Article

Iodine nutritional status & prevalence of goitre in Sundarban delta of South 24-Parganas, West Bengal

Endocrinology & Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University College of Science & Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research (Impact Factor: 1.4). 11/2005; 122(5):419-24.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In post salt iodization phase endemic goitre and associated iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) were found prevalent in a randomly selected rural area of Sundarban delta and its adjoining areas of West Bengal. The present investigation was thus undertaken to study the total goitre rate, urinary iodine and thiocyanate excretion pattern of the school going children, iodine content in edible salt and drinking water in the Sundarban delta of South 24-Parganas in West Bengal.
A total of 4656 school children (6-12 yr) were clinically examined for goitre from 13 different areas in the delta region. Urinary iodine and thiocyanate levels were measured in 520 (40 from each area) samples collected randomly to evaluate the iodine nutritional status and consumption pattern of dietary goitrogen. Simultaneously iodine content was determined in 104 (8 from each area) drinking water samples and 455 (35 from each area) edible salt samples collected from the areas.
Children of all the areas were affected by endemic goitre. The prevalence rates were in the ranges from 25-61 per cent; overall goitre prevalence was 38.2 per cent (grade 1--34.0%; grade 2--4.2%). Median urinary iodine level in the studied areas was 225 microg/l (range 115-525 microg/l) indicating no biochemical iodine deficiency in the region. Mean urinary thiocyanate levels were in the range from 0.326-1.004 mg/dl. Iodine content in drinking water samples were in the ranges from 22-119 microg/l, and 55.6 per cent edible salt samples had iodine level above the recommended 15 ppm at the consumption point.
The severity of endemic goitre was high in the studied population though the iodine nutritional status was found satisfactory in the region indicating no biochemical iodine deficiency. The people of the region consumed iodine through iodized salt but about 44 per cent of the salt samples at household level contained inadequate iodine, however their iodine intake was compensated through iodine in water and food. They also consumed dietary goitrogen. Environmental factors other than iodine deficiency may have possible role for the persistence of endemic goitre in the region. More investigations are thus necessary to arrive at certain definite cause of high goitre rates in this population.

    • "It also indicated that there were continued, although inadequate efforts, to ensure a supply of iodized salt to the population. Authors of other studies in India indicated different median urinary iodine levels, which pointed to either a deficiency or no deficiency for certain populations, in their areas.[14–17] A study from Nepal reported a 93.5 μg/L median urinary iodine level.[18] "
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    ABSTRACT: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 - 17.4% and grade 2 - 5.8%). As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 μg/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels.
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    • "Gakkhar et al. found the prevalence as low as 2.4% among 6-15 years age group in Jabalpur.(4) Chandra et al. showed a prevalence of 38.8% in Kolkata.(5) Sundaram et al. in 1997 estimated a low prevalence of 2.5% in Belgaum district.(6) "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of goiter and to study the factors influencing goiter among people of the rural community in Karnataka state, a community based study. Setting and Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out to find out the prevalence of goiter in a rural community of Belgaum district. The study was conducted by house-to-house survey for a period of one month. Two villages (Handiganur and Gundwad) were selected randomly from Belgaum and Raibag taluks of Belgaum district. All the family members in each household were examined for the presence of goiter using WHO criteria. Iodine content of the salt sample obtained from each household was estimated by using spot testing kits. Information regarding the determinants of goiter was collected and recorded in a pre tested proforma. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical packages. The prevalence of goiter among rural population was found to be 16.6%. Goiter of grade 1 was 15.7% and that of grade 2 was 0.9%. Prevalence among males and females were 7.2% and 21.8%, respectively. The prevalence of goiter was highest among adolescents. Estimation of iodine content in the salt sample revealed that 50% of samples had adequate iodine content (>/=15 ppm). Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis revealed that females of the age group 10-49 years were independently associated with goiter. Prevalence of goiter was relatively high and therefore constituted a public health problem in this region.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Indian Journal of Community Medicine
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    • "It also indicates continued though inadequate efforts of ensuring a supply of iodized salt to the population. Different median urinary iodine levels were reported by different authors indicating deficiency or no deficiency of iodine in respective populations in their areas (Kapil et al., 2005; Chandra et al., 2008, 2005; Shankar et al., 2006; Chandra et al., 2005 "
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    ABSTRACT: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. Narmada district is a tribal area. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goitre in primary school children; to determine median urinary iodine concentration; to assess level of iodine in salt samples at household and retail shop level; and to study profile of salt sold at retail shops in Narmada district, Gujarat. 30 cluster survey method was used for the study in primary schools of Narmada District. Children studying in 1 st to 7 th standard were used in this study. A total of 70 students including five boys and five girls from 1 st to 7 th standard present in class on the day of visit were selected randomly for Goitre examination, so, total 2100 students were examined in schools. Urine sample was collected from one boy & one girl from each standard in each cluster. From community, at least 28 students including two boys and two girls from each standard in same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. So, total 2100 students were examined in schools and 858 students were examined out of schools in the selected villages. From each village, one retail shop was visited and salts were purchased and tested for iodine on the spot with spot kit. Goitre prevalence was found 18.1% among primary school children including grade 1 -12.4% and grade 2 -5.7%. As the age increases the Goitre prevalence also increases except in the age group of 9 years. Median urinary iodine excretion level was found 110 µg/L. Iodine level >15 ppm was found in 93.7% salt samples tested at household level. Present study showed mild Goitre prevalence in primary school children in Narmada District of Gujarat and iodine content of salt found adequate at household level.
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