uterine cancer. It is known that in Anatolia, Astragalus roots are traditionally used against leukemia and wound healing. For the purpose, the measuring of antioxidant activity of evaporated ethanol extract of Astragalus brachycalyx FISCHER (EEAB), some bioanalytic methods including DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging effects, ferric ions (Fe³⁺) and cupric ions (Cu²⁺) reducing abilities, and metal (Fe²⁺) chelating activity were realized. α-Tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and BHT were used as the standard antioxidants. On the other hand, some phenolic compounds, which responsible for antioxidant activities of EEAB was determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). At the similar concentration, EEAB exhibited efficient antioxidant effects when compared to standard compounds. Additionally, EEAB showed IC50 values of 1.985 μg/mL toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 0.620 μg/mL on α-glycosidase and 0.306 μg/mL against α-amylase enzymes.
... Antioxidants prevent and stop the free radical activity against lipid peroxidation. Free radicals can alter the structure and feature of biological molecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA [54][55][56] . Antioxidants can scavenge oxygen-derived radicals by delaying the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation 57,58 . ...
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The antioxidant effects of ellagic acid (EA) and hesperidin (HES) against skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) were performed. Hindlimb ischemia has been induced by tourniquet occlusion for 2 h on left hindlimb. At the end of ischemia, the tourniquate has been removed and initiated reperfusion for 2 h. EA (100 mg/kg) has been applied orally before ischemia/reperfusion in the EA + I/R group. HES (100 mg/kg) has been given orally in the HES + I/R group. The left gastrocnemius muscle has been harvested and stored immediately at -80 °C until assessed for the levels of MDA and antioxidant enzymes activities. MDA level has statistically increased in I/R group (p < 0.05) compared to other groups. The muscle tissue antioxidant enzymes activities were lower than the other groups in the I/R group (p < 0.05). EA and HES treatments significantly reversed the damage level in I/R, also activity of tissue SOD increased in the EA + I/R and HES + I/R groups.
... Compounds containing antioxidants can deactivate free radicals (6)(7)(8). In the past, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydrox-ytoluene (BHT) were employed (9)(10)(11), but their usage has been forbidden because of their possible carcinogenic and toxic effects. and increased risk of cardiovascular and other conditions (15)(16)(17). ...
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Background: Burns are a major cause of stress, and afterwards, many patients suffer from anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Also, the levels of serum antioxidants increase after burns, which causes problems in patients. It has been observed that Melissa officinalis L. can increase serum antioxidant levels and improve mood and sleep quality. Methods: Thirty-six patients who were admitted to Shahid Motahari Burn hospital were selected. Patients in the control group consumed black tea, and those in the experimental group received Melissa tea. The serum levels of antioxidants were measured using spectrophotometry once before the intervention and at another time 20 days after the intervention. Depression, anxiety, and insomnia levels were each measured by the Beck, Kettles, and Petersburg questionnaires, respectively. Results: In the study group, the percentages of those experiencing anxiety (P value: 0.023) and depression (P value: 0.002) were significantly less than those of the control group. Also, sleep quality in the experimental group taking Melissa tea increased significantly (P value: 0.031). However, the mean serum antioxidant levels were not significantly different between the control and experimental groups (P value: 0.96). Conclusions: Melissa officinalis L. can significantly reduce anxiety and depression and improve sleep quality. Therefore, its consumption may be useful for burn patients as a daily drink. However, the effects of Melissa on increasing serum antioxidants needs further investigation.
... [5,6] There is a growing interest in natural and safer antioxidants of plant origin. [7] In addition to antioxidant properties, the phenolic compounds possess beneficial antibacterial, antidiabetic, and bioactive properties that are important for human health promotion and disease prevention. [8,9] Evaluation of bioactivities of these compounds can provide a viable approach and scientific basis to identify and develop novel antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic agents as therapeutic targets. ...
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Antioxidant, antibacterial, and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of Brownlowia tersa leaf and bark extracts were performed. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in DPPH free radical scavenging assay for the bark and leaf extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol were 102.09 ± 0.53, 236.28 ± 0.85, 27.90 ± 0.56, and 183.74 ± 0.75, 45.78 ± 0.27, and 35.12 ± 0.55 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. Total phenolic content was the higher in methanolic bark and leaf extracts than in other solvents. Total flavonoid content was the highest in the methanolic leaf extracts and the lowest in chloroform bark extract. Petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of bark and leaf demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 28739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27833.
... μg/mL) had the least hydrogen peroxide scavenging The reducing powers of the extracts have been measured. In this bioanalytical method used in antioxidant studies, the color of test solution transforms into green color due to the reducing activities of the antioxidant substances in the medium [35]. The results are shown in Figure 4 as absorbance values at 700 nm. ...
Article
Objective The objective of the present study was to investigate the phenolic compositions, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of four Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol extracts obtained from four Results The extracts exerted moderate antioxidant and reducing activity with low phenolic contents. The main component in the extracts was determined as ferulic acid. The extracts demonstrated no antibacterial activity except Conclusion It is believed that the results of this study will contribute to research recently increasing for the use of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds in many industrial fields such as food, pharmacy and medicine.
...  Antioxidants: resveratrol from red grape products; flavonoids inside citrus, tea, wine, and dark chocolate foods; anthocyanins found in berries, Vitamin C  Reducing hypercholesterolemia: [16] soluble dietary fiber products, such as psyllium seed husk  Cancer prevention: broccoli (sulforaphane) fiddleheads (Matteuccia Struthiopteus)  Improved arterial health: soy or clover (isoflavonoids)  Lowered risk of cardiovascular disease: ...
Article
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. Application of alloxan in experimental animals can cause Diabetes mellitus. The secondary metabolites of Etlingera elatior can be used as raw materials for diabetes mellitus drug. This study aims to determine the antidiabetic potential of ethanol extract of Etlingera elatior leaves by in vivo study. A total of 32 rats were divided into 6 groups, namely NC, DC, PC, DE1, DE2, and DE3. The results of data analysis using multivariate ANOVA on blood glucose level data every week showed p(0.000) < (0.05), and the results of data analysis using one way ANOVA on pancreatic β cell count data also showed that p(0.000) < (0.05). Etlingera elatior leaf ethanol extract has antidiabetic activity since it could reduce blood glucose levels and increase the number of pancreatic β beta cells through several mechanisms. The mechanism is triggered by phytochemical compounds contained in the leaf extract of Etlingera elatior.
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In this study, series of novel bromophenol derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their antioxidant and AChE inhibition properties. Novel brominated diarylmethanones were obtained from the acylation reactions of benzoic acids with substituted benzenes. One of the bromodiarylmethanone was synthesized from the bromination of diarylmethanone with molecular bromine. All diaryl-methanones were converted into their bromophenol derivatives with BBr 3. The antioxidant activities of all synthesized compounds were elucidated by using various bioanalytical assays. Radical scavenging activities of compounds 10-24 were evaluated by means of DPPH Å and ABTS Å+ scavenging activities. In addition, reducing ability of 10-24 were determined by Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , and [Fe 3+-(TPTZ) 2 ] 3 reducing activities. a-Tocopherol, trolox, BHA, and BHT were used as positive antioxidant and radical scavenger molecules. On the other hand, IC 50 values were calculated for DPPH Å , ABTS Å+ scavenging, and AChE inhibition effects of novel compounds. The results obtained from the current studies clearly show that novel bromophenol derivatives 20-24 have considerable antioxidant, antiradical, and AChE inhibition effects.
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In this study, antidiabetic, anticholinergic, and antioxidant abilities of rosmarinic acid were evaluated and compared to standards. To determine its antioxidant activity different in vitro bioanalytical methods, including total antioxidant activity (TAA), ABTS•+ scavenging activity, O2•- scavenging activity, DPPH· scavenging activity, DMPD•+ scavenging activity, potassium ferric cyanide reduction ability, cupric ion (Cu²⁺) reduction capacity, H2O2 scavenging activity, and ferrous ions (Fe²⁺) binding activities were separately performed. Also, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Trolox, α-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as the reference antioxidants. Rosmarinic acid inhibited the linoleic acid emulsion peroxidation by 89.2% while BHA, BHT, Trolox and α-tocopherol inhibited as 87.3, 97.6, 90.3 and 75.3%, respectively, at the same concentration (30 μg/mL). When these results are evaluated, rosmarinic acid had effective TAA than BHA and α-tocopherol and close to BHT and Trolox. In addition, rosmarinic acid exhibited Kİ values of 9.67 ± 0.81 nM towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 33.56 ± 2.96 nM against α-glycosidase enzymes.
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The conversion reactions of pyrimidine-thiones with nucleophilic reagent were studied during this scientific research. For this purpose, new compounds were synthesized by the interaction between 1,2-epoxy propane, 1,2-epoxy butane, and 4-chlor-1-butanol and pyrimidine-thiones. These pyrimidine-thiones derivatives (A-K) showed good inhibitory action against acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE), and human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isoforms I and II. AChE inhibition was in the range of 93.1 ± 33.7-467.5 ± 126.9 nM. The hCA I and II were effectively inhibited by these compounds, with K i values in the range of 4.3 ± 1.1-9.1 ± 2.7 nM for hCA I and 4.2 ±
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Antioxidants had a growing interest owing to their protective roles in food and pharmaceutical products against oxidative deterioration and in the body and against oxidative stress-mediated pathological processes. Screening of antioxidant properties of plants and plant-derived compounds requires appropriate methods, which address the mechanism of antioxidant activity and focus on the kinetics of the reactions including the antioxidants. Many studies evaluating the antioxidant activity of various samples of research interest using different methods in food and human health have been conducted. These methods are classified, described, and discussed in this review. Methods based on inhibited autoxidation are the most suited for termination-enhancing antioxidants and for chain-breaking antioxidants, while different specific studies are needed for preventive antioxidants. For this purpose, the most common methods used in vitro determination of antioxidant capacity of food constituents were examined. Also, a selection of chemical testing methods was critically reviewed and highlighted. In addition, their advantages, disadvantages, limitations and usefulness were discussed and investigated for pure molecules and raw extracts. The effect and influence of the reaction medium on the performance of antioxidants are also addressed. Hence, this overview provides a basis and rationale for developing standardized antioxidant methods for the food, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplement industries. In addition, the most important advantages and shortcomings of each method were detected and highlighted. The chemical principles of these methods are outlined and critically discussed. The chemical principles of methods of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical (ABTS·+) scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical scavenging, Fe3+–Fe2+ transformation assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing power assay (Cuprac), Folin–Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCR assay), peroxyl radical (ROO·), superoxide radical anion (O2·−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical (OH·) scavenging assay, singlet oxygen (1O2) quenching assay, nitric oxide radical (NO·) scavenging assay and chemiluminescence assay are outlined and critically discussed. Also, the general antioxidant aspects of main food components were discussed by a number of methods, which are currently used for the detection of antioxidant properties of food components. This review consists of two main sections. The first section is devoted to the main components in the food and pharmaceutical applications. The second general section comprises some definitions of the main antioxidant methods commonly used for the determination of the antioxidant activity of components. In addition, some chemical, mechanistic and kinetic basis, and technical details of the used methods are given.
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In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of evaporated ethanolic extract (EESB) and lyophilized water extract (WESB) of Shaggy bindweed (Convulvulus betonicifolia Mill. Subs), some putative antioxidant methods such as DPPH· scavenging activity, ABTS•+ scavenging effect, ferric ions (Fe³⁺) reduction method, cupric ions (Cu²⁺) reducing capacity, and ferrous ions (Fe²⁺) binding activities were separately performed. Also, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and BHT were used as the standard compounds. Additionally, some phenolic compounds that responsible for antioxidant abilities of EESB and WESB were screened by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). At the same concentration, EESB and WESB demonstrated effective antioxidant abilities when compared to standards. In addition, EESB demonstrated IC50 values of 1.946 μg/mL against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 0.815 μg/mL against α-glycosidase and 0.675 μg/mL against α-amylase enzymes.
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The aim of this study was to determine the mineral contents by ICP‐MS and the antioxidant capacity of Angelica archangelica plant, which is not well known in the literature. For this purpose, ethyl alcohol extracts of the branches and leaves of the plant; different bioanalytical methods such as reducing capacity by Fe3+−Fe2+ transformation method, Fe3+‐TPTZ reducing capacity by FRAP method, Cu2+‐Cu+ reducing capacity by CUPRAC method, the ferric ions (Fe2+) chelating activity by using bipyridyl reagent, DPPH (1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picryl‐hydrazyl) free radical, DMPD (N,N‐dimethyl‐p‐phenylenediamine), ABTS (2,2’‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzthiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities, total antioxidant activity determination according to thiocyanate method, total phenolic and total flavonoid activity were used. As standard, BHT, BHA, α‐Tocopherol, Trolox were used. A. archangelica branches and leaves demonstrated 88.13 % and 93.90 % inhibition of linoleic acid emulsion peroxidation at 20 mg mL−1 concentration. Also, it was determined that both leaves and branches of A. archangelica plant were dense with P, Mg, Ca and K minerals with ICP‐MS device. It is considered that the results of the manuscript will guide the antioxidant studies, medicine, cosmetics, pharmacology and food sector. In this study, the antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of the Angelica archangelica plant, which is not very well known in the literature, were determined in vitro with different analytical methods by ICP‐MS. For this purpose, ethyl alcohol extracts obtained from the branches and leaves of the plant were used. It is thought that it will serve different areas such as food and food industry, medicine, cosmetics, alternative medical treatment methods.
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In the present work, antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of mountain mint [Cyclotrichium leu-cotrichum (Stapf ex Rech. Fil.) Leblebici] was the first time appraised. In this sense, methanol (MECL) and water (WECL) extracts were obtained from aerial parts of mountain mint (Cyclotrichium leucotrichum) and studied for their antioxidant ability by several bioanalytical assays. Also, their inhibition profiles were realized toward several metabolic enzymes connected to some diseases, including butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-glycosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and α-amylase enzymes. Additionally, their phenolic contents were determined by putative chromatographic method of LC-MS/MS. Consequently, nineteen phenolic molecules were identified in MECL and fifteen phenolic molecules were found in WECL. Also, antioxidant effects of both extracts were studied using by the methods of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·), 2,2´-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and (ABTS•+)N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD•+) scavenging activities, ferric (Fe3+) and cupric (Cu2+) ions and Fe3+-2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-S-triazine (TPTZ) reducing capacities. MECL and WECL were found as powerful DPPH· (IC50: 23.74 and 28.85 μg/mL), ABTS•+ (IC50: 12.53 and 14.05 μg/mL) and DMPD•+ scavenging effects (IC50: 43.52 and 54.80 μg/mL). Also, both extracts demonstrated the effective inhibition effects on AChE (IC50: 69.31 and 115.51 μg/mL), BChE (IC50: 57.75 and 86.62 μg/mL), α-glycosidase (IC50: 36.47 and 62.94 μg/mL) and α-amylase (IC50: 1.01 and 3.43 μg/mL). This study will be useful for future studies to determine the antioxidant properties and enzyme inhibition profile of food, medical and industrially important plants.
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In this study, the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed (FS) was evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities and reducing power. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and α-tocopherol. The water and ethanol extracts of FS seeds showed strong antioxidant activity. 100 μg of water and ethanol extracts exhibited 99.1% and 77.5% inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, respectively, and greater than the same dose of α-tocopherol (36.1%). The both extracts of FS have effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. This antioxidant property depends on concentration and increasing with increased amount of sample. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the water and ethanol extracts of fennel seeds were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare) seed is a potential source of natural antioxidant. Although, the tests presented here show the usefulness of FS extracts as in vitro antioxidants it still needs to be that this extracts show their activity in emulsions, biological systems, health implications or dry foods.
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The ethanolic extract of Leontice kiangnanensis (EELK) can inhibit obviously the increased permeability of abdominal blood capillaries and the ear inflammation in mice as well as the swelling of hind paw and the proliferation of granuloma induced by cotton-pellets in rats, EELK can also raise the pain thresholds during hot-plate, formaldehyde and writhing tests in mice. Use of EELK together with pentobarbital may enhance sedative effect on mice.
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Soybean saponin is one of several soybean glycosides. Recently, new soybean saponins which possess the DDMP (2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one) moiety have been detected. Soyasaponin beta g of these new soybean saponins was shown to inhibit hydrogen peroxide damage to mouse fibroblast cells. Not only the new saponin but also soyasaponin I, which has lost the DDMP moiety from soyasaponin beta g, was tested and showed higher inhibition in this assay. In order to investigate the relationship between the effect and chemical structure, glycyrrhizin, which has a similar chemical structure to soyasaponin I, was also tested and exhibited the same effect as soyasaponins beta g and I. Soyasaponin Ab, a major authentic bisdesmosidic saponin that exists only in the soybean hypocotyl, was also tested and exhibited the highest inhibition of hydrogen peroxide damage among the four saponins. It was concluded that water-soluble soybean saponins protected the cells from damage by hydrogen peroxide.
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The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu(2+)-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging activity. However, none of the mushroom polysaccharide extracts had antioxidative activity as measured by detecting malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of liver microsomes.
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To elucidate the antioxidant action of Vietnamese ginseng saponin against free radial-mediated cellular damage, we examined the effect of Vietnamese ginseng saponin on lipid peroxidation in the mouse brain, liver, and liver microsomes by using two in vitro free radical generating systems (iron ferrous+ascorbic acid and iron ferrous+hydrogen peroxide). Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the endogenous and stimulated accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA-RS). Vietnamese ginseng saponin (0.05-0.5 mg/ml), as well as vitamin E, significantly inhibited the formation of TBA-RS in tissue homogenates. Panax ginseng saponin, at the same concentration range as Vietnamese ginseng saponin, also had inhibitory action on free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. However, majonoside-R2, ginsenoside-Rg1 and ginsenoside-Rb1, the main saponin components of Vietnamese ginseng saponin fraction, had no effect on lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that Vietnamese ginseng exerts a protective action against free radical-induced tissue injury and that this effect is attributable to minor components rather than the main saponin components tested.
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Cultured mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1c1c7 cells were treated with alpha-Hederin to assess the role of alpha-Hederin in the process of Cyp1a-1 induction. Treatment of Hepa-1c1c7 cultures with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced Cyp1a-1, as indicated by analysis of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity and Cyp1a-1 protein. When alpha-Hederin and TCDD were both added to cultures, TCDD-inducible EROD activity was greatly suppressed by alpha-Hederin in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD-induced Cyp1a-1 protein and mRNA levels were markedly reduced in the concomitant treatment of TCDD and alpha-Hederin consistent with EROD activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay using nuclear extraction of cells revealed that alpha-Hederin reduced transformation of the Ah receptor to a form capable of specifically binding to an oligonucleotide containing a dioxin-response element (DRE) sequence of the Cyp1a-1 gene. These results suggest that the suppressive effect of alpha-Hederin on TCDD-induced Cyp1a-1 gene expression in Hepa-1c1c7 cells might be an antagonist of the DNA binding potential of a nuclear Ah receptor.
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This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of alpha-hederine (alpha-hed) against H2O2-mediated DNA damage on HepG2 cell line by the alkaline comet assay. For the protective effect of alpha-hed study, cells were treated according to three protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment. The effect of alpha-hed on catalase activity was evaluated after treating the cells with 3.36 mg/ml of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AMT) singly or in combination with alpha-hed (1.5 or 3 microg/ml) and H2O2 (8.8 microM) during 1 h. The catalase activity was also biochemically measured after treating cells with alpha-hed at 1.5, 3, or 15 microg/ml during 1 h. Additionally, the influence of alpha-hed on membrane RedOx potential, pool of reduced glutathione and total protein content was evaluated by flow cytometry. In the pre-treatment, the two concentrations of alpha-hed (1.5 and 3 microg/ml) decreased the lesions induced by H2O2 (8.8 microM) significantly. This decrease was about 57.2% and 66.1%, respectively. Similar results were observed when cells were treated with alpha-hed and H2O2 simultaneously. The decrease of H2O2-induced lesions was about 78.2% and 83.2% (alpha-hed 1.5 and 3 microg/ml, respectively). In the post-treatment protocol, this decrease was not significant. The combination of AMT and H2O2 induced more DNA damage than H2O2 alone (tail moment (TM) means was 31.4% and 21.8%, respectively). When alpha-hed was added to this mixture, TM means were reduced significantly (17.4% for alpha-hed 1. 5 microg/ml and 15.5% for alpha-hed 3 microg/ml). Up to 6.9 microg/ml, alpha-hed enhanced catalase activity (60.5%), followed by a decrease of the activity. Total protein content and membrane RedOx potential were slightly increased up to 11 microg/ml (14% and 3.6%, respectively) followed by a drop and a plateau. Pool of reduced glutathione remained unchanged up to 10 microg/ml then dropped and reached a plateau. In conclusion, alpha-hed could exert its protective effect against H2O2-mediated DNA damage by scavenging free radicals or by enhancing the catalase activity.
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Heat treatment of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer at a temperature higher than that applied to the conventional preparation of red ginseng yielded a mixture of saponins with potent antioxidative properties. Thus, the methanol extract of heat-processed neoginseng (designated as 'NGMe') attenuated lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates induced by ferric ion or ferric ion plus ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the extract protected against strand scission in phiX174 supercoiled DNA induced by UV photolysis of H2O2, and was also capable of scavenging superoxide generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase or by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in differentiated human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Topical application of NGMe onto shaven backs of female ICR mice 10 min prior to TPA, significantly ameliorated skin papillomagenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Moreover, TPA-induced enhancement of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and ODC mRNA expression was abolished by a topical dose (0.68 mg) of NGMe. Likewise, TPA-induced production of tumor necrosis factor- in mouse skin was inhibited by NGMe pretreatment.
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Two groups of saponins, TS-1 and TS-2, isolated from tea root extract (TRE) were tested for antiinflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activity. Both TS-1 and TS-2 inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The antioxidant activity of these compounds was evaluated using the xanthine–xanthine oxidase system. The study indicated that the previously observed antitumour activity of TRE might be mediated through scavenging of free radicals by saponins and their antiinflammatory activity. Copyright
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Dantrolene sodium is a skeletal muscle relaxant, which inhibits intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The aim of this study is to examine possible in vitro antioxidant effects of dantrolene sodium. For this reason, the in vitro antioxidant effects of dantrolene sodium were studied using thiocyanate methods. Additionally, the reducing power and free radical scavenging activity were determined. Dantrolene sodium showed strong antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid emulsion system. The antioxidant activity increased with an increasing amount of dantrolene sodium (50, 100, 250 microg). The 50, 100 and 250 microg samples of dantrolene sodium showed 55%, 70% and 82% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid, respectively. On the other hand, the 250 microg sample of alpha-tocopherol showed 62% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid. Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power of dantrolene sodium increased in a dose-dependent manner. The reducing power of dantrolene was statistically significant vs control, but lower than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and quercetin. Although dantrolene sodium had free radical scavenging activity this was not statistically significant. In contrast to dantrolene sodium, quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) had highly potent free radical scavenging activities and those were statistically significant. According to the these results, it may be said that antioxidant effect of dantrolene sodium is more related to its antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion and reducing power, than to its free radical scavenging activity. These properties may be major reasons for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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alpha-Hederin, a triterpene saponin, is reported to have antitumor activities; however, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects is not known. In this study, we examine the effects of alpha-hederin on the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in mouse macrophages. alpha-Hederin elicited a dose-dependent increase in NO secretion. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that the increased NO secretion was due to an increase in iNOS mRNA. Transient expression assays with NF-kappa B binding sites linked to the luciferase gene revealed that the increased level of iNOS mRNA induced by alpha-hederin was mediated by the NF-kappa B transcription factor complex. These results demonstrate that alpha-hederin stimulates NO release and is able to upregulate iNOS expression through NF-kappa B transactivation, which may be a mechanism, whereby alpha-hederin elicits its biological effects.
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The MeOH extract of Pueraria thunbergiana (Leguminosae) flowers and its fractions were subjected to Ames test to test the antimutagenicity. EtOAc fraction (1 mg/plate) decreased the number of revertants of Salmonella typhymurium TA100 by 95% against aflatoxin B, (AFB1). Phytochemical isolation of the EtOAc fraction afforded four isoflavonoids (tectorigenin, glycitein, tectoridin and glycitin) and one saponin (kaikasaponin III). Though the three isoflavonoids other than tectoridin showed significant antimutagenicity, the activity of kaikasaponin III was the most potent. Kaikasaponin III (1 mg/plate) decreased the number of revertants of S. typhymurium TA100 by 99% against AFB, but by 75% against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Tectorigenin (1 mg/plate) inhibited the AFB1-induced mutagenicity by 90% and MNNG-induced one by 76%. Glycitein and glycitin were less active than tectorigenin and kaikasaponin III. This result suggested that kaikasponin III prevents the metabolic activation of AFB1 and scavenge electrophilic intermediate capable of mutation. The two components with potent activities, tectorigenin and kaikasaonin III, significantly prevented the malondialdehyde formation caused by bromobenzene in the rat.
Article
The aim of this study is to examine possible in vitro antioxidant effects of melatonin. Thus, the total in vitro antioxidant activity of melatonin was studied using a thiocyanate method. Additionally, the reducing power, the superoxide anion scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity of melatonin were determined. Melatonin exhibited potent antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid emulsion system. The antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentrations of melatonin (50-500 microg). The 50, 100, 250 and 500 microg melatonin doses showed 41, 60, 86 and 99% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid, respectively. On the other hand, a 500-microg dose of alpha-tocopherol showed 34% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid. Like the total antioxidant activity, the reducing power of melatonin increased in a dose-dependent manner. The reducing power of melatonin was statistically significant versus control, but lower than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or quercetin. Additionally, melatonin had potent superoxide radical scavenging activity and exhibited a higher superoxide radical scavenging activity than quercetin or BHT but lower than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Melatonin's direct free radical scavenging actions may account, at least in part, for its ability to reduce lipid peroxidation. Melatonin may have utility in protecting stored foods from free radical-induced deterioration.
Article
Hederacolchisid A1, a new oleanolic acid monodesmoside, isolated from Hedera colchica K. Koch, an ivy species endemic in Georgia, was evaluated in vitro for antiproliferative activity on cancer cells versus normal cells in comparison to cisplatin. Investigations were made on six human cell lines (colon adenocarcinoma DLD-1, ovarian teratocarcinoma PA 1, lung carcinoma A 549, breast adenocarcinoma MCF7, prostatic adenocarcinoma PC 3 and malignant melanoma M4 Beu) versus normal human fibroblasts, by assaying both cellular metabolic activity (RTT test) and DNA content in living cells (test with Hoechst 33,342) after 48 h continuous contact. Results demonstrated the strong cytotoxicity of hederacolchisid A 1 on all cancer cells (IC50 from 4.5 to 12 microM). The antiproliferative effects on malignant melanoma M4 Beu (IC50 ca 4.5 microM) versus normal cells (IC50 ca 7.5 microM) suggests that, despite a lack of specificity for cancer cells, hederacolchisid A1 has potential anti-tumor applications. Comparison of the cytotoxicity of hederacolchisid A 1 with that of five other saponins from H. colchica, offers some new information about structure-activity relationships. It was observed that i) for a same sugar sequence, monodesmosides with oleanolic acid as aglycone exhibit higher cytotoxicity than those containing hederagenin, ii) the sugar sequence O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside at C3 induces strong cytotoxicity and might be identified as a basic sequence for anti-tumor activity of oleanolic acid monodesmosides. iii) a complementary glucopyranosyl moiety branched at C1 of arabinose increases the cytotoxicity against malignant melanoma M4 Beu, prostatic adenocarcinoma PC 3 and normal fibroblasts in a different manner for each type of monodesmoside. A slight increase whose amplitude was quite similar on cancers and normal cells, was observed with oleanolic acid monodesmoside. This increase was much higher with hederagenin monodesmoside and markedly elevated in normal cells than in cancer cells.
Article
alpha-Hederin, a pentacyclic triterpene saponin isolated from the seeds of Nigella sativa, was recently reported to have potent in vivo antitumor activity against LL/2 (Lewis Lung carcinoma) in BDF1 mice. In this study we observed that alpha-hederin caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis of murine leukemia P388 cells. In order to evaluate the possible mechanisms for apoptosis, the effects of alpha-hederin on intracellular thiol concentration, including reduced glutathione (GSH), and protein thiols, and the effects of pretreatment with N-acetlycysteine (NAC), a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, or buthionine sulfoxime (BSO), a specific inhibitor of intracellular GSH synthesis, on alpha-hederin-induced apoptosis were investigated. It was found that alpha-hederin rapidly depleted intracellular GSH and protein thiols prior to the occurrence of apoptosis. NAC significantly alleviated alpha-hederin-induced apoptosis, while BSO augmented alpha-hederin-induced apoptosis significantly. The depletion of cellular thiols observed after alpha-hederin treatment caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and subsequently increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in P388 cells at an early time point. Bongkrekic acid (BA), a ligand of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, and cyclosporin (CsA) attenuated the alpha-hederin-induced loss of deltapsi(m), and ROS production. Thus, oxidative stress after alpha-hederin treatment is an important event in alpha-hederin-induced apoptosis. As observed in this study, permeability transition of mitochondrial membrane occurs after depletion of GSH and precedes a state of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Further, we observed that alpha-hederin caused the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol, leading to caspase-3 activation. Our findings thus demonstrate that changes in intracellular thiols and redox status leading to perturbance of mitochondrial functions are important components in the mechanism of alpha-hederin-induced cell death.
Article
Eight major triterpene saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Medicago arabica and their structures elucidated by FAB-MS and NMR analysis. Three of them are new compounds and are identified as 3-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranoside) bayogenin, 3-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl), 28-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) bayogenin, and 3-O-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl], 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside 2-beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Two saponins, identified as 3-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranoside) hederagenin and 3-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl), 28-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) hederagenin are known compounds but not previously reported as saponin constituents of Medicago species, while three other saponins, being mono- and bidesmosides of hederagenin, have been previously isolated from roots of M. sativa.
Article
In this study, water extract of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (WEN) was studied for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic properties. The antioxidant properties of WEN were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. WEN had powerful antioxidant activity. The 50, 100 and 250 microg amounts of WEN showed 39, 66 and 98% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively, while 60 microg/ml of alpha-tocopherol, exhibited only 30% inhibition. Moreover, WEN had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities at the same concentrations. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and alpha-tocopherol. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the WEN were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. WEN also showed antimicrobial activity against nine microorganisms, antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis and analgesic effect on acetic acid-induced stretching.
On the in vitro antioxidant properties of melatonin
  • I Gülçin
  • Büyükokuroglu Me
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  • Küfrevioglu
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Gülçin I, Büyükokuroglu ME, Oktay M, Küfrevioglu ÖI. 2002. On the in vitro antioxidant properties of melatonin. J Pineal Res 33: 167–171.
Suppressive effects of a-hederin on 2,3,7,8-tetra- chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated murine Cyp1a-1 expression in the mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells
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Jeonga HG, Lee SS. Suppressive effects of a-hederin on 2,3,7,8-tetra- chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated murine Cyp1a-1 expression in the mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Cancer Lett 1999; 138: 131 ± 7
Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a-hederin in macrophages
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Jeonga HG, Choi CY. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a-hederin in macrophages. Planta Medica 2002; 68: 392 ± 6
Antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallsiana (Lamb.) Holmboe
  • Büyükokurog Gülc Ë In I
  • M E Ïlu
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Gülc Ë in I, Büyükokurog Ïlu ME, Oktay M, Küfreviog Ïlu ÖI Ç. Antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallsiana (Lamb.) Holmboe. J Ethnopharmcol 2003; 86: 51 ± 8
Qualitative and quantitative HPLC of dry extracts from the leaves of Hedera colchica and H. pastuchowii
  • V Mshvildadze
  • R Elias
  • B Baghdikian
  • E Ollivier
  • G Dekanosidze
  • E Kemertelidze
  • G Balansard
Mshvildadze V., Elias R., Baghdikian B., Ollivier E., Dekanosidze G., Kemertelidze E., Balansard G. Qualitative and quantitative HPLC of dry extracts from the leaves of Hedera colchica and H. pastuchowii. 5th International Symposium on the Chemistry of Natural compounds. May 20 ± 23, 2003 Tashkent, Uzbekistan: