Article

Cyclooxygenase-2 Induction and Prostacyclin Release by Protease-activated Receptors in Endothelial Cells Require Cooperation between Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase and NF- B Pathways

Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, United Kingdom.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 05/2006; 281(17):11792-804. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M509292200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The functional significance of protease-activated receptors (PARs) in endothelial cells is largely undefined, and the intracellular consequences of their activation are poorly understood. Here, we show that the serine protease thrombin, a PAR-1-selective peptide (TFLLRN), and SLIGKV (PAR-2-selective peptide) induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression in human endothelial cells without modifying COX-1 expression. COX-2 induction was accompanied by sustained production of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, the stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin, and this was inhibited by indomethacin and the COX-2-selective inhibitor NS398. PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation rapidly activated both ERK1/2 and p38MAPK, and pharmacological blockade of MEK with either PD98059 or U0126 or of p38MAPK by SB203580 or SB202190 strongly inhibited thrombin- and SLIGKV-induced COX-2 expression and 6-keto-PGF1alpha formation. Thrombin and peptide agonists of PAR-1 and PAR-2 increased luciferase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells infected with an NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter adenovirus, and this, as well as PAR-induced 6-keto-PGF1alpha synthesis, was inhibited by co-infection with adenovirus encoding wild-type or mutated (Y42F) IkappaBalpha. Thrombin- and SLIGKV-induced COX-2 expression and 6-keto-PGF1alpha generation were markedly attenuated by the NF-kappaB inhibitor PG490 and partially inhibited by the proteasome pathway inhibitor MG-132. Activation of PAR-1 or PAR-2 promoted nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of p65-NF-kappaB, and thrombin-induced but not PAR-2-induced p65-NF-kappaB phosphorylation was reduced by inhibition of MEK or p38MAPK. Activation of PAR-4 by AYPGKF increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK without modifying NF-kappaB activation or COX-2 induction. Our data show that PAR-1 and PAR-2, but not PAR-4, are coupled with COX-2 expression and sustained endothelial production of vasculoprotective prostacyclin by mechanisms that depend on ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and IkappaBalpha-dependent NF-kappaB activation.

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    • "Our data further showed that ET-1-stimulated NF-κB transcriptional activity was significantly attenuated by blocking Gi and Gq protein-coupled ETB receptor-dependent pathways (Figure 6B), indicating that ET-1-induced activation of NF-κB is mediated through ETB receptor-dependent activation of three MAPKs cascades. These findings are consistent with recent studies indicating that COX-2 expression and prostacyclin release induced by thrombin were mediated through MAPKs and NF-κB activation in endothelial cells [16] and vascular smooth muscle cells [17] and COX-2 expression and PGE2 release induced by BK via ERK1/2 linking to NF-κB activation in astrocytes [29]. The involvement of NF-κB in ET-1-induced COX-2 expression is also consistent with previous reports indicating that ET-1-stimulated activation of NF-κB regulates expression of target genes involved in various CNS inflammatory processes [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a proinflammatory mediator and elevated in the regions of several brain injury and inflammatory diseases. The deleterious effects of ET-1 on endothelial cells may aggravate brain inflammation mediated through the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) system in various cell types. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells remain unclear. Herein we investigated the effects of ET-1 in COX-2 regulation in mouse brain microvascular endothelial (bEnd.3) cells. Results The data obtained with Western blotting, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescent staining analyses showed that ET-1-induced COX-2 expression was mediated through an ETB-dependent transcriptional activation. Engagement of Gi- and Gq-protein-coupled ETB receptors by ET-1 led to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 and then activated transcription factor NF-κB. Moreover, the data of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and promoter reporter assay demonstrated that the activated NF-κB was translocated into nucleus and bound to its corresponding binding sites in COX-2 promoter, thereby turning on COX-2 gene transcription. Finally, up-regulation of COX-2 by ET-1 promoted PGE2 release in these cells. Conclusions These results suggested that in mouse bEnd.3 cells, activation of NF-κB by ETB-dependent MAPK cascades is essential for ET-1-induced up-regulation of COX-2/PGE2 system. Understanding the mechanisms of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release regulated by ET-1/ETB system on brain microvascular endothelial cells may provide rationally therapeutic interventions for brain injury or inflammatory diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Cell Communication and Signaling
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    • "COX-2 gene expression is also regulated by the action of several transcription factors, such as NF-κB [16]–[18] and C/EBP [19]. It has been widely demonstrated that NF-κB regulates cell survival and inflammatory responses by acting, at least in part, on the two active κB binding sites described in the COX-2 promoter gene [16], [20]–[22]. Active NF-κB complexes are dimers of combinations of Rel family polypeptides (p50, p52 and p65) that respond to a wide variety of stimuli. The composition of NF-κB dimmers partially determines their biological effects by conditioning nuclear translocation and binding to the κB-regulatory elements [16], [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is down-regulated in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA). Various signal pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB and C/EBP) are involved in COX-2 regulation. To investigate the regulation of COX-2 expression through MAP-kinase pathway activation and nuclear factor translocation in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA). Fibroblasts were isolated from specimens of nasal mucosa (NM, N = 5) and nasal polyps (NP, N = 5). After IL-1β (1 ng/ml) incubation, COX-2 and phosphorylated forms of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK were measured by Western blot. MAPK's role in IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression was assessed by treating cells with ERK (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) inhibitors (0.1-10 µM) prior to IL-1β exposure. NF-κB and C/EBP nuclear translocation was measured by Western blot and TransAM® after IL-1β (10 ng/ml) exposure. No differences were observed in the MAPK phosphorylation time-course between NM and NP-AIA fibroblasts. The p38 MAPK inhibitor at 10 µM significantly reduced IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression in NM fibroblasts (85%). In NP-AIA fibroblasts the COX-2 inhibition (65%) at 1 and 10 µM was not statistically significant compared to non-treated cells. ERK and JNK inhibitors had no significant effect in either the NM or NP-AIA cultures. The effect of IL-1β on NF-κB and C/EBP subunits' nuclear translocation was similar between NM and NP-AIA fibroblasts. These results suggest that p38 MAPK is the only MAPK involved in IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. NM and NP-AIA fibroblasts have similar MAPK phosphorylation dynamics and nuclear factor translocation (NF-κB and C/EBP). COX-2 downregulation observed in AIA patients appears not to be caused by differences in MAPK dynamics or transcription factor translocation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In this process, phospholipase A2 catalyzes the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids, while COX catalyzes the conversion of AA into PGH2, which is the common precursor of all prostanoids [1,2]. Two COX isoforms have been demonstrated: COX-1, which is constitutively expressed in most tissues, regulates normal physiological responses and controls renal and vascular homeostasis; COX-2, another COX isoform, is not detectable in most normal tissues or resting cells, but its expression can be induced by various stimuli, including cytokines, endotoxin, and growth factors to produce proinflammatory PGs during inflammatory responses in several cell types including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells [3,4]. Previous studies have shown that COX-2 immunoreactivity is detected in various inflammatory tissues, including synovial macrophage and vascular cells of patients with arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is elevated and participates in the regulation of several brain inflammatory disorders. The deleterious effects of ET-1 on endothelial cells may aggravate brain inflammation mediated through the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells remain unclear. The goal of this study was to examine whether ET-1-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release were mediated through a c-Src-dependent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway in brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3 cells). The expression of COX-2 induced by ET-1 was evaluated by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. The COX-2 regulatory signaling pathways were investigated by pretreatment with pharmacological inhibitors, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and promoter activity reporter assays. Finally, we determined the PGE2 level as a marker of functional activity of COX-2 expression. First, the data showed that ET-1-induced COX-2 expression was mediated through a c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt cascade. Next, we demonstrated that ET-1 stimulated activation (phosphorylation) of c-Src/EGFR/Akt/MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2) and then activated the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) via Gq/i protein-coupled ETB receptors. The activated c-Jun/AP-1 bound to its corresponding binding sites within COX-2 promoter, thereby turning on COX-2 gene transcription. Ultimately, upregulation of COX-2 by ET-1 promoted PGE2 biosynthesis and release in bEnd.3 cells. These results demonstrate that in bEnd.3 cells, c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt and MAPKs linking to c-Jun/AP-1 cascade is essential for ET-1-induced COX-2 upregulation. Understanding the mechanisms of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release regulated by ET-1/ETB system on brain microvascular endothelial cells may provide rational therapeutic interventions for brain injury and inflammatory diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
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