An open trial of paroxetine for the “offensive subtype” of Taijin Kyofusho and social anxiety disorder

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan.
Depression and Anxiety (Impact Factor: 4.41). 01/2006; 23(3):168-74. DOI: 10.1002/da.20153
Source: PubMed


The taijin kyofusho (TKS) offensive subtype is thought to be a culture-bound syndrome similar to social anxiety disorder (SAD). In Western countries, such patients would be diagnosed as having delusional disorder, somatic subtype, or body dysmorphic disorder. Recently, open trials for the TKS offensive subtype and a randomized controlled trial for body dysmorphic disorder demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might be as effective in TKS as in SAD. This study investigated the efficacy of the SSRI paroxetine in patients with the TKS offensive subtype, both on anxiety and fears, as well as insight. This study was a 12-week open trial using paroxetine in 22 patients with TKS. Subjects were diagnosed based on the original diagnostic criteria for the TKS offensive subtype. Insight regarding TKS symptoms was assessed by the 11th supplement subscale "Insight into obsessions and compulsions" of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and the Interpersonal Distrust subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were also administered. Offensive anxiety was assessed by the original TKS offensive anxiety subscale (0-3 points). The primary efficacy variable was the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) global improvement item. Nineteen patients completed the study. Forty-seven percent (9/19) were responders to the drug treatment (scoring 2 or less on the CGI). Last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis (N=22) demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in LSAS total score and offensive anxiety in TKS, and the insight scale score of the Y-BOCS also significantly improved. Interpersonal distrust showed a trend toward improvement.

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    • "An argument for this hypothesis is that Essau et al. (2011) found a strong correlation (r = 0.74) between TKS and the Fear of Negative Evaluation. They and others also suggest that TKS may be a variant of social interaction anxiety or that these different forms of social anxiety represent a single higher order entity (Lee and Oh, 1999; Nakamura et al., 2002; Nagata et al., 2006). If indeed TKS is found across many cultures (probably mediated by cultural variables such as interdependent self-construal), and is another form of social anxiety, offensive social fears should be included in the DSM-V criteria for social anxiety disorder. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. Method: 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears. Results: TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms. Discussion: TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    • "Others have classified TKS into four phobic subtypes based on the content of the fears: blushing, deformed body, eye-to-eye contact, and one's own foul body odor [Suzuki et al., 2003]. A more widely accepted approach that also reconciles TKS more closely with DSM-IV describes two subtypes: a ''neurotic'' or ''typical'' subtype and an ''offensive'' subtype [Nagata et al., 2006; Seedat and Nagata, 2004; Yamashita, 2002]. The neurotic subtype has many similarities to DSM-IV social anxiety disorder (SAD) [Nakao, 1995]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Taijin-Kyofu-Sho (TKS), an East Asian syndrome of interpersonal fear and avoidance, that has been considered culture-bound, overlaps with social anxiety disorder to an unknown extent. The offensive subtype of TKS is characterized by two features considered atypical of social anxiety disorder: the belief that one displays physical defects and/or socially inappropriate behaviors (offensive TKS symptoms) and fear of offending others (allocentric focus), but no studies have systematically evaluated these two features in patients with social anxiety disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess offensive TKS symptoms and allocentric focus of fear in US (n = 181) and Korean (n = 64) patients with DSM-IV social anxiety disorder, using the newly developed TKS Questionnaire. Seventy-five percent of patients with social anxiety disorder in the US and Korea endorsed at least one of the five offensive TKS symptoms surveyed. The severity of features of offensive TKS was significantly associated with severity of social anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and disability in both samples. These results suggest that features of the offensive subtype of TKS are not uncommon among US patients with social anxiety disorder and may not be as culturally specific as previously believed. They also suggest that Western clinicians should assess patients with social anxiety for features of offensive TKS, and they support further consideration of integrating TKS features into conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Depression and Anxiety
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    ABSTRACT: Multiply and accumulate are the two basic operations for FFT and digital filtering algorithms. In high-speed applications, the multiplier is crucial to the performance. The multiplier requires either large chip area if parallel implementation is used or large amount of time if serial architecture is used. In this paper, the design of basic FFT arithmetic element and FIR filters using barrel shifters and accumulators (BSAC) to perform the multiplications is proposed and studied. The resulting architecture is completely programmable and allows the use of variable number of basic cells for each coefficient. The throughput rate of such an architecture is determined only by the delay in a single cell and hence can be of the order of 100 MHz or higher.
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