Mapping Brain Maturation

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, 635 Charles E. Young Drive South, Suite 225, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7332, USA.
Trends in Neurosciences (Impact Factor: 13.56). 04/2006; 29(3):148-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2006.01.007
Source: PubMed


Human brain maturation is a complex, lifelong process that can now be examined in detail using neuroimaging techniques. Ongoing projects scan subjects longitudinally with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling the time-course and anatomical sequence of development to be reconstructed. Here, we review recent progress on imaging studies of development. We focus on cortical and subcortical changes observed in healthy children, and contrast them with abnormal developmental changes in early-onset schizophrenia, fetal alcohol syndrome, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Williams syndrome. We relate these structural changes to the cellular processes that underlie them, and to cognitive and behavioral changes occurring throughout childhood and adolescence.

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Available from: Paul Thompson, Nov 20, 2015
    • "During the " pruning " years (Feinberg 1974; Huttenlocher 1979; Chugani et al. 1987; Feinberg et al. 1990; Chugani 1998), white matter volume expands and does so into early adulthood (in vivo: Giedd et al. 1999; Colby et al. 2011; Pfefferbaum et al. 2013) ( postmortem: Yakovlev and Lecours 1967). Underlying this complementary pattern of gray matter and white matter volume dynamics are regional differences in the timing of these changes (Bava et al. 2010; Raznahan et al. 2010) (for review, Toga et al. 2006; Stiles and Jernigan 2010; Giedd et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Brain structural development continues throughout adolescence, when experimentation with alcohol is often initiated. To parse contributions from biological and environmental factors on neurodevelopment, this study used baseline National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, acquired in 674 adolescents meeting no/low alcohol or drug use criteria and 134 adolescents exceeding criteria. Spatial integrity of images across the 5 recruitment sites was assured by morphological scaling using Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative phantom-derived volume scalar metrics. Clinical MRI readings identified structural anomalies in 11.4%. Cortical volume and thickness were smaller and white matter volumes were larger in older than in younger adolescents. Effects of sex (male > female) and ethnicity (majority > minority) were significant for volume and surface but minimal for cortical thickness. Adjusting volume and area for supratentorial volume attenuated or removed sex and ethnicity effects. That cortical thickness showed age-related decline and was unrelated to supratentorial volume is consistent with the radial unit hypothesis, suggesting a universal neural development characteristic robust to sex and ethnicity. Comparison of NCANDA with PING data revealed similar but flatter, age-related declines in cortical volumes and thickness. Smaller, thinner frontal, and temporal cortices in the exceeds-criteria than no/low-drinking group suggested untoward effects of excessive alcohol consumption on brain structural development.
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    • "The atlas can be useful for most MRI studies within the cognitive neurosciences because it is based on healthy young participants [16] [17]. However, users should be cautious applying this atlas to other age groups including elderly participants because of increased anatomical variability across the adult lifespan [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A common localization procedure in functional imaging studies includes the overlay of statistical parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps or coordinates with neuroanato-mical atlases in standard space, e.g., MNI-space. This procedure allows the identification of specific brain regions. Most standard MRI software packages include a wide range of atlases but have a poor coverage of the subcortex. We estimated that approximately 7% of the known subcortical structures are mapped in standard MRI-compatible atlases [1]. Here we provide a data description of a subcortical probabilistic atlas based on ultra-high resolution in-vivo anatomical imaging using 7 T (T) MRI. The atlas includes six subcortical nuclei: the striatum (STR), the globus pallidus internal and external segment (GPi/e), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the substantia nigra (SN), and the red nucleus (RN). These probabilistic atlases are shared on freely available platforms such as NITRC and NeuroVault and are published in NeuroImage " Quantifying inter-individual anatomical variability in the subcortex using 7 T structural MRI " [2].
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "The effect of nutrition on cognitive development of children has been studied in different parts of the world. Toga et al (2006) stated that cognitive structure in a child comes out through the interaction between the brain and the environment over the course of the development. In the initial stages of the development of neural system in the foetus the physical characteristics of the brain are determined by genetic factors but immediately. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study on verbal and performance intelligence based on nutritional status of 135 Lambani community school children was conducted at Hoovinahadagali Taluk, Bellary district during 2012-13. The children of 9-11 years of age studying in 4 th and 5 th standards were randomly selected from 5 government primary schools. Nutritional status was assessed through height and weight of students and academic achievement through previous year grades. Further the intelligence was assessed through WISC-III (Wechsler intelligence test for school children).The results revealed that there was highly significant differences in mean height and weight of children with respect to NCHS (national council for health statistics) norm values. It was noted that nutritional status was positively and highly significantly correlated and associated with intelligence quotient of school children. Among 75 Lambani children 40 per cent possessed normal nutritional category and 60 per cent exhibited other category of malnutrition (wasted, stunted, wasted and stunted). The total mean score of verbal intelligence was found highest (19.23+3.96) in normal children followed by 13.6+3.76 in stunted, 12.41+2.65 in wasted and 11.34+2.78 in wasted and stunted children. Normal children secured highest performance intelligence mean score (30.3+16.31) followed by stunted (21.91+16.60), wasted and stunted (17.7+15.68) and wasted (16.78+15.08) group of children. There was significant difference observed between the groups in each sub-test of verbal and performance intelligence which indicates that normal children performed better than malnourished children.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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