Plasma levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin in patients with neuroblastoma

Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 07/2006; 119(1):146-51. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.21783
Source: PubMed


Earlier reports showed that the balance between receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and its decoy-receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of metastatic osteolysis induced by neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated whether circulating levels of OPG, RANKL and their ratio were associated to the presence of osteolytic lesions in advanced neuroblastoma, as well as whether they provided additional information on the severity and prognosis of the disease. Plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were measured in 54 newly diagnosed neuroblastomas; 27 of them showed metastatic disease (stage IV), including 19 bone dissemination. Thirty-five children who were admitted to the pediatric department for minor surgical problems served as control group. OPG was significantly lower in all patients compared with controls, while RANKL levels were significantly increased in advanced neuroblastoma. OPG-to-RANKL ratio decreased in stage-IV patients, and particularly in those who had bone metastases. The diagnostic accuracy of the OPG-to-RANKL ratio in discriminating the presence of osteolytic lesions was not confirmed statistically. OPG correlated significantly with other prognostic factors, namely, ferritin and neurone-specific enolase. In addition, an inverse relationship was found between OPG and event-free survival, and it was more significant in patients who had bone metastasis. This pilot study confirms that the production of OPG and RANKL is disregulated in neuroblastoma. Although the OPG-to-RANKL ratio does not have a predictive value in detecting bone metastasis, the measurement of the previously mentioned markers could be useful in decisions regarding the use of adjuvant therapies.

Download full-text


Available from: Paolo Paolucci, Dec 02, 2014
  • Source
    • "Moreover, OPG counteracts the biologic activity of RANKL; thus, its decrease due to the inhibitory activity of Dkk1 is responsible for the enhanced metastatic potential of the tumor. Consistent with this expectation, the OPG-to- RANKL ratio was decreased in patients who had bone metastases [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The critical role of the Wnt pathway inhibition in sustaining the onset of bone lesions has been demonstrated in a variety of bone diseases and tumors, and it has been associated with cancer aggressiveness. We have previously demonstrated that neuroblastoma cells express Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1), an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway which prevents the differentiation of bone-forming cells. Since Dkk1 is a secreted factor, it could have potential clinical application as tumor marker for detecting bone metastasis and monitoring of disease. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of Dkk1 plasma levels in 92 children affected by neuroblastoma, including 32 with bone metastases. Fifty-seven children hospitalized for minor surgical problems served as control group. Circulating levels of Dkk1 were higher in healthy children than in normal adults and were comparable to those found in adult patients with aggressive tumors. No significant differences were found between neuroblastoma patients and controls and between patients with and without bone metastases. However, when only patients with metastatic neuroblastoma were considered, the highest Dkk1 levels were detected in patients that poorly responded to induction chemotherapy and in subjects with unamplified MYCN and three or more different metastatic sites. The 'Receiver Operating Characteristic' curve enabled us to identify a threshold value to distinguish patients who were unresponsive to induction treatment. The relationship between Dkk1 and drug resistance was supported by in vitro experiments, since an increased sensitivity to doxorubicin was found in neuroblastoma cells releasing low Dkk1 levels, either constitutively or experimentally following the treatment with specific siRNA. In conclusion, Dkk1 is released by neuroblastoma cells and is able to affect the balance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, thus favoring the onset of osteolytic metastases. Nevertheless, Dkk1 plasma levels do not allow the detection of bone lesions in neuroblastoma but seem to have a predictive value with regard to the severity and the prognosis of the disease in a subset of patients with metastatic tumor. New knowledge on the biological role of Dkk1 in driving the natural history of neuroblastoma has to be further investigated and could help to establish specific therapeutic strategies able to target key factors of tumor progression.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Bone
  • Source
    • "There is a keen interest in biomarkers contained in body fluids because they are easy obtainable and can give indications about the response to therapy. These biomarkers includes catecholamines, ferritin, LDH [62], and other factors such as midkine [63], RANKL and OPG [64] but they do not define all risk groups and they can not substitute the analysis of the tumor mass. For the time being, the combination of tumor and body fluid characterization is needed for the optimal assessment of the treatment. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in the tumor microenvironment and it is related to poor prognosis in human cancer. To examine the relationship between hypoxia and neuroblastoma, we generated and tested an in vitro derived hypoxia gene signature for its ability to predict patients' outcome. We obtained the gene expression profile of 11 hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines and we derived a robust 62 probesets signature (NB-hypo) taking advantage of the strong discriminating power of the l1-l2 feature selection technique combined with the analysis of differential gene expression. We profiled gene expression of the tumors of 88 neuroblastoma patients and divided them according to the NB-hypo expression values by K-means clustering. The NB-hypo successfully stratifies the neuroblastoma patients into good and poor prognosis groups. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the NB-hypo is a significant independent predictor after controlling for commonly used risk factors including the amplification of MYCN oncogene. NB-hypo increases the resolution of the MYCN stratification by dividing patients with MYCN not amplified tumors in good and poor outcome suggesting that hypoxia is associated with the aggressiveness of neuroblastoma tumor independently from MYCN amplification. Our results demonstrate that the NB-hypo is a novel and independent prognostic factor for neuroblastoma and support the view that hypoxia is negatively correlated with tumors' outcome. We show the power of the biology-driven approach in defining hypoxia as a critical molecular program in neuroblastoma and the potential for improvement in the current criteria for risk stratification.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Molecular Cancer
  • Source
    • "Increased with stage and associated with metastasis —* Decensi et al. [22] Inverse correlation with disease recurrence 3280.00 (RL) Nikolic-Vukosavljevic et al. [23] Levels above RL correlate with decreased survival 15,500.00 (Met) Prostate Shariat et al. [24] Increased with metastasis to LN and bone 5200.00 (PT) 15,250.00 (Met) Adler et al. [1] Increased with metastasis 2630.00 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To survive and metastasize, tumors interact with surrounding tissues by secreting growth factors and cytokines. In return, surrounding host tissues respond by changing their secretome. Numerous factors theoretically function as therapeutic targets or biomarkers of cancer growth and metastatic risk. However, it is unclear if these factors are tumor-derived or actually represent the host defense. To analyze the concentrations of tumor- and microenvironment-derived factors associated with neoplastic growth, we used ELISA-based arrays specific for murine or human proteins to establish a profile of tumor- or host-derived factors circulating in the plasma or within the platelets upon human tumor implantation into mice. Many factors characterized as tumor-derived were actually secreted by host tissues. This study uncovered the origin of various cytokines and revealed their circulation methods. We found that tumor-produced cytokines are predominantly sequestered in platelets. Sequestered proteins are protected from degradation and, thus, may be functional at metastatic sites. These findings identify tumor-specific targets for the detection and prevention of tumor growth and metastasis. As predicted by our model, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha may be biomarkers for human cancers. Thus, our study identified several potential biomarkers that might be predictive of prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
Show more