The Dimerization Mechanism of LIS1 and its Implication for Proteins Containing the LisH Motif
Laboratory of Protein Engineering, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw, Poland.Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.33). 04/2006; 357(2):621-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.01.002
Miller-Dieker lissencephaly, or "smooth-brain" is a debilitating genetic developmental syndrome of the cerebral cortex, and is linked to mutations in the Lis1 gene. The LIS1 protein contains a so-called LisH motif at the N terminus, followed by a coiled-coil region and a seven WD-40 repeat forming beta-propeller structure. In vivo and in vitro, LIS1 is a dimer, and the dimerization is mediated by the N-terminal fragment and is essential for the protein's biological function. The recently determined crystal structure of the murine LIS1 N-terminal fragment encompassing residues 1-86 (N-LIS1) revealed that the LisH motif forms a tightly associated homodimer with a four-helix antiparallel bundle core, while the parallel coiled-coil situated downstream is stabilized by three canonical heptad repeats. This homodimer is uniquely asymmetric because of a distinct kink in one of the helices. Because the LisH motif is widespread among many proteins, some of which are implicated in human diseases, we investigated in detail the mechanism of N-LIS1 dimerization. We found that dimerization is dependent on both the LisH motif and the residues downstream of it, including the first few turns of the helix. We also have found that the coiled-coil does not contribute to dimerization, but instead is very labile and can adopt both supercoiled and helical conformations. These observations suggest that the presence of the LisH motif alone is not sufficient for high-affinity homodimerization and that other structural elements are likely to play an important role in this large family of proteins. The observed lability of the coiled-coil fragment in LIS1 is most likely of functional importance.
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- "After an unstructured loop, the C-terminal region folds into a beta propeller domain, composed by seven WD40 repeats. Experimental evidence indicates that the LisH domain is essential for in vivo homodimerization (Kim et al., 2004; Mateja et al., 2006), and contains a binding site for known LIS1 protein interactors, such as Nde1 (Derewenda et al., 2007). Both the LisH domain and the coiled-coil motif are known structural mediators of protein–protein interactions and mass spectrometry evidence indicates that the LisH domain and its flanking regions in LIS1 are rich in post-translational modifications (PTMs), suggesting functional regulation (http://www.phosphosite "
ABSTRACT: LIS1 is a microtubule (Mt) plus-end binding protein that interacts with the dynein/dynactin complex. In humans, LIS1 is required for proper nuclear and organelle migration during cell growth. Although gene duplication is absent from Neurospora crassa, we found two paralogues of human LIS1. We named them LIS1-1 and LIS1-2 and studied their dynamics and function by fluorescent tagging. At the protein level, LIS1-1 and LIS1-2 were very similar. Although, the characteristic coiled-coil motif was not present in LIS1-2. LIS1-1-GFP and LIS1-2-GFP showed the same cellular distribution and dynamics, but LIS1-2-GFP was less abundant. Both LIS1 proteins were found in the subapical region as single fluorescent particles traveling towards the cell apex, they accumulated in the apical dome forming prominent short filament-like structures, some of which traversed the Spitzenkörper (Spk). The fluorescent structures moved exclusively in anterograde fashion along straight paths suggesting they traveled on Mts. There was no effect in the filament behavior of LIS1-1-GFP in the Δlis1-2 mutant but the dynamics of LIS1-2-GFP was affected in the Δlis1-1 mutant. Microtubular integrity and the dynein-dynactin complex were necessary for the formation of filament-like structures of LIS1-1-GFP in the subapical and apical regions; however, conventional kinesin (KIN-1) was not. Deletion mutants showed that the lack of lis1-1 decreased cell growth by ∼75%; however, the lack of lis1-2 had no effect on growth. A Δlis1-1;Δlis1-2 double mutant showed slower growth than either single mutant. Conidia production was reduced but branching rate increased in Δlis1-1 and the Δlis1-1;Δlis1-2 double mutants. The absence of LIS1-1 had a strong effect on Mt organization and dynamics and indirectly affected nuclear and mitochondrial distribution. The absence of LIS1-1 filaments in dynein mutants (ropy mutants) or in benomyl treated hyphae indicates the strong association between this protein and the regulation of the dynein-dynactin complex and Mt organization. LIS1-1 and LIS1-2 had a high amino acid homology, nevertheless, the absence of the coiled-coil motif in LIS1-2 suggests that its function or regulation may be distinct from that of LIS1-1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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- "Next is the SPRY domain (spore lysis A and the ryanodine receptor), which is further differentiated into less conserved region, PRY followed by the highly conserved SPRY domain . The LisH (Lissencephaly type-1 like homology) domain has been implicated in protein dimerization or oligomerization , . The CTLH (C-terminal to LisH) domain function is unknown. "
ABSTRACT: RanBP9 is known to act as a scaffolding protein bringing together a variety of cell surface receptors and intracellular targets thereby regulating functions as diverse as neurite and axonal outgrowth, cell morphology, cell proliferation, myelination, gonad development, myofibrillogenesis and migration of neuronal precursors. Though RanBP9 is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, brain is one of the organs with the highest expression levels of RanBP9. In the neurons, RanBP9 is localized mostly in the cytoplasm but also in the neurites and dendritic processes. We recently demonstrated that RanBP9 plays pathogenic role in Alzheimer's disease. To understand the role of RanBP9 in the brain, here we generated RanBP9 null mice by gene-trap based strategy. Most of Ran-/- mice die neonatally due to defects in the brain growth and development. The major defects include smaller cortical plate (CP), robustly enlarged lateral ventricles (LV) and reduced volume of hippocampus (HI). The lethal phenotype is due to a suckling defect as evidenced by lack of milk in the stomachs even several hours after parturition. The complex somatosensory system which is required for a behavior such as suckling appears to be compromised in Ran-/- mice due to under developed CP. Most importantly, RanBP9 phenotype is similar to ERK1/2 double knockout and the neural cell adhesion receptor, L1CAM knockout mice. Both ERK1 and L1CAM interact with RanBP9. Thus, RanBP9 appears to control brain growth and development through signaling mechanisms involving ERK1 and L1CAM receptor.
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- "LIS1 is a protein which regulates dynein (dynein I/MAP1C) motor activity under high-load transport conditions by interacting with the motor domain and affecting the coordination of multiple dynein complexes . The LisH domain, which mediates oligomerization , is the second most common neighbor for the WD40 domain; however, a general functional classification has not been assigned to proteins with this particular domain architecture . "
ABSTRACT: In neurons, a highly regulated microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for many cellular functions. These include axonal transport, regional specialization and synaptic function. Given the critical roles of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in maintaining and regulating microtubule stability and dynamics, we sought to understand how this regulation is achieved. Here, we identify a novel LisH/WD40 repeat protein, tentatively named nemitin (neuronal enriched MAP interacting protein), as a potential regulator of MAP8-associated microtubule function. Based on expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, nemitin is enriched in the nervous system. Its protein expression is detected as early as embryonic day 11 and continues through adulthood. Interestingly, when expressed in non-neuronal cells, nemitin displays a diffuse pattern with puncta, although at the ultrastructural level it localizes along the microtubule network in vivo in sciatic nerves. These results suggest that the association of nemitin to microtubules may require an intermediary protein. Indeed, co-expression of nemitin with microtubule-associated protein 8 (MAP8) results in nemitin losing its diffuse pattern, instead decorating microtubules uniformly along with MAP8. Together, these results imply that nemitin may play an important role in regulating the neuronal cytoskeleton through an interaction with MAP8.
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