HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells

ArticleinBlood 107(12):4781-9 · July 2006with26 Reads
DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-12-4818 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Establishing a CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune correlate of protection in HIV disease is crucial to the development of vaccines designed to generate cell-mediated immunity. Historically, neither the quantity nor breadth of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response has correlated conclusively with protection. Here, we assess the quality of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response by measuring 5 CD8(+) T-cell functions (degranulation, IFN-gamma, MIP-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-2) simultaneously in chronically HIV-infected individuals and elite nonprogressors. We find that the functional profile of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in progressors is limited compared to that of nonprogressors, who consistently maintain highly functional CD8(+) T cells. This limited functionality is independent of HLA type and T-cell memory phenotype, is HIV-specific rather than generalized, and is not effectively restored by therapeutic intervention. Whereas the total HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell frequency did not correlate with viral load, the frequency and proportion of the HIV-specific T-cell response with highest functionality inversely correlated with viral load in the progressors. Thus, rather than quantity or phenotype, the quality of the CD8(+) T-cell functional response serves as an immune correlate of HIV disease progression and a potential qualifying factor for evaluation of HIV vaccine efficacy.
    • "Similarly, the observed expansion of CD8β + T cells in the blood of three animals following FLUAVsw infection might indicate that also this T-cell subset was already in a maturation stage enabling a reaction to this viral infection. Multifunctional T cells have been proposed as a hallmark of protective immunity [18,26,27,33,34] . Performing triple-cytokine staining of in vitro restimulated PBMCs, we found that a considerable proportion of FLUAVsw-specific CD4 + T cells can be activated to produce two or three of the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL- 2 simultaneously. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although swine are natural hosts for influenza A viruses, the porcine T-cell response to swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) infection has been poorly characterized so far. We have studied Ki-67 expression and FLUAVsw-specific production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8β+ T cells isolated from piglets that had been intratracheally infected with a H1N2 FLUAVsw isolate. IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-2+ multifunctional CD4+ T cells were present in the blood of all infected animals at one or two weeks after primary infection and their frequency increased in four out of six animals after homologous secondary infection. These cells produced higher amounts of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 than did CD4+ T cells that only produced a single cytokine. The vast majority of cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells expressed CD8α, a marker associated with activation and memory formation in porcine CD4+ T cells. Analysis of CD27 expression suggested that FLUAVsw-specific CD4+ T cells included both central memory and effector memory populations. Three out of six animals showed a strong increase of Ki-67+perforin+ CD8β+ T cells in blood one week post infection. Blood-derived FLUAVsw-specific CD8β+ T cells could be identified after an in vitro expansion phase and were multifunctional in terms of CD107a expression and co-production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. These data show that multifunctional T cells are generated in response to FLUAVsw infection of pigs, supporting the idea that T cells contribute to the efficient control of infection.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Veterinary Research
    • "Very similar functional patterns were observed for both epitopes: 65% of baseline specific T cells exhibited >1 function and almost 20% exhibited triple IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CD107a expression following stimulation (Figure 3B). These proportions are consistent with functional profiles of HIV viremic controllers who exhibit broader CD8 T-cell functionality than viremic progressors [7]. During virus rebound (day 21), the proportion of single positive, largely IFN-γ or CD107a positive, cells increased in both the TL9-and LY9-specific populations by around 3-fold. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Emerging data relating to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cure suggest that vaccination to stimulate the host immune response, particularly cytotoxic cells, may be critical to clearing of reactivated HIV-1-infected cells. However, evidence for this approach in humans is lacking, and parameters required for a vaccine are unknown because opportunities to study HIV-1 reactivation are rare. Methods: We present observations from a HIV-1 elite controller, not treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, who experienced viral reactivation following treatment for myeloma with melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. Mathematical modeling was performed using a standard viral dynamic model. Enzyme-linked immunospot, intracellular cytokine staining, and tetramer staining were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells; in vitro CD8 T-cell-mediated control of virion production by autologous CD4 T cells was quantified; and neutralizing antibody titers were measured. Results: Viral rebound was measured at 28,000 copies/mL on day 13 post-transplant before rapid decay to <50 copies/mL in 2 distinct phases with t1/2 of 0.71 days and 4.1 days. These kinetics were consistent with an expansion of cytotoxic effector cells and killing of productively infected CD4 T cells. Following transplantation, innate immune cells, including natural killer cells, recovered with virus rebound. However, most striking was the expansion of highly functional HIV-1-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells, at numbers consistent with those applied in modeling, as virus control was regained. Conclusions: These observations provide evidence that the human immune response is capable of controlling coordinated global HIV-1 reactivation, remarkably with potency equivalent to combination antiretroviral therapy. These data will inform design of vaccines for use in HIV-1 curative interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
    • "Similarly, the observed expansion of CD8β + T cells in the blood of three animals following FLUAVsw infection might indicate that also this T-cell subset was already in a maturation stage enabling a reaction to this viral infection. Multifunctional T cells have been proposed as a hallmark of protective immunity [18,26,27,33,34] . Performing triple-cytokine staining of in vitro restimulated PBMCs, we found that a considerable proportion of FLUAVsw-specific CD4 + T cells can be activated to produce two or three of the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL- 2 simultaneously. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although swine are natural hosts for influenza A viruses, the porcine T-cell response to swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) infection has been poorly characterized so far. We have studied Ki-67 expression and FLUAVsw-specific production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8β+ T cells isolated from piglets that had been intratracheally infected with a H1N2 FLUAVsw isolate. IFN-γ+TNF-α+IL-2+ multifunctional CD4+ T cells were present in the blood of all infected animals at one or two weeks after primary infection and their frequency increased in four out of six animals after homologous secondary infection. These cells produced higher amounts of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 than did CD4+ T cells that only produced a single cytokine. The vast majority of cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells expressed CD8α, a marker associated with activation and memory formation in porcine CD4+ T cells. Analysis of CD27 expression suggested that FLUAVsw-specific CD4+ T cells included both central memory and effector memory populations. Three out of six animals showed a strong increase of Ki-67+perforin+ CD8β+ T cells in blood one week post infection. Blood-derived FLUAVsw-specific CD8β+ T cells could be identified after an in vitro expansion phase and were multifunctional in terms of CD107a expression and co-production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. These data show that multifunctional T cells are generated in response to FLUAVsw infection of pigs, supporting the idea that T cells contribute to the efficient control of infection. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0182-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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