Under the influence of pathologist C. Rokitansky the tripode founders of neurosciences in Austria were L. Türck as initiator, Th. v. Meynert as activator, and H. Obersteiner. They were followed by scientists like S. Freud, O. Redlich, F. Sträussler, P. Schilder, and others. The three Austrian Nobel laureates were R. Barany (1914, pathology of the vestibular apparatus), J. Wagner v. Jauregg (1927, malaria fever treatment), and O. Loewi (1936, together with Sir H. Dale, chemical neuro-transmission). Important neuroscientists of the early 20 th century were A. Schüller, C. v. Economo, A. E. Spiegel, E. Pollak, E. Gamper, J. Gerstmann, and O. Marburg. Major research institutes were the Departments of Psychiatry I and II (founded in 1870, merged in 1911, separation into neurology, psychiatry, neuropsychiatry of infancy and adolescence, later Institutes of Deep Psychology and of Medical Psychology), the Departments for Neuro-Psychiatry at the Medical Universities of Graz and Innsbruck (founded in 1870 and 1891, separated in 1995 and 1975, respectively), and the Neurological (Obersteiner) Institute of the Medical University of Vienna (founded in 1882, separation into Clinical Institute of Neurology and Center for Brain Research). H. Hoff, O. Pötzl, L. Kauders, F. Seitelberger, H. Petsche, F. Gerstenbrand, H. Bernheimer, W. D. Heiss, L. Deecke, W. Birkmayer, O. Hornykiewicz, and their associates added important contributions to many areas of modern neuroscience. Fields of research are neuroimaging methods, neuroimmunology, neurogenetics, molecular and cellular biology as well as neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders of the nervous system. The foundation of the Center for Brain Research of the Medical University of Vienna and projects for the development of neurocenters at the Medical Universities at Graz and Innsbruck are important steps towards an integration of Austrian neurosciences into the international scientific community.