Hallucinogen-like actions of 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine in mice and rats

Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.78). 02/2006; 83(1):122-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2005.12.015
Source: PubMed


Few studies have examined the effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) in vivo. In these studies, 5-MeO-DIPT was tested in a drug-elicited head twitch assay in mice where it was compared to the structurally similar hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (N,N-DMT) and challenged with the selective serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist M100907, and in a lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) discrimination assay in rats where its subjective effects were challenged with M100907 or the 5-HT 1A selective antagonist WAY-100635. Finally, the affinity of 5-MeO-DIPT for three distinct 5-HT receptors was determined in rat brain. 5-MeO-DIPT, but not N,N-DMT, induced the head twitch responses in the mouse, and this effect was potently antagonized by prior administration of M100907. In rats trained with LSD as a discriminative stimulus, there was an intermediate degree (75%) of generalization to 5-MeO-DIPT and a dose-dependent suppression of response rates. These interoceptive effects were abolished by M100907, but were not significantly attenuated by WAY-100635. Finally, 5-MeO-DIPT had micromolar affinity for 5-HT 2A and 5-HT 2C receptors, but much higher affinity for 5-HT 1A receptors. 5-MeO-DIPT is thus effective in two rodent models of 5-HT2 agonist activity, and has affinity at receptors relevant to hallucinogen effects. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonizes the behavioral actions of this compound, coupled with the lack of significant antagonist effects of WAY-100635, strongly suggests that the 5-HT 2A receptor is an important site of action for 5-MeO-DIPT, despite its apparent in vitro selectivity for the 5-HT 1A receptor.

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Available from: William E Fantegrossi, Aug 14, 2014
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    • "It is important to note that although M100907 is highly selective for the 5-HT 2A receptor, it does have modest affinity for 5-HT 2C and α 1 -adrenergic receptors (Kehne et al. 1996). The dose of M100907 that was used to reverse the behavioral phenotype of mGlu5 KO mice (1.0 mg/kg, SC) is relatively high compared with doses that are typically used to block 5-HT 2A receptor-induced behaviors in mice (Kehne et al. 1996; Benneyworth et al. 2005; Fantegrossi et al. 2006; Winter et al. 2005), and thus it is possible that interactions of M100907 with 5-HT 2C or α 1 adrenergic receptors may have played a role in the blockade of the mGlu5 KO phenotype. Three factors, however, indicate that the effect of M100907 is likely mediated by 5- HT 2A receptor antagonism. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have been suggested to play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, drug abuse, and depression. Because serotonergic hallucinogens increase glutamate release and mGlu receptors modulate the response to serotonin (5-HT)(2A) activation, the interactions between serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and mGlu receptors may prove to be important for our understanding of these diseases. We tested the effects of the serotonergic hallucinogen and 5-HT(2A) agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and the selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist, M100907, on locomotor activity in the mouse behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) in mGlu5 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice on a C57 background. Both male and female mGlu5 KO mice showed locomotor hyperactivity and diminished locomotor habituation compared with their WT counterparts. Similarly, the mGlu5-negative allosteric modulator 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) also increased locomotor hyperactivity, which was absent in mGlu5 KO mice. The locomotor hyperactivity in mGlu5 receptor KO mice was potentiated by DOM (0.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (SC)) and attenuated by M100907 (1.0 mg/kg, SC). M100907 (0.1 mg/kg, SC) also blocked the hyperactivity induced by MPEP. These studies demonstrated that loss of mGlu5 receptor activity either pharmacologically or through gene deletion leads to locomotor hyperactivity in mice. Additionally, the gene deletion of mGlu5 receptors increased the behavioral response to the 5-HT(2A) agonist DOM, suggesting that mGlu5 receptors either mitigate the behavioral effects of 5-HT(2A) hallucinogens or that mGlu5 KO mice show an increased sensitivity to 5-HT(2A) agonists. Taken together, these studies indicate a functional interaction between mGlu5 and 5-HT(2A) receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Psychopharmacology
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    • "Nevertheless, a partial generalization of 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus by (−)-1-(2,5- dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane [(−)-DOM] suggests that, besides the 5-HT 1A receptor, the 5-HT 2A receptor may also contribute to 5-MeO-DMT-mediated stimulus complex [45]. Interestingly, other structurally-related tryptamines including DMT and 5- MeO-DiPT also exhibit considerable binding affinities toward 5-HT 1A receptor, as well as partial or full agonistic activities against 5-HT 2A receptor [46] [47] [48] [49]. "
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    ABSTRACT: 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) belongs to a group of naturally-occurring psychoactive indolealkylamine drugs. It acts as a nonselective serotonin (5-HT) agonist and causes many physiological and behavioral changes. 5-MeO-DMT is O-demethylated by polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) to an active metabolite, bufotenine, while it is mainly inactivated through the deamination pathway mediated by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). 5-MeO-DMT is often used with MAO-A inhibitors such as harmaline. Concurrent use of harmaline reduces 5-MeO-DMT deamination metabolism and leads to a prolonged and increased exposure to the parent drug 5-MeO-DMT, as well as the active metabolite bufotenine. Harmaline, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine act agonistically on serotonergic systems and may result in hyperserotonergic effects or serotonin toxicity. Interestingly, CYP2D6 also has important contribution to harmaline metabolism, and CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism may cause considerable variability in the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and dynamics of harmaline and its interaction with 5-MeO-DMT. Therefore, this review summarizes recent findings on biotransformation, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacological actions of 5-MeO-DMT. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions between harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT, potential involvement of CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics, and risks of 5-MeO-DMT intoxication are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Current Drug Metabolism
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    • "To date, few studies have examined the relative contributions of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors to the behavioral effects of hallucinogens in mice. It has been reported that the hallucinogen-induced HTR in mice is antagonized by M100907 (Fantegrossi et al., 2005, 2006, 2008) and abolished in 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice (González-Maeso et al., 2003, 2007). Smith et al. (2003) found that DOI discrimination in mice is completely blocked by pretreatment with M100907. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although it is well established that hallucinogens act as 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists, little is known about the relative contributions of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors to the acute behavioral effects of these drugs. The behavioral pattern monitor was used to characterize the effects of the hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) on locomotor and investigatory behavior in mice. Studies were also conducted to assess the contributions of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors to the behavioral effects of DOI. DOI produced an inverted U-shaped dose-response function, with lower doses (0.625-5.0 mg/kg) increasing and higher doses (> or =10 mg/kg) decreasing locomotor activity. The increase in locomotor activity induced by 1.0 mg/kg DOI was absent in 5-HT(2A) receptor KO mice, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors. The reduction in locomotor activity produced by 10 mg/kg DOI was potentiated in 5-HT(2A) KO mice and attenuated by pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(2C/2B) antagonist SER-082. These data indicate that the decrease in locomotor activity induced by 10 mg/kg DOI is mediated by 5-HT(2C) receptors, an interpretation that is supported by the finding that the selective 5-HT(2C) agonist WAY 161,503 produces reductions in the locomotor activity that are potentiated in 5HT(2A) KO mice. These results show for the first time that 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors both contribute to the effects of DOI on locomotor activity in mice. Furthermore, these data also suggest that 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors exert opposing effects on locomotor activity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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