ArticleLiterature Review

Groups as Epistemic Providers: Need for Closure and the Unfolding of Group-Centrism

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Abstract

Theory and research are presented relating the need for cognitive closure to major facets of group behavior. It is suggested that a high need for closure, whether it is based on members' disposition or the situation, contributes to the emergence of a behavioral syndrome describable as group-centrism--a pattern that includes pressures to opinion uniformity, encouragement of autocratic leadership, in-group favoritism, rejection of deviates, resistance to change, conservatism, and the perpetuation of group norms. These theoretical predictions are borne out by laboratory and field research in diverse settings.

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... This, in turn, should affect how they respond to both newcomers and other members. Consistent with this argument, high NFC individuals are particularly motivated to reject ideas that deviate from group consensus and to embrace ideas that uphold this consensus, a phenomenon labeled "group-centrism" (Kruglanski et al., 2006). These tendencies reflect group members' motivation to perceive a strong shared reality that validates their opinions and beliefs about the world (Higgins, 2019;Mannetti et al., 2010). ...
... Several studies Pica et al., 2021; have shown that high NFC individuals who are confident in their ability in a particular domain give little credence to external sources who disagree with them. In the case of groups, this response reflects group-centrism and the need for a firm and reassuring shared reality (Kruglanski et al., 2006). Therefore, we expected that high NFC individuals who receive support for their position from a high EA group will exhibit less shift toward the newcomer's position than will high NFC individuals from a low EA group regardless of the newcomer's EA. ...
... On the other hand, in situations in which high NFC individuals are not confident in their expertise, prior research indicates that they sometimes utilize external sources in seeking to achieve closure (Kruglanski et al., , 2006(Kruglanski et al., , 2009Pica et al., 2021;. In line with these findings, we expected that high NFC individuals in a low EA (but not a high EA) group will be more receptive to the innovative ideas of a high EA than a low EA newcomer, thereby exhibiting the seizing effect (Kruglanski & Webster, 1996). ...
Article
New members are important sources of innovative perspectives in groups. However, it can be very difficult for newcomers’ ideas to be heard. It is likely that group members with high (vs. low) levels of need for closure (NFC) are more resistant to newcomers’ innovative ideas. Moreover, when group epistemic authority (EA) is high, members should “freeze” on the group’s ideas, regardless of the newcomer’s EA. In contrast, when group EA is low, members would be expected to “seize” the ideas proposed by newcomers with high EA. Study 1 confirmed that high (vs. low) NFC group members are more resistant to newcomers’ innovative ideas. In Study 2, in high NFC groups, evidence was obtained for seizing but not freezing. In Study 3, for group members with heightened NFC, both freezing and seizing results were obtained. Findings suggest that both NFC and EA play important roles in receptivity to newcomers’ ideas.
... Presumably, communicators do not regard just any person to be an appropriate partner with whom to share inner states. As suggested by research on social comparison (e.g., Suls, Martin, & Wheeler, 2002) and group-anchored knowledge (e.g., Festinger, 1950;Kruglanski et al., 2006), individuals regard others who possess certain qualities, such as sufficient similarity and trustworthiness, as more appropriate partners with whom to share reality than others who lack these qualities. Among these qualities, membership in a perceiver's ingroup (versus outgroup) is likely to be particularly important. ...
... Group research suggests that contact with members of one's in-group is rewarding because it fulfills various motives (Yzerbyt, Castano, Leyens, & Paladino, 2000), including fundamental epistemic motives (e.g., Hogg, 2007;Kruglanski et al., 2006) and relational needs (see Fiske, 2007;Levine & Kerr, 2007). Thus, people should be less motivated to create a shared reality with outgroup members than they are with ingroup members. ...
... These findings support the idea that the creation of a shared reality as a function of message tuning depends on the strength of epistemic motives. Additional evidence for greater social sharing under high uncertainty has also been obtained with other paradigms (e.g., Fu et al., 2007;Kruglanski et al., 2006;Lun, Sinclair, Whitchurch, & Glenn, 2007). ...
Article
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Humans have a fundamental need to experience a shared reality with others. We present a new conceptualization of shared reality based on four conditions. We posit (a) that shared reality involves a (subjectively perceived) commonality of individuals' inner states (not just observable behaviors); (b) that shared reality is about some target referent; (c) that for a shared reality to occur, the commonality of inner states must be appropriately motivated; and (d) that shared reality involves the experience of a successful connection to other people's inner states. In reviewing relevant evidence, we emphasize research on the saying-is-believing effect, which illustrates the creation of shared reality in interpersonal communication. We discuss why shared reality provides a better explanation of the findings from saying-is-believing studies than do other formulations. Finally, we examine relations between our conceptualization of shared reality and related constructs (including empathy, perspective taking, theory of mind, common ground, embodied synchrony, and socially distributed knowledge) and indicate how our approach may promote a comprehensive and differentiated understanding of social-sharing phenomena.
... This can have two consequences. First, under environmental threat and unpredictability people form more cohesive groups [34][35][36][37][38] and increase their cooperative contribution to group survival and prosperity [39][40][41]. Second, and partly because of increased group cohesion and interdependency, group members distance themselves from other groups [36,37,42,43]. ...
... First, under environmental threat and unpredictability people form more cohesive groups [34][35][36][37][38] and increase their cooperative contribution to group survival and prosperity [39][40][41]. Second, and partly because of increased group cohesion and interdependency, group members distance themselves from other groups [36,37,42,43]. Alone and in combination, these processes would lead to in-group bounded, parochial cooperation that serves the ingroup and prevents the consumption of resources by members of other groups [9,30,44,45]. ...
... A possible concern with Experiment 1 is that all members in one group faced the same level of unpredictability. This shared common fate may in itself create and increase group cohesion [35][36][37][38]. Accordingly, it may be shared common fate rather than unpredictable environments that led to increased parochialism and out-group aggression. ...
Article
Peaceful coexistence and trade among human groups can be fragile and intergroup relations frequently transition to violent exchange and conflict. Here we specify how exogenous changes in groups' environment and ensuing carrying-capacity stress can increase individual participation in intergroup conflict, and out-group aggression in particular. In two intergroup contest experiments, individuals could contribute private resources to out-group aggression (versus in-group defense). Environmental unpredictability, induced by making non-invested resources subject to risk of destruction (versus not), created psychological stress and increased participation in and coordination of out-group attacks. Archival analyses of interstate conflicts showed, likewise, that sovereign states engage in revisionist warfare more when their pre-conflict economic and climatic environment were more volatile and unpredictable. Given that participation in conflict is wasteful, environmental unpredictability not only made groups more often victorious but also less wealthy. Macro-level changes in the natural and economic environment can be a root cause of out-group aggression and turn benign intergroup relations violent. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Intergroup conflict across taxa’.
... In addition, it was found that high NCC is associated within-group favoritism (Golec & Federico, 2004;Kruglanski et al., 2002;Shah et al., 1998) and endorsement of moral standards that guarantee ingroup norms, order, loyalty, stability, and well-defined roles, which reflect so-called binding moral foundations that also have a determining role in prejudice toward outgroups (Baldner & Pierro, 2018Federico et al., 2016;Forsberg et al., 2018;Kruglanski et al., 2002Kruglanski et al., , 2006. Below we explain the role of moral foundations and how these may add to the relationship between uncertainty and prejudice against migrants. ...
... Since individuals under high NCC have been found to have a greater affinity toward their own ingroup (Golec & Federico, 2004;Kruglanski et al., 2002) and are more inclined to rely on the consensus of their in-group to guide them (Kruglanski et al., 2006), we argue that NCC increases binding moral foundations, which in turn increase prejudice against migrants. Binding moral foundations refer to norms and regulations defined by the in-groups (e.g., family, society), and as such, are sources of shared reality. ...
Article
What mitigates prejudice against migrants in situations of uncertainty? Addressing this question, we explored how individuals with greater COVID-19 concern perceive migrants as a greater threat and show prejudice against them, indirectly through the mechanism of need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations. This study was conducted in two European countries: Malta and Italy. Six hundred and seventy-six individuals participated in this quantitative study (Malta: N = 204; Italy N = 472). Results from this study showed that the need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations mediate the relationship between COVID-19 concern and prejudice against migrants in both countries. When testing the three binding moral foundations (loyalty, authority, and purity), the authority foundation seems to be the most consistent predictor. The implications of the findings contribute to theories about how situational uncertainty caused by COVID-19, together with the need for epistemic certainty and binding morality, contribute to increased prejudiced attitudes against migrants.
... Considerable theory has emerged to explain how and why consumers with a high need for closure encourages activities aimed at achieving closure and biases individual choices, preferences in the direction of closure-bound pursuits. Multiple streams of writing have produced insights into a consumer need for closure and concluded that a consumer with a high need for closure are less sensitive to alternative hypotheses (Kruglanski & Mayseless, 1988), avoid the information that is inconsistent with their set beliefs (Shavitt, 1989a(Shavitt, , 1989b, is likely to make up the decision based on a few pieces of existing information (Houghton & Grewal, 2000), consider less evidence and focus selectively on belief-consistent information and neglect belief-inconsistent information (Kardes et al., 2004), are willing to pay more for products (Cronley et al., 2005), and are more resistant to change (Kruglanski et al., 2006). Current theory, however, has little to say about the shifting nature of the consumers need for cognitive closure impacted by pandemic. ...
... Several studies have emphasized the role of demographic variables on cognitive closure. Need for closure is the individual need to find a clear answer and avoid ambiguity and is associated with pressures to uniformity and resistance to change (Kruglanski et al., 2006). The individual characteristic need can be identified by various demographic variables like age, gender, race, education and income. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of the pandemic, perceived risk, and cognitive dissonance on the need for cognitive closure. A consumer today wants an aversion towards the ambiguity that is created due to this pandemic. The data is collected using Amazon's Mechanical Turk panel. All of the filled questionnaires are analyzed using stepwise regression. The findings suggest that perceived risk, pandemic, and cognitive dissonance influence the need for cognitive closure, and perceived risk is the major predictor of cognitive closure. These results enrich our understandings with regards to the importance of designing the marketing strategies in a way that will lead to the reduction in the consumer perceived risk and cognitive dissonance created due to the pandemic.
... Conservatives may be more concerned with maintaining stringent categorical boundaries (Jost et al., 2003) or expend less energy individuating others and think more categorically (Pacini & Epstein, 1999). A study by Kruglanski et al. (2006) found that conservatives were more likely to seek out cognitive closure and preferred simple, unambiguous answers to questions. By contrast, liberals were more likely to prolong cognitive closure and consider alternate viewpoints and perspectives when making social judgements (Jost, 2017;Mccrae & Costa, 1997;Sparkman & Eidelman, 2016). ...
... The first explanation posited that conservatives and liberals mentally represented multiracials differently. This possibility was grounded in research showing that memory of multiracial faces differed according to essentialist beliefs and racial bias (Chen et al., 2014;Krosch et al., 2013), as well as work showing that conservatives and liberals differed in their responses to ambiguity (Kruglanski et al., 2006) and category maintenance (Jost et al., 2003). Across two studies, we showed that Harris was perceptually distinct from both Black and Indian individuals and that this was true regardless of perceivers' political orientation. ...
Article
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The 2020 US Presidential election was historic in that it featured the first woman of color, Kamala Harris, on a major‐party ticket. Although Harris identifies as Black, her racial identity was widely scrutinized throughout the election, due to her mixed‐race ancestry. Moreover, media coverage of Harris's racial identity appeared to vary based on that news outlet's political leaning and sometimes had prejudicial undertones. The current research investigated racial categorization of Harris and the role that political orientation and anti‐Black prejudice might play in shaping these categorizations. Studies 1 and 2 tested the possibility that conservatives and liberals might mentally represent Harris differently, which we hypothesized would lead the two groups to differ in how they categorized her race. Contrary to our prediction, conservatives, and liberals mentally represented Harris similarly. Also surprising were the explicit racial categorization data. Conservatives labeled Harris as White more than liberals, who tended to categorize Harris as multiracial. This pattern was explained by anti‐Black prejudice. Study 3 examined a potential political motivation that might explain this finding. We found that conservatives, more than liberals, judge having a non‐White candidate on a Democratic ballot as an asset, which may lead conservatives to deny non‐White candidates these identities.
... In lay epistemic theory, the epistemic authority of a source is defined as the degree to which an individual is willing to rely on the information and opinion it provides and considers them as veridical. As such, epistemic authority is related to the concept of source credibility and is assumed to be superior to expertise for deriving valid judgments (Kruglanski, Dechesne, Orehek, & Pierro, 2009;Kruglanski, Pierro, Mannetti, & de Grada, 2006). Group norms and consensus among in-group members are considered to provide epistemic authority for the individual (Shah et al., 1998). ...
... An important finding of empiric tests of the epistemic-social-tuning hypothesis is that individuals tune inner states to a communication partner's 190 5. 1. Hypotheses opinion about the target referent to the extent that they perceive him as epistemically trustworthy (e.g., Echterhoff et al., 2005;Echterhoff et al., 2008;Echterhoff et al., 2009b;Kopietz et al., 2009) or as an expert in the field of the target referent . While the latter is based on knowledge and familiarity with the respective subject matter, epistemic trust emerges from similarity and likability (Kruglanski et al., 2009;Kruglanski et al., 2006). Hence, previous studies found epistemic trust to be higher in communicators who are considered members of one's in-group than members of an out-group (e.g., Echterhoff et al., 2005;Echterhoff et al., 2008;Echterhoff et al., 2009b;Kopietz et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
Social networking sites have become an online realm where users are exposed to news about current affairs. People mainly encounter news incidentally because they are re-distributed by users whom they befriended or follow on social media platforms. In my dissertation project, I draw on shared reality theory in order to examine the question of how the relationship to the news endorser, the person who shares news content, determines social influence on opinion formation about shared news. The shared reality theory posits that people strive to achieve socially shared beliefs about any object and topic because of the fundamental epistemic need to establish what is real. Social verification of beliefs in interpersonal communication renders uncertain and ambiguous individual perceptions as valid and objectively true. However, reliable social verification may be provided only by others who are regarded as epistemic authority, in other words as someone whose judgment one can trust. People assign epistemic authority particularly to socially close others, such as friends and family, or to members of their in-group. I inferred from this that people should be influenced by the view of a socially close news endorser when forming an opinion about shared news content but not by the view of a socially distant news endorser. In Study 1, a laboratory experiment (N = 226), I manipulated a female news endorser’s social closeness by presenting her as an in-group or out-group member. Participants’ opinion and memory of a news article were not affected by the news endorser’s opinion in either of the conditions. I concluded that the news article did not elicit motivation to strive for shared reality because participants were confident about their own judgment. Therefore, they did not rely on the news endorser’s view when forming an opinion about the news topic. Moreover, the results revealed that participants had stronger trust in the news endorser when she expressed a positive (vs. negative) opinion about the news topic, while social closeness to the news endorser did not predict trust. On the one hand, this is in line with the social norm of sharing positive thoughts and experiences on social networking sites: adherence to the positivity norm results in more favorable social ratings. On the other hand, my findings indicate that participants generally had a positive opinion about the topic of the stimulus article and thus had more trust in news endorsers who expressed a similar opinion. In Study 2, an online experiment (N = 1, 116), I exposed participants to a news post by a relational close vs. relational distant news endorser by having them name a close or distant actual Facebook friend. There was a small influence of the news endorser’s opinion on participants’ thought and opinion valence irrespective of whether the news endorser was a close or distant friend. The finding was surprising, particularly because participants reported stronger trust in the view of the close friend than in the view of a distant friend. I concluded that in light of an ambiguity eliciting news article, people may even rely on the views of less trustworthy news endorsers in order to establish a socially shared and, therefore, valid opinion about a news topic. Drawing on shared reality theory, I hypothesized that social influence on opinion formation is mediated by news endorser congruent responses to a news post. The results indicated a tendency for the proposed indirect relation however, the effect size was small and the sample in Study 2 was not large enough to provide the necessary statistical power to detect the mediation. In conclusion, the results of my empirical studies provide first insights regarding the conditions under which a single news endorser influences opinion formation about news shared on social networking sites. I found limited support for shared reality creation as underlying mechanism of such social influence. Thus, my work contributes to the understanding of social influence on news perception happening in social networking sites and proposes theoretical refinements to shared reality theory. I suggest that future research should focus on the role of social and affiliative motivation for social influences on opinion formation about news shared on social networking sites.
... Several studies have highlighted the importance of adaptation to change in understanding the emergence and maintenance of prejudice (Dhont & Hodson, 2014;Roets & Van Hiel, 2011;Stern & Axt, 2021). In addition, RWA is typically linked with Need for Closure, defined as the motivation to have a definite answer or knowledge instead of uncertainty or doubts about the social environment, and can therefore be linked to a stronger 'primacy effect' (i.e., higher levels of RWA are associated with a better memory for the first items on a list as compared to the last items; Jost et al., 2003;Kruglanski et al., 2006). ...
... In addi tion, the greater conditioning for positive stimuli that we observed in the conditioning phase may be consistent with an enhanced Need for Closure in high RWA scorers (Napier & Jost, 2008). Indeed, more conservative participants tend to prefer very simple things that quickly satisfy their needs with a minimum of ambiguity (Kruglanski et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Right Wing Authoritarianism (i.e., RWA) is associated with enhanced conservatism and social prejudice. Because research linking RWA to attitudes is largely correlational (i.e., it provides control for neither RWA nor attitude learning), it is not clear how RWA relates to attitude learning dynamics. We addressed this question in 11 evaluative conditioning experiments that ensured rigorous control of the affective learning setting. Results from two integrative data analyses suggest that (i) individuals scoring higher in RWA show a stronger acquisition of positive attitudes, and that (ii) the residuals of this stronger acquisition remain even after exposure to counter-attitudinal information. Implications of these findings for research on RWA and its link to social prejudice are discussed.
... Networks jealously guard their narratives and protect their fundamental (sacred) values. They reject those who stray from the consensus (Allen & Levine, 1968Kruglanski et al., 2006;Kruglanski & Webster, 1991;Schachter, 1951), "rally around the flag" when their narrative is challenged (Allen, 1975;Moscovici, 1985), and/or develop mechanisms designed to isolate them from potential challenges (Bittner, 1963;Coser, 1954Coser, , 1967Kanter, 1968;Wilson, 1959aWilson, , 1959b. ...
... It is of interest to point out that the need, narrative, and network elements are only partially independent. Specifically, individual characteristics (e.g., need for cognitive closure, self-uncertainty) may attune individuals to particular (e.g., "black and white) narratives" (see Jost et al., 2003) and predispose them to join particular networks (Hogg, 2012;Kruglanski et al., 2006). ...
Article
Even though the motivation to feel worthy, to be respected, and to matter to others has been identified for centuries by scholars, the antecedents, consequences, and conditions of its activation have not been systematically analyzed or integrated. The purpose of this article is to offer such an integration. We feature a motivational construct, the quest for significance, defined as the need to have social worth. This need is typically fulfilled by a sense of measuring up to the values one shares with significant others. Our significance-quest theory (SQT) assumes that the need for significance is universal, whereas the means of satisfying it depend on the sociocultural context in which one’s values are embedded. Those means are identified in a narrative supported and validated by one’s network, or reference group. The quest for significance is activated by significance loss and/or the opportunity for significance gain. It motivates behavior that aims to affirm, realize, and/or show commitment to an important value. The SQT is consistent with large bodies of prior research and supported by novel studies in multiple laboratory and field settings. It transcends prior understandings and offers guidance for further study of this essential human motivation.
... The construct represents a motivational tendency whose magnitude is determined by the benefits and costs of closure relative to the benefits and costs of non-closure (Roets et al., 2015). Thus, it is possible to understand NFC as the desire of individuals to seek and maintain an answer to a problem (Kruglanski et al., 2006). ...
... Need for cognitive closure is an individual construct that determines how people obtain and transmit information and judgments (Kruglanski et al., 2006). In this sense, NFC represents individual differences in the desire for a quick, definitive, and stable answer to a question (Kruglanski and Fishman, 2009). ...
Article
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The need for cognitive closure is a construct postulated by Kruglanski that explains the motivational aspects which influence decision-making and its impact on the social environment. Initially, it was assessed through a unidimensional scale, later criticized for its poor satisfactory reliability and validity. Regarding these criticisms, Pierro and Kruglanski developed a new 14-item scale to measure two dimensions, which were not previously evaluated: urgency tendency and permanence tendency. Although the Revised Test of Need for Cognitive Closure is more economical in terms of assessment time, it would be optimal to develop a reduced test that can assess faster while maintaining validity and reliability. The present research aims to reduce the Revised Test of Need for Cognitive Closure scale to the Argentinian context. To this end, we worked on a non-experimental design, assessing this scale within a sample of 690 Argentinian university students (Women = 81.16%, Men = 18.84%), and proceeded to perform reliability, as well as confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, and factorial invariance analysis. The results indicate a bi-factorial structure of a Need for Cognitive Closure instrument with eight items and two dimensions: urgency tendency (α = 0.76) and permanence tendency (α = 0.64), suggesting good reliability in both of them. In addition, well convergent validity was checked with other validated instruments, and finally, the factor loadings were shown to be invariant. In conclusion, it was demonstrated the reliability and validity of reducing the Revised Test of Need for Cognitive Closure in our social environment.
... Political conservatives tend to make decisions based on sacred rhetoric and transcendent authority, rather than based on "projected numbers and plans" as liberals do (Marietta, 2009, p. 388), implying they are more concerned about traditions and group norms. Political conservatives may also exhibit a pattern for high levels of adherence to group norms, in-group preference, rejection of individuals who deviate from the group, and resistance to change within the group (Kruglanski et al., 2006). Political ideology also drives moral evaluations (Hatemi et al., 2019), especially in the context of the moral foundations theory (Graham et al., 2009). ...
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Conservatives are known to display smaller moral circles, have less empathy, and make utilitarian decisions. The present study aimed to understand the relationships between political ideology and empathetic concern (n = 513), and between ideology and moral decision-making (n = 210) in an inter-group setting, using an Indian sample. We measured trait empathetic concern and empathetic concern for the ingroup (i.e., their own religion) and outgroup (i.e., Muslims) using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and measured moral decision-making for a non-denominational group and in- and out-group using modified moral dilemmas. We found that right-leaning individuals, in terms of greater adherence to cultural norms, displayed higher levels of trait empathetic concern, as well as that for in- and outgroups; they were also more willing to sacrifice the outgroup to save multiple ingroup members in moral dilemma tasks, and thus made utilitarian moral decisions when sacrificing outgroup lives were concerned. Additionally, those leaning left, in terms of lower adherence to hierarchical structures, showed higher levels of empathetic concern for the outgroup. Implications and future avenues are discussed.
... The theory indicates that a strong desire for group-based inequality and social dominance leads to prejudice (Sidanius et al. 2004;Hodson and Dhont 2015). The need for closure theory considered as a type of the individual-level explanations demonstrates that prejudice can be caused as a result of a strong need for structure, order, and certainty in one's living environment (Kruglanski et al. 2006;Hodson and Dhont 2015). Based on the individuallevel explanations, the taste-based discrimination in employment would arise from personal dispositions or the social experiences of employers (Thijssen 2016). ...
Article
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Employment discrimination may impede disadvantaged groups' career advancement or, even worse, may hinder the groups' access to desirable jobs. Moreover, discriminatory employment practices result in a huge loss of revenue to prejudiced firms. Due to the disastrous impacts of employment discrimination on the economic climate , we seek to measure taste-based employment discrimination between women and men in the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Hungary, Peru, UK, and Uruguay. To fulfill the aim, we estimate two regression models for the female and male workforce and then analyze differences between the coefficients of the explanatory variables in the models to examine the existence of taste-based employment discrimination caused by the tastes of customers and co-workers, and employers. Results indicate that the long-run taste-based employment discrimination between women and men has existed in the countries. In addition to taste-based discrimination, if employers select their workforce on the basis of productivity, the results demonstrate that statistical discrimination can occur in the countries.
... Previous studies in team dynamics have shown that such rigorous and meaningful activities are supposed to "involve team members challenging the validity of existing beliefs and keeping the team from moving too quickly to agreement on key issues" (Bradley et al., 2012, p. 153). However, highly effectively integrated teams may put overwhelming emphasis on a harmonious atmosphere so that they would try to avoid challenges, disagreements, or "opinion-related deviants" (Kruglanski, Pierro, Mannetti, & De Grada, 2006;Tsai et al., 2012). Instead of providing critical feedback, team members are more likely to pursue conformity and show a reluctance to voice different thoughts (Ford, 1996;Tsai et al., 2012). ...
Article
Resilience has begun to receive attention in entrepreneurship research. However, most studies focus on organizational and individual resilience; little is known about team resilience in the entrepreneurship field. To fill the gap, this study explores team resilience and its formation and function in a specific context: new venture teams (NVTs). Conceptualizing team resilience as a second-order emergent state with first-order dimensions being resilience-efficacious beliefs and resilience-adaptive capacity, this study articulates the role of behavioral integration in cultivating team resilience and tests the effect of team resilience on NVT performance. Furthermore, a double-edged sword effect of affective integration is proposed: it strengthens the link between behavioral integration and team resilience but weakens the tie between team resilience and performance. Survey data collected from 488 entrepreneurs in 110 NVTs lend support to our hypotheses. These findings add to the knowledge of team resilience in a unique entrepreneurship setting, expand our understanding of NVT effectiveness, and provide implications to NVTs in terms of resilience building and team climate management.
... Compared to liberals who tend to adopt a "thinking approach" and delay coming to a conclusion (Napier & Jost, 2008), conservatives prefer simplistic, intuitive, easy-to-comprehend, and unmistakable solutions to life's mysteries (Kruglanski et al., 2006). In this regard, religious advertising, featuring a value-consistent hierarchical message (brand-as-a-servant), will signify a value system that aligns with conservatives' religious beliefs (subscriber-as-a-servant), which is simple, easy to process and make sense of. ...
Article
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We examine the anthropomorphism of brands as either a servant or a partner in religious advertising. Across five studies, we demonstrate that the impact of such anthropomorphism depends on consumers' political ideology. When exposed to religious advertisements (vs. nonreligious advertisements; Studies 1B and 1C), politically conservative consumers are more favorable toward brand‐as‐a‐servant anthropomorphism (Study 1), which arises from greater state‐based compassion (Study 2). However, this conditional preference for servant anthropomorphism only occurs for less religious consumers (Study 3). This study informs marketers regarding optimizing the effectiveness of using anthropomorphic brand images in religious advertising predicated on political ideology‐based segmentation strategies. The key takeaway is that portraying a brand as a servant is more appealing for conservative consumers who are less religious.
... Shared opinions are an important feature in the formation of social groups [34]. It has been shown that clusters of opinions become signi¯ers of group identity [11]. ...
Article
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Networks, representing attitudinal survey data, expose the structure of opinion-based groups. We make use of these network projections to identify the groups reliably through community detection algorithms and to examine social-identity-based groups. Our goal is to present a method for revealing polarization and opinion-based groups in attitudinal surveys. This method can be broken down into the following steps: data preparation, construction of similarity-based networks, algorithmic identification of opinion-based groups, and identification of important items for community structure. We assess the method’s performance and possible scope for applying it to empirical data and to a broad range of synthetic data sets. The empirical data application points out possible conclusions (i.e. social-identity polarization), whereas the synthetic data sets mark out the method’s boundaries. Next to an application example on political attitude survey, our results suggest that the method works for various surveys but is also moderated by the efficacy of the community detection algorithms. Concerning the identification of opinion-based groups, we provide a solid method to rank the item’s influence on group formation and as a group identifier. We discuss how this network approach for identifying polarization can classify non-overlapping opinion-based groups even in the absence of extreme opinions.
... From a psychological perspective, belief in conspiracy theories appears to be rooted in negative emotions, such as anxiety (Grzesiak-Feldman 2013), uncertainty (van Prooijen & Jostmann 2013), stress (Swami et al. 2016), feelings of powerlessness (Jolley & Douglas 2014a;van Prooijen 2017), and lack of control (Whitson & Galinsky 2008;Douglas, Sutton & Cichocka 2017), especially for people with an external locus of control (Hamsher, Geller & Rotter 1968). Through the simplified explanations they provide for a distressing event or threat, conspiracy theories offer people a mechanism to make sense of these events, to overcome their negative emotions, and regain a lost sense of order and control under conditions of uncertainty and fear (Hofstadter 1966;Robins & Post 1997;Kruglanski et al. 2006). Consequently, interventions that increase people's sense of control over their environment reduce conspiracy beliefs (van Prooijen & Acker 2015). ...
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This article explores factors that affect the strength of beliefs in COVID-19 conspiracy theories drawing on data collected in an online survey of undergraduate and graduate students from Romanian universities. The results indicate that students with lower socio-economic status, lower levels of news consumption in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, who rely primarily on information from television and discussions to their peers, as well as those with lower levels of education/analytical skills are more susceptible to endorsing conspiracy theories regarding the origin and the nature of COVID-19. Education, analytical skills, and exposure to high quality media information appear to equip students with the necessary tools to critically assess COVID-19-related conspiracies. Given the link between conspiracy belief and health behaviors in the context of the pandemic, these results point to the importance of analytical skills and media regulation for curbing misinformation in societal contexts of heightened uncertainty, confusion, and existential threat.
... There is the inherent propensity of limbic and amygdala activation (fear and aggression) in our advanced brain functions, which often precedes the more recent frontal cortical (logic centers) emergence in human evolution. Psychology has shown that deep inherent (and unconscious) processes in System 1 thinking provides the tendency towards cultural and racial prejudice (implicit bias), even among the most "enlightened" among us [16,10]. ...
... Jednym ze Ĩródeá odpowiedzi na owo "dlaczego?" -dlaczego coĞ robiü, angaĪowaü siĊ, dziaáaü -są grupy spoáeczne, z którymi siĊ identyfikujemy (Kruglanski, Pierro, Mannetti, De Grada, 2006). Wielu psychologów podkre-Ğlaáo, Īe silne przywiązanie do wartoĞci i Ğwiatopoglądów wspóádzielonych z innymi przedstawicielami naszej spoáecz-noĞci pozwala ludziom rozwinąü poczucie sensu w Īyciu (Baumeister, 1991). ...
... Indeed, creating a shared reality through discussion may enhance a sense of understanding and control over one's environment (Hardin & Higgins, 1996). People are especially motivated to develop a shared reality with others with whom they share a psychological group membership (S. A. Haslam et al., 1997;Kruglanski et al., 2006;Levine & Higgins, 2001). ...
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In Western societies, many polarized debates extend beyond the area of opinions, having consequences for social structures within society. Such segmentation of society into opinion-based groups may hinder communication, making it difficult to reconcile viewpoints across group boundaries. In three representative samples from Australia and the Netherlands (N = 1,206), we examine whether perceived polarization predicts the quality (harmony, comfort, and experience of negative emotions) and quantity (avoidance of the issue) of communication with others in the community. We distinguish between perceived opinion differentiation (i.e., the extent to which opinions in society are divided) and perceived structural differentiation (i.e., the extent to which society fissions into subgroups). Results show that although opinion differentiation positively predicts the discussion of societal issues, the belief that these opinions reflect a deeper societal divide predicts negative communication expectations and intentions. We discuss how polarization perceptions may reinforce communicative behaviors that catalyze actual polarization processes.
... Such category-based processing style reflects a prejudice-prone cognitive style which has detrimental consequences for minority groups such as immigrants (Kossowska et al., 2018). For example, those with high NFC tend to exhibit social responses aimed to extol conformism including outgroup derogation (Kruglanski et al., 2006) and opinion uniformity among ingroup members (Roets et al., 2015), prefer homogeneous over diverse groups (Pierro et al., 2003), and support conservative policies and resolute leaders that guarantee the maintenance of tradition, social order, and well-defined roles (Orehek et al., 2010). ...
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This research aimed at explaining immigrant threat perceptions and pro‐immigrant collective action intentions through moral conviction regarding the construction of the US–Mexico border wall and general need for closure (NFC). Among independent samples of Democrats and Republicans, we found that NFC (measured in Study 1, manipulated in Study 2) was negatively related to pro‐immigrant collective action intentions through enhanced immigrant threat perceptions when moral conviction was low. Instead, when moral conviction was high, Democrats were more motivated to act collectively to support immigrants through reduced immigrant threat perceptions, independent of NFC, whereas Republicans were less motivated to act collectively to support immigrants through enhanced immigrant threat perceptions, independent of NFC. These results suggest that moral conviction offers a powerful moral and issue‐specific motivation that can psychologically buffer against the negative influences of general NFC. We discuss how these results complement and advance the literature and open up new research avenues.
... Synthesizing the findings in this line of research, a critical standpoint characterizing such dichotomized political worldviews surfaces: different attitudes towards uncertainty (Jost, 2017;Kruglanski, Pierro, Mannetti, & De Grada, 2006). Politically conservative consumers, compared to their liberal counterparts, "strongly prefer keeping things the way they are" and are more averse to changes because of the inherent uncertainty associated with them (Jost et al., 2004(Jost et al., , 2009). ...
Article
Across three studies, we investigate the interaction of political ideology and surge pricing precision on consumer decision making. Our findings suggest when compared to liberals, politically conservative consumers respond to rounded (vs. precise) surge pricing more negatively (Study 1). Furthermore, we show that this effect occurs because rounded (vs. precise) surge pricing exerts greater resentment for politically conservative (vs. liberal) consumers (Studies 2 and 3). The findings offer practical implications for marketers and advance our understanding of surge pricing, such that consumer responses towards surge pricing strategies differ based on their political ideology, and surge pricing precision is associated with perceptions of the status quo.
... Thus, the question of why people display intolerance and several factors have emerged as promoting intolerance. Personal uncertainty that leads to the need for closure has concurred (Brandt & Reyna, 2010;Jost, 2006;Jost et al., 2003;Kruglanski et al., 2006). People usually feel uncertainties towards many things like their values, attitudes, beliefs, religions, the future, and many more as constituted in their worldviews. ...
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Deriving from basis of the social identity theory and its development, the research aimed to explore the points of exclusion and how individuals and groups perceived themselves as experiencing victimhood of social injustice. The rise of intolerance in Indonesia was alarming and threatened the diversity and inclusivity of the nation. Throughout several political milestones such as gubernatorial and presidential elections, identity had been used as one of the most efficient ways to segregate and discriminate against people belonging to different groups. Applying a qualitative approach, data were mined from two focus group discussions of university student respondents with various religious and ethnic backgrounds representing the majority and minority groups in Indonesia. Groups sessions were strictly differentiated between majority and minority representatives to minimize the risk of potential conflict. The findings suggest that both groups’ initial perceptions towards members of outgroups are heavily influenced by transferred stereotypes and prejudices from the older generations. While the majority group struggles to counter the prejudices and perceived victimhood through direct exposure, the minority group, on the other hand, takes language into account as a subtle gesture of exclusion.
... Social identity theory defines "group" in terms of people's self-conception, so a group exists psychologically if three or more people make use of their shared attributes to distinguish themselves collectively from other people (Hogg, 2018). Previous research suggests that the search for epistemic authorities within one's reference group motivates individuals to close their minds by "freezing" core beliefs that are unlikely to be challenged by significant others (Kruglanski et al., 2006;Kruglanski & Webster, 1996). 2. Perceived threat. ...
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Previous research has confirmed the prominent role of group processes in the promotion and endorsement of disinformation. We report three studies on a psychological framework derived from integrated threat theory—a psychological theory which describes how perceived threat leads to group polarization and prejudice—composed of the following constructs: group belongingness, perceived threat, outgroup derogation, and intergroup anxiety. Our Pilot Study suggested that need to belong and intergroup anxiety predict anti-scientific beliefs (pseudoscientific, paranormal and conspiracy theories), thus justifying the general applicability of integrated threat theory. Study 1 investigates the transition from weak to strong critical thinking regarding pseudoscientific doctrines. Besides greater outgroup derogation and perceived threats among strong critical thinkers, the model does not perform well in this context. Study 2 focuses on the intergroup conflict around anthropogenic global warming, revealing the strong predictive power of the model. These results are discussed in relation to the distinctive psychological profiles of science acceptance and rejection.
... Another work has shown that the need for cognitive closure can be amplified for conservatives when an issue is framed within the context of liberal ideological considerations (Federico et al. 2012). This body of literature also shows that these epistemic dispositions relate to other political attitudes, including anti-immigrant attitudes and nationalism (Chirumbolo et al. 2004), in-group favoritism, and a rejection of deviates (Kruglanski et al. 2006). ...
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Engaging politically polarized publics surrounding climate science is a vital element in the effort to enact climate mitigation policy. Science communication experts have identified several models of public engagement with science, including the deficit, dialogue, participation, and lay expertise model. Existing research suggests that the deficit model in particular is a largely ineffective model of engagement for controversial science like climate change. There is very little research, however, regarding the engagement preferences of political groups, or how those preferences differ. This study assesses preferences for climate change engagement in the state of Oregon in the United States and examines the relationship between those preferences and epistemic beliefs about climate science. Overall, we find that liberals are significantly more likely than moderates or conservatives to view climate science as certain and simple and to rely on expert knowledge more than their own direct experience. By contrast, conservatives are significantly more likely than liberals or moderates to view climate science as uncertain and complex and to rely on their own direct experience over the knowledge of content experts. We also find that perceived certainty and simplicity are positive predictors of a preference for the deficit model of science communication. Implications for public engagement with climate change and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Study 1 aimed to identify the items of the HumIn, a measure of dehumanization propensity. We conducted a literature review, identifying variables related to dehumanization: Agency (Gray et al., 2007), attitudes towards animals (Bastian, Loughnan, Haslam, & Radke, 2012), attribution of secondary emotions (Leyens et al., 2001), disgust-sensitivity (Hodson & Costello, 2007), emotion regulation (Cameron, Harris, & Payne, 2016), empathy and compassion (Čehajić et al., 2009), Machiavellianism (Haslam & Loughnan, 2014), misanthropy (Foster, 2014), morality (Bandura, 1999), narcissism (Locke, 2009), need for closure (Kruglanski, Pierro, Mannetti, & De Grada, 2006), objectification (Cikara et al., 2011), personality traits (Kteily et al., 2015), power (Gwinn, Judd, & Park, 2013), prejudice (Cameron et al., 2016), right-wing authoritarianism (Maoz & McCauley, 2008), social cognition (Waytz, Cacioppo, &Epley, 2010), andSDO (Esses et al., 2008). We included two further variables thought to correspond to dehumanization, but which were not previously related in the literature: self-compassion (due to its relationship with compassion; Davidson, 2007;Neff, 2008), and intelligence (due to studies relating it to social cognition ability; e.g., Dimitrijevic et al., 2013). ...
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Dehumanization is often explored in the context of inhumane acts of intergroup and interpersonal violence, and is considered a precursor to extreme atrocities. However, research suggests that we may all engage dehumanized perceptions, at least occasionally, if the social context or goals encourage dehumanization. This implies an individual difference nature of dehumanization propensity. Across four online studies (cross‐sectional Studies 1, 3, 4, and longitudinal Study 2), we develop and validate the Humanity Inventory (HumIn), a self‐report measure of individual differences in the propensity to engage dehumanization. Study 1 (N = 86) entailed item selection. Study 2 (N = 235) examined the validity of the scale and investigated its test–retest reliability. Study 3 (N = 259) compared the HumIn with pre‐existing scales measuring related constructs. Study 4 (N = 98) examined the scale's performance in a situational example of dehumanization. Across all studies, the HumIn performs admirably, showing excellent reliability and validity. This novel instrument and broader conceptualization of dehumanization propensity should allow researchers to tackle questions related to dehumanization from a novel perspective, and will aid future research by providing a tool for assessment.
... It will not be easy for psychologists who are close to the included center of the field to take this opportunity. Indeed, as psychologists, we are especially well poised to understand the barriers to change at this moment: Our theories suggest that threats to the existing system, time pressure, and financial pressures can all create strong structural and psychological forces to resist change, cling to what we know, and prioritize personal gain (Jost et al., 2009;Kruglanski et al, 2006;Roux, Goldsmith, & Bonezzi, 2015;Wilkins et al., 2016). Nonetheless, the COVID-19 ...
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Psychological science is at an inflection point: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated inequalities that stem from our historically closed and exclusive culture. Meanwhile, reform efforts to change the future of our science are too narrow in focus to fully succeed. In this article, we call on psychological scientists-focusing specifically on those who use quantitative methods in the United States as one context for such conversations-to begin reimagining our discipline as fundamentally open and inclusive. First, we discuss whom our discipline was designed to serve and how this history produced the inequitable reward and support systems we see today. Second, we highlight how current institutional responses to address worsening inequalities are inadequate, as well as how our disciplinary perspective may both help and hinder our ability to craft effective solutions. Third, we take a hard look in the mirror at the disconnect between what we ostensibly value as a field and what we actually practice. Fourth and finally, we lead readers through a roadmap for reimagining psychological science in whatever roles and spaces they occupy, from an informal discussion group in a department to a formal strategic planning retreat at a scientific society.
... Low levels of trust (Goertzel, 1994), perceived powerlessness (Abalakina-Paap et al., 1999;Pratt, 2003;Zarefsky, 1984), feelings of anomia and an associated lack of control (Goertzel, 1994;Whitson & Galinsky, 2008) Grada, 2006). By engaging in these mechanisms, extremist beliefs tend to be further reinforced (Hogg, Meehan, & Farqueharson, 2010). ...
Thesis
Progress within the field of radicalisation is evident. Yet while research increasingly adopts a quantitative approach to studying radicalisation processes, there is no sound empirical evidence base on the risk and protective factors for violent extremism and much research is not fit for practice. Day-to-day risk assessment and management of individuals deemed to be a potential risk to national security forms a core component of counter-terrorism. Each phase of counter-terrorism risk assessment and management requires state-of-the-art science for the identification of putative risk and protective factors, and to understand how such factors are functionally linked to violent extremism. This thesis provides a unique contribution to these research endeavours in several important ways. First, in order to explain why individuals radicalise, we have to turn our focus towards those risk factors and underlying mechanisms, which explain why and how certain individuals come to develop extremist propensities. Thus, this thesis’ main aim is to study risk and protective factors for the development of violent extremist propensities. Second, terrorism studies is over-reliant on secondary data. By conducting two unique large-scale nationally representative general population surveys, this thesis contributes towards establishing a robust empirical knowledge base. These are one of the first such surveys conducted within the field of violent extremism research. Third, radicalisation trajectories and engagement in violent extremism are characterised by complex constellations of risk as well as protective factors. Risk factors for one risk specification may not equally apply to others and the conditional and contextual nature of various factors need to be taken into consideration, which necessitates more complex analyses of patterns of relationships. This thesis draws on a range of structural equation models, conditional mediation models and interaction analyses, which allow for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and complex configurations of various risk and protective factors. The analytical designs embedded throughout this thesis are some of the first to test such interactions in an empirical manner. Fourth, this thesis uses an integrative framework which examines not just risk but also protective factors for violent extremism and draws on a wide range of validated theories from different disciplines to strengthen the explanation of relationships between factors. By utilising models with several risk/protective factors, this thesis overcomes some of the 'problem of specificity', as it delivers plausible answers as to why the vast majority of individuals, who are experiencing particular conditions or grievances do not develop violent extremist intentions. Such research designs may be able to identify those factors that can inform prevention and intervention programs. Fifth, radicalisation is a complex and multifaceted process with diverse pathways and outcomes to it. This inherent complexity renders radicalisation, as a construct, difficult to operationalise. A key part of conducting quantitative research is the development of adequate and validated instruments. Thus, by developing and validating psychometrically sound instruments, this thesis contributes towards rigorous quantitative research on violent extremism. This thesis addresses these issues through a number of novel research designs. First, I conduct a systematic review and synthesise the existing evidence on quantitative risk and protective factors for different radicalisation outcomes. However, several gaps as well as conceptual and methodological issues are identified, which are addressed in the following chapters. Second, I conduct a German nationally representative survey on violent extremism, and I apply structural equation modeling to employ a conceptually integrated approach to studying the individual and environmental-level determinants of differential vulnerability to extremism. The findings demonstrate the profound effect of person-environment reciprocity and, thereby, highlight key individual, developmental and social mechanisms involved in the development of extremist propensities. Increasingly, we are witnessing a seeming convergence between belief in conspiracy theories and ideological extremes. However, there is a dearth of empirical research on the relationship between conspiracy beliefs and violent extremism. Therefore, third, this thesis conducts a unique quantitative analysis on this relationship and the findings highlight the contingent effects of risk and protective factors, which are defined as ‘interactive’ or ‘buffering’ protective factors. This has major implications in regard to prevention strategies of ‘at-risk’ populations. Fourth, based on a large-scale UK nationally representative survey, I develop and validate a novel psychometric tool to measure individuals’ misogynistic attitudes. Fifth, recent incidents have demonstrated that misogynistic beliefs can lead to acts of mass violence. This thesis provides the first survey-based study on the relationship between misogyny and violent extremism by examining the underlying mechanisms and contingent effects linking misogyny to (extremist) violence. Collectively, the dissertation’s results demonstrate that multiple factors likely contribute to individual pathways into violent extremism. No single risk or protective factor exists that can explain its genesis. This has significant implications for practice and policy. Preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE) programs must take account of the constellation of multiple factors that interact with (and sometimes enable or disable one another) rather than solely focusing upon single risk factors. These findings stress the need to implement evidenced based prevention and interventions programs, which have to address these risk factors early on, before they properly take hold and become so deeply ingrained that they are almost intractable. Therefore, increased focus of P/CVE interventions should be put on the indirect, long-term and life-course oriented protective factors.
... Le « besoin de clôture » représente une construction au niveau individuel qui détermine comment les personnes traitent l'information et rendent des jugements (Kruglanski, Pierro, Mannetti, & De Grada, 2006) et (Kruglanski, Shah, Pierro, & Mannetti, 2002). Il a été défini comme le « désir d'une personne de répondre fermement à une question, toute réponse ferme par rapport à la confusion et/ou l'ambiguïté » (Kruglanski, 2004, p. 6). ...
Thesis
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La radicalisation continue de s’affirmer en France et dans le monde entier, comme une menace durable et de plus en plus endogène. Cette reconfiguration de la menace n’a pas beaucoup influencé la recherche sur ce phénomène articulée souvent sur la compréhension du phénomène, ses causes, les profils à risque…L’enrôlement de jeunes Français dans le djihadisme et, plus généralement, la montée des extrémismes violents suscite une réponse démocratique, y compris par de la prévention primaire. Cette menace a conduit le gouvernement à élaborer des politiques publiques centrées spécialement sur le repérage et surtout sur des logiques sécuritaires par la mise en place des plans (PLAT) en 2014 et (PART) en 2016, puis le nouveau plan, « Prévenir pour protéger » en 2018. Les différentes interventions dans ce domaine de la lutte contre les radicalisations violentes (RV) qui ciblent les adultes et les jeunes adultes se font généralement soit dans les prisons soit dans les quartiers vulnérables et impliquent rarement les dimensions émotionnelle et relationnelle. Ce travail s’inscrit donc dans une approche qui essaye de mettre en évidence les aspects les moins considérés dans les différentes initiatives de prévention des RV en proposant des approches centrées sur la solution et non pas sur le problème. En effet nous suggérons une reconsidération des manières habituelles de prévenir les RV centrées sur les aspects de la sécurité, de la justice et de la rationalité, en les complétant avec des approches qui favorisent explicitement les compétences émotionnelles et relationnelles. Il convient de souligner que cette thèse propose de vérifier sur le plan empirique les fondements d’un programme de prévention primaire et son impact réel sur des adultes et jeunes adultes à travers des indicateurs mesurables. Ainsi, le module de culture générale « Initiation à la méditation dans une démarche éthique » enseigné à la faculté de Montpellier a été conçu pour développer ces compétences dans le sens de la responsabilité, considérée dans notre modèle théorique comme étant antagoniste des RV. L’évaluation de son impact par des méthodes quantitatives montre des résultats encourageants et confirme une grande partie de nos hypothèses.
... Notably, dogmatism is a powerful predictor of RWA (Altemeyer, 1996; but see Duckitt, 2009). Both religious belief and RWA are also associated with information-processing heuristics that prioritise quick, efficient, and simple responses to problems (Altemeyer, 1988;Chirumbolo, 2002;Kruglanski et al., 2006;Pennycook et al., 2012). Thus, religion may foster RWA by decreasing tolerance for ambiguity (Kilpatrick et al., 1970). ...
Article
Although religiosity correlates positively with authoritarianism, the temporal ordering of this relationship is unclear. Because religious teachings often promote authoritarian values, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) should increase following religious conversion. Yet spiritual beliefs may also promote egalitarianism. As such, social dominance orientation (SDO) might decrease postconversion. We tested these hypotheses using data from a subset of participants who converted to Christianity at some point during a 9-year longitudinal panel study ( N = 536). We also examined a separate subsample who deconverted over the same period ( N = 696). As hypothesised, RWA was stable before conversion, but increased slightly after becoming religious. Unexpectedly, SDO was stable both pre- and postconversion. Conversely, those who deconverted from Christianity experienced declines in RWA both before and after losing their religion, whereas SDO declined only postdeconversion. These results suggest that religious conversion precedes increases in RWA (but not SDO), and that declines in RWA precede deconversion.
... Believing in simple solutions allows people to form the impression that the world is understandable and predictable. More importantly, simple solutions help us make sense of the world, to cope with uncertainty and fear (Kruglanski, Pierro, Mannetti, & Grada, 2006;van Prooijen, Krouwel, & Pollet, 2015). To avoid the psychological burdens of uncertainty, people tend to rely on dichotomous, arguably Manichean thinking via the belief that there are always simple solutions to complex societal problems (McGregor, 2006). ...
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Studies of demand-side populism with a focus on attitudinal and behavioral factors are becoming more popular, but only a few have explored the phenomenon's psychological determinants. We tackle the lack of conversation between populism scholars and political psychologists and test the impact of conspiracy beliefs, moral disengagement, need for cognition, and belief in simple solutions on populist attitudes. We use the most widespread ideational definition in an attempt to bring clarity to demand-side populism, as the literature often conflates the concept of populism with adjacent ideological and psychological factors. We analyze representative samples from two very different countries (Italy and Turkey) to test our hypotheses. We use two of the most often-used measures of populist attitudes and also explore populism's individual building blocks: people-centrism, antielitism, and a Manichean worldview. We consistently find conspiracy beliefs (and our control variable of institutional trust) as primary sources of populist attitudes, whereas the impact of the other psychological factors is more dependent on context and operationalization. Our article calls for more conceptual clarity, careful theorization, and more work on the refinement of available survey measures. We also highlight the importance of national contexts and the dangers of generalization based on individual country studies.
... Necesidad de Cierre Cognitivo (NCC): Se utilizó una adaptación del Test Revisado de NCC (TR-NCC, Kruglanski et al., 2006) y está compuesta por 14 ítems agrupados en las dimensiones Tendencia de Urgencia (e.g. «En caso de incertidumbre, prefiero tomar una decisión inmediata, sea la que sea») y Tendencia de Permanencia (e.g. ...
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Las instituciones educativas cada vez se plantean, con una mayor frecuencia, incorporar prácticas que persigan la inclusión socioeducativa. Sin embargo, ciertas variables psicosociales pueden dificultar que se produzca este cambio entre el profesorado. El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue investigar diferentes creencias de futuros maestros y futuras maestras sobre la inclusión educativa, así como su relación con las actitudes que presentaban hacia la justicia social, la creencia en un mundo justo y la necesidad de cierre cognitivo. La muestra de estudio se compuso de 476 estudiantes de los Grados de Maestro/a en Educación Infantil y Primaria (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España). En la investigación se utiliza metodología cuantitativa de cara al análisis de datos del instrumento empleado, que incluye diferentes escalas tipo Likert. Los principales resultados evidenciaron relaciones entre las creencias sobre la inclusión educativa y las actitudes favorables hacia la justicia social. Además, se hallaron diferencias en las creencias sobre la inclusión educativa en función de los niveles de creencia en un mundo justo y necesidad de cierre cognitivo. Finalmente, se discute acerca de la necesidad que el profesorado considere la inclusión como un objetivo desde el que alcanzar contextos educativos y comunitarios más justos.
... Gollwitzer et al., 2020). Other reliable predictors of group membership are uncertainty tolerance (Hogg & Adelman, 2013;Kruglanski et al., 2006) and openness to experience (Van Hiel et al., 2000), although it is an open question whether these dimensions are best understood as traits, cognitive style, or values (i.e. characteristics that follow from as opposed to generating ideological beliefs). ...
... As with rigid thinking styles and cognitive inflexibility, motivational rigidity is not highly correlated with other rigidity domains, suggesting that it may bear unique or divergent associations with political ideology (Lauriola et al., 2016). Many such motives are subsumed by need for cognitive closure, a widely known construct that broadly reflects "the individual's desire for a firm answer to a question and an aversion toward ambiguity" (Kruglanski & Webster, 1996, p. 264;Kruglanski & Webster, 1996;Kruglanski et al., 2006). Specifically, need for cognitive closure includes five conceptually distinctive, if not empirically distinct, subdimensions (see Roets et al., 2006;cf. ...
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The rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis (RRH), which posits that cognitive, motivational, and ideological rigidity resonate with political conservatism, is an influential but controversial psychological account of political ideology. Here, we leverage several methodological and theoretical sources of this controversy to conduct an extensive quantitative review—with the dual aims of probing the RRH’s basic assumptions and parsing the RRH literature’s heterogeneity. Using multi-level meta-analyses of relations between varieties of rigidity and ideology measures alongside a bevy of potential moderators (s = 329, k = 708, N = 187,612), we find that associations between conservatism and rigidity are tremendously heterogeneous, suggesting a complex—yet conceptually fertile—network of relations between these constructs. Most notably, whereas social conservatism was robustly associated with rigidity, associations between economic conservatism and rigidity indicators were inconsistent, small, and not statistically significant outside of the United States. Moderator analyses revealed that non-representative sampling, criterion contamination, and disproportionate use of American samples have yielded over-estimates of associations between rigidity-related constructs and conservatism in past research. We resolve that drilling into this complexity, thereby moving beyond the question of if conservatives are essentially rigid to when and why they might or might not be, will help provide a more realistic account of the psychological underpinnings of political ideology.
Article
Purpose Although the literature has somewhat discussed social capital and knowledge sharing, the mediating and moderating mechanisms that influence team workers to move from connecting with one another to building social capital and consequently engaging in knowledge sharing still remain largely understudied. For that reason, this study aims to develop a holistic research framework that links social capital to knowledge sharing with positive affective tone as a mediator and hypercompetition as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach Drawing upon the social capital theory and the affective events theory (AET), this study proposes a research framework to assess how social capital factors influence knowledge sharing with the mediation of positive affective tone and the moderation of hypercompetition in high-tech teams. This study obtains survey data based on 330 questionnaires of working professionals from 66 high-tech teams in Taiwan, in which each team comprises four members and their team leader. Findings The empirical results of this study show that social interaction, shared vision and trust are positively related to knowledge sharing via the mediation of positive affective tone. Moreover, hypercompetition has positive moderating effects on the relationships between social interaction and positive affective tone as well as between trust and positive affective tone. Originality/value This study expands the previous literature to study through what mediating mechanism the effects of different social capital factors on knowledge sharing can be effectively realized and whether there exists any critical moderator that influences these effects.
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What mitigates the relationship between need for cognitive closure and prejudice against migrants? Addressing this question, we explored how national identification, endorsing binding moral foundations and the perception of threat mediate the relationship between need for cognitive closure and prejudice against migrants in Malta. It was hypothesized that individuals with a high need for cognitive closure are more prone to identify with being Maltese and more probable to endorse binding moral foundations and perceive high threat from migrants, leading to a more prejudiced attitude towards migrants living in Malta. Two hundred and twenty-two individuals participated in this quantitative study. Results from this study showed that national identification, binding moral foundations and perceived threat mediate the relationship between need for cognitive closure and prejudice against migrants. The implications of the findings for theories about how need for cognitive closure contributes to increased prejudiced attitude in native population is discussed. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.
Article
In this chapter, I review current research on the relationship between personality and political preferences, with an eye to its complexities and the ways in which it is conditioned on other variables – including the contextual factors mentioned at the outset. To provide context, I briefly review research on the structure of political preferences. Next, I summarise a now-substantial body of work suggesting a relationship between rigidity in personality and right-wing political preferences, and then describe moderators of and boundary conditions to this relationship. Finally, in an effort to reconcile increasingly varied findings on political differences in cognition and motivation, I offer an integrative perspective on when the relationship between rigidity and political differences will be ideologically asymmetric and when it will be symmetric.
Article
This research investigates whether and how predecessors’ usernames—as evaluated from a perspective of perceived anonymity—affect successors’ herding momentum through the varying extent of perceived source credibility. Using a unique data set collected from a leading debt-based crowdfunding platform, we classify lenders’ usernames as either anonymous or real-seeming, with the latter referring to usernames that seem to reveal one’s legal name. We find that successors demonstrate weaker herding momentum toward predecessors who are presented with real-seeming usernames than anonymous ones. This finding, which we attribute to a lower extent of perceived credibility resulting from a nonconforming behavior, challenges the conventional wisdom that considers anonymity a negative factor for source credibility. Further, we demonstrate the importance of risk-related factors, in that the uncovered positive effect of perceived anonymity on herding is accentuated in the early stage of the fundraising period. Our findings provide actionable insights for platform owners to utilize the user heterogeneity with respect to perceived anonymity and hence perceived credibility in herding. These findings are also informative for borrowers who desire to exert effort to encourage participation from the crowd.
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Classic and contemporary perspectives link meaning in life to the pursuit of a significant purpose, free from incoherence. The typical assumption is that these meaningful purposes are prosocial, or at least benign. Here, we tested whether hate might also bolster meaning in life, via motivational states underlying significant purpose and coherence. In two studies (N = 847; Study 2 pre-registered), describing hatred (vs. mere dislike) towards collective entities (societal phenomena, institutions, groups), but not individuals, heightened feelings linked to the behavioral approach system (BAS; eagerness, determination, enthusiasm), which underlies a sense of significant purpose, and muted feelings linked to threat and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; confused, uncertain, conflicted), which underlies a sense of incoherence. This high BAS and low BIS, in turn, predicted meaning in life beyond pre-manipulation levels. Exploratory analyses suggested that personal hatreds did not have the meaning-bolstering effects that collective hatreds had due to meaning-dampening negative feelings. Discussion focuses on motivation for collective and ideological hatreds in threatening circumstances.
Article
The problem of interethnic conflicts is currently one of the topics attracting the attention of researchers of various specialties – culturologists, anthropologists, historians, social psychologists and others. The purpose and main task of this study is to analyze from a philosophical point of view the dialectics of the natural and the social in ethnic relations and its manifestation in interethnic conflicts. Accordingly, the article uses dialectical and comparative approaches. The theoretical basis of the study is the author’s concept of the relationship between natural and social in society and a man, which made it possible to identify the structure of ethnic relations according to this criterion, to determine the differences between social-group and natural-group relations. Intragroup and intergroup relations, in which natural components prevail over social ones are designated by the concept of “natural-group relations” (NGR) introduced in the author’s methodology. The specific results of the research and the novelty are the discovery of the specificity of the manifestation of the patterns of natural group relations and the role of suggestion in interethnic conflicts. It is proved that the concept of “group centrism” is not enough for the analysis of groups, since it describes mainly the assessment of one’s group and its values, and the concept of “regularities of natural group relations” denotes the hierarchical structure of a group, mechanisms of forced identification (including by methods of education) and self-identification, intragroup and intergroup relationships, reasons for conformism, etc. The article proves that the symptoms of grouping thinking, which were identified by I. L. Janis in small closed groups, and which are a kind of (NGR) patterns, are manifested with some variations in large groups. It is concluded that authors studying group relations do not pay enough attention to the natural prerequisites for the formation of groups and grouping of thinking, the fact that, due to the need for survival, the desire to unite into groups, to form and protect the uniformity of thinking is inherent in our genetic programs and is supported by suggestion. he further part of the article is devoted to the analysis of two interethnic conflicts based on the developed methodology ‒ the Arab-Israeli and Uzbek-Kyrgyz and the forecast, as well as the possibility of overcoming them.
Article
Many important social and policy decisions are made by small groups of people (e.g., juries, college admissions officers, or corporate boards) with the hope that a collective process will yield better and fairer decisions. In many instances, it is possible for these groups to fail to reach a decision by not garnering a minimum number of votes (e.g., hung juries). Our research finds that pivotal voters vote to avoid such decision failure—voters who can “tip” their group into a punishment decision will be more likely to do so. This effect is distinct from well-known social pressures to simply conform with others or reach unanimity. Using observational data from Louisiana court cases, we find a sharp discontinuity in juries’ voting decisions at the threshold between indecision and conviction (Study 1). In a third-party punishment paradigm, pivotal voters were more likely to vote to punish a target than nonpivotal voters, even when holding social information constant (Study 2), and adopted harsher views about the target's deservingness of punishment (Study 3). Using vignettes, we find that pivotal voters are judged to be differentially responsible for the outcomes of their votes—those who “block” the group from reaching a punishment decision are deemed more responsible for the outcome than those who “fall in line” (Study 4). These findings provide insight into how we might improve group decision-making environments to ensure that their outcomes accurately reflect group members’ actual beliefs and not the influence of social pressures.
Article
While the field of political psychology has overwhelmingly focused on political orientation (i.e., ideological content), this chapter proposes that political extremism (i.e., ideological strength) at the left and right also matters for a range of important variables. The main argument is that feelings of distress prompt a desire for epistemic clarity, which increases the appeal of the clear-cut answers that politically extreme movements provide for pressing societal problems. The chapter subsequently proposes that political extremism in most cases is a problem for societies. We review evidence that politically extreme beliefs are associated with overconfidence in the correctness of one’s beliefs and knowledge about the world, an increased susceptibility to beliefs that are not supported by science or reason, and intolerance of competing belief systems or groups perceived as ideologically different. We conclude by articulating a few limitations and research directions in this research domain.
Article
Internet-based firms extensively use freemium pricing strategies to thrive in the hyper-competitive e-marketplace (e.g., Spotify, Tinder). Yet many firms using this pricing strategy operate at a loss. Few studies have theorized whether consumers’ decision to pay for the premium subscription is contingent on their individual traits. In response, this study posits that need for closure and deal proneness explain consumers’ decisions to choose free versus premium pricing options. We test our predictions using one survey and one experiment. Study 1 shows that need for closure prompts consumers to pay for the premium subscription. Moreover, deal proneness negatively moderates this relationship. Study 2 finds that uncertainty reduction mediates the effect of need for closure on the decision to pay for a premium subscription. These findings have important implications for managers aiming to increase conversion rates from free to premium subscriptions.
Article
People experience discrimination across a variety of domains, including at work and in dealings with public institutions, but what makes some individuals discriminate against others? Two dominant scholarly approaches—“statistical” and “taste-based”—offer different explanations. Statistical discrimination models imply that discrimination occurs because of incomplete information (informational bias), whereas taste-based discrimination models emphasize more elusive and deep-rooted cognitive biases. Adding new insights into whether discrimination is “statistical” or “taste-based,” this article examines how providing information that reduces informational bias affects discrimination. Using a preregistered survey experimental design, a representative sample of Danish residents (n = 2,024) are exposed to three unique vignettes, each involving a choice of service provider (general practitioner, babysitter, and house cleaner). Relating to gender and nativity stereotypes, we manipulate the gender of the general practitioners and the babysitters, and the country of origin of the house cleaners. Moreover, we manipulate exposure to rating cues about the service providers’ task performance, thus mitigating informational bias to some extent. Contrasting the expectations of statistical discrimination models, the performance ratings cues do not mitigate discrimination. Across all three vignettes, the participants exhibit stereotypical preferences, and the performance rating cues do not affect these discriminatory biases.
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Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag der Zeitschrift Gruppe.Interaktion.Organisation. (GIO) untersucht die Bedeutung des Faktors Zeit in der Organisationsberatung. Anhand ausgewählter Phänomene gemeinsamer und unterschiedlicher Zeiterfahrungen von Berater*innen und Klient*innen – Biographische Zeiten, Wechselseitiges Zeitverständnis, Zeit für Präsenz & Zeit zu gehen, Zeit für Soziales & Zeit für Fachliches, Veränderungsgeschwindigkeit und Bewertung – werden theoretische und beratungspraktische Perspektiven auf das Metathema Zeit geworfen und in ihrer Bedeutung auf den Interventionsebenen Individuum, Gruppe/Team und Organisation ausgeleuchtet.
Article
Background/Aims Asylum-seeking women face higher rates of maternal and neonatal mortality as a result of multiple barriers to accessing maternity care. Midwives are currently experiencing short staffing and high rates of burnout. Complex cases can add additional workload and stress. There is an evidence gap concerning midwives’ experiences of caring for asylum-seeking women in the UK. This study's aim was to examine the existing literature on this topic and consider the findings against the current realities of working within the NHS maternity system. Methods Literature was screened using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative article checklist and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses flow diagram. Eight studies were included and analysed for thematic similarities. Results The results of the systematic review were categorised into three themes: racism and resentment, structural difficulties and systematic problems. Conclusions Midwives lacked the time to appropriately care for asylum-seeking women. A lack of time and resources may negatively impact midwives’ attitudes towards asylum-seeking women.
Article
Findings in the extant literature are mixed concerning when and how gender diversity benefits team performance. We develop and test a model that posits that gender‐diverse teams outperform gender‐homogeneous teams when perceived time pressure is low, whereas the opposite is the case when perceived time pressure is high. Drawing on the Categorization‐Elaboration Model (CEM; van Knippenberg, De Dreu, & Homan, 2004), we begin with the assumption that information elaboration is the process whereby gender diversity fosters positive effects on team performance. However, also in line with the CEM, we argue that this process can be disrupted by adverse team dynamics. Specifically, we argue that as time pressure increases, higher gender diversity leads to more team withdrawal, which, in turn, moderates the positive indirect effect of gender diversity on team performance via information elaboration such that this effect becomes weaker as team withdrawal increases. In an experimental study of 142 four‐person teams, we found support for this model that explains why perceived time pressure affects the performance of gender‐diverse teams more negatively than that of gender‐homogeneous teams. Our study sheds new light on when and how gender diversity can become either an asset or a liability for team performance.
Article
This research investigated the motivational underpinnings of attitudes toward weapon ownership. We propose that people who have a strong need for closure (NFC) would be more likely to approve of weapon ownership, but that this relationship would be serially mediated by the endorsement of binding moral foundations and fear of immigrants. Specifically, heightened NFC would promote moral concerns for the safety of one's group (i.e., the binding foundations) that, in turn, would trigger fear of immigrants, or the belief that immigrants threaten their society. In turn, fear of immigrants would generate the approval of defensive means (i.e., weapons). We tested this serial mediation model in three studies with Italian and US samples, where NFC was both measured (Studies 1 and 3; N = 286 and N = 278) and experimentally induced (Study 2; N = 290). The results supported the proposed model. These findings suggest that a high NFC might explain individuals’ approval of weapon ownership through their moral priorities, which heighten their prejudice toward immigrants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Need for Cognitive Closure, a construct derived from the theoretical framework of Lay Epistemology (Kruglanski, 1980; De Grada & Mannetti, 1992), is ipothesized to positively relate to individual’s reactions to violations of everyday norms. Two hundred and four undergraduates of different majors at University of Naples, participated on voluntary basis to the study. Eighty six of them were males and 118 were females: their average age was 23 years. Need for Cognitive Closure was measured by the Italian version (Pierro et al., 1995) of Webster & Kruglanski’s scale (1994) and reactions to normative violations were measured by the Italian version (De Grada et al., 1984) of Pepitonés scale (1981) of response to normative violations. A structural equation model with Need for Cognitive Closure as latent exogenous variable and the two measures of reaction to normative violations as endogenous variables showed a god fit to the data. Results are discussed with reference to the theory of cognitive closure.
Article
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This research defines self-ascribed epistemic authority as an individual's perception of his or her own expertise and knowledgeability in a domain. It was predicted that: (1) individuals with high self-ascribed epistemic authority would benefit more from experientially-based information than individuals with low self-ascribed epistemic authority, and (2) individuals with high perceived “authority-gap” between themselves and an external communicator would benefit more from information that communicator provides than ones with low perceived “authority-gap.” Both predictions were supported in an experiment comparing the learning of mathematical principles through experience and through instruction. These findings were discussed in reference to the relation between learning and persuasion, the role of self as an informational source, and the function of experience as a mediator of cognitive change.
Article
Four studies explored the relation between members' need for cognitive closure and their feelings toward groups. It was found that high (vs. low) need for closure individuals liked in-groups and out-groups more as function of the degree to which their membership was perceived as homogeneous (Studies 1-4), provided it was also self-similar (Studies 3 and 4). These results are discussed in terms of the relation between need for closure and homogeneous (vs. heterogeneous) groups' apparent potential as "closure providers.".
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The fundamental phenomenon of human closed-mindedness is treated in this volume. Prior psychological treatments of closed-mindedness have typically approached it from a psychodynamic perspective and have viewed it in terms of individual pathology. By contrast, the present approach stresses the epistemic functionality of closed-mindedness and its essential role in judgement and decision-making. Far from being restricted to a select group of individuals suffering from an improper socialization, closed-mindedness is something we all experience on a daily basis. Such mundane situational conditions as time pressure, noise, fatigue, or alcoholic intoxication, for example, are all known to increase the difficulty of information processing, and may contribute to one's experienced need for nonspecific closure. Whether constituting a dimension of stable individual differences, or being engendered situationally - the need for closure, once aroused, is shown to produce the very same consequences. These fundamentally include the tendency to 'seize' on early, closure-affording 'evidence', and to 'freeze' upon it thus becoming impervious to subsequent, potentially important, information. Though such consequences form a part of the individual's personal experience, they have significant implications for interpersonal, group and inter-group phenomena as well. The present volume describes these in detail and grounds them in numerous research findings of theoretical and 'real world' relevance to a wide range of topics including stereotyping, empathy, communication, in-group favouritism and political conservatism. Throughout, a distinction is maintained between the need for a nonspecific closure (i.e., any closure as long as it is firm and definite) and needs for specific closures (i.e., for judgments whose particular contents are desired by an individual). Theory and research discussed in this book should be of interest to upper level undergraduates, graduate students and faculty in social, cognitive, and personality psychology as well as in sociology, political science and business administration.
Article
Cross-cultural psychology has demonstrated important links between cultural context and individual behavioural development. Given this relationship, cross-cultural research has increasingly investigated what happens to individuals who have developed in one cultural context when they attempt to re-establish their lives in another one. The long-term psychological consequences of this process of acculturation are highly variable, depending on social and personal variables that reside in the society of origin, the society of settlement, and phenomena that both exist prior to, and arise during, the course of acculturation. This article outlines a conceptual framework within which acculturation and adaptation can be investigated, and then presents some general findings and conclusions based on a sample of empirical studies.
Article
A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
Article
In this essay I attempt to establish the centrality of a fundamental idea-ambivalence-as a psychological postulate that is essential for understanding individual behavior social institutions, and the human condition generally. In this effort I examine the strengths and limitations of an alternative postulate-the rational-choice model of behavior-and argue for supplementing it with a conception of ambivalence. The idea of ambivalence is essential for explaining phenomena such as reactions to death and separation, but also is required in our understanding of love, social organizations, social movements, consumer attitudes, political practices and institutions, as well as the fundamental values of the Western democratic tradition.
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Two studies investigated need for cognitive closure effects on group interaction. In both, participants in four-person groups role-played the members of a corporate committee dividing a monetary reward among meritorious employees. The entire interaction sequence was videotaped and content-analyzed by independent observers. Study 1 investigated need for closure as both a dispositional and a situational variable (induced via time pressure). Bales' (1970) interaction process analysis (IPA) yielded that both forms of this need were positively related to the preponderance of task-oriented responses and negatively related to the preponderance of positive social–emotional acts. Study 2 compared groups composed of members high on a dispositional need for closure with those composed of members low on this need. In the discussions of high (vs low) need for closure groups, there were greater conformity pressures and a less egalitarian participation. Need for closure thus appears to affect both the contents of member responses in a group context and the process whereby group interaction may unfold. ௠ 1999 Academic Press Order of authorship was determined alphabetically and does not reflect relative contribution.
Article
Self-categorization theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher & Wetherell, 1987) proposes that identification with a social group will elicit a tendency to conform to in-group norms. Following this proposition, we argue that the extent to which persuasive in-group communication is perceived to reflect in-group norms, that is, is prototypical, will affect attitudes. Attitudes are predicted to be more affected by exposure to prototypical messages. Moreover, it is argued that prototypicality might both instigate systematic message processing and function as a heuristic cue. Whether systematic processing will occur was hypothesized to be dependent on the availability of cues enabling heuristic processing. A study was designed in which subjects were exposed to a persuasive message from either a prototypical or an non-prototypical in-group source. In half of the conditions, subjects were informed about the opinion of the source before message exposure (which would enable heuristic processing). Quality of the message (i.e. strong vs. weak arguments) and position advocated by the message were experimentally varied. It was predicted that prototypicality would elicit conformity to in-group norms, but that it would only instigate systematic processing when subjects had no foreknowledge about the source opinion. Results supported these predictions
Article
A model of interpersonal terms (verbs and adjectives) is reviewed in terms of the research on: (a) the systematic cognitive inferences these terms mediate, and (b) the implications of this model for social cognitive processes as it is applied in different domains such as attribution processes and intergroup relations.
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Book
"Individuals who live in groups hold common beliefs which define their reality, not only as persons, but also as group members. This reality becomes especially important when group members become aware that they share beliefs and are convinced that these beliefs characterize them as a group. In this case common beliefs become group beliefs." With this statement, Dr. Bar-Tal begins his far-reaching analysis of beliefs as a group phenomenon. Group beliefs are shown to have important behavioral, cognitive, and affective implications for group members and the group as a whole. They may contribute to the behavioral direction a group takes, coordinate group activities, determine the intensity and involvement of group members, and influence the way group members affect the leaders. This book introduces and articulates the implications of a new concept of group beliefs, shedding new light on the structure and processes of groups, focusing on such phenomena as group formation, subgrouping, splits, mergence and group disintegration. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, this integrative conception opens new avenues to the study and understanding of group behavior.
Article
The investigations described in this series are concerned with the conditions of independence and lack of independence in the face of group pressure. The abstract temper of present-day theory and investigation in this region rests to a considerable degree on a neglect of the cognitive and emotional experiences that are part of the individual's psychological field. The understanding of social influences will require the study of a wide range of conditions and of the interrelated operations of different psychological functions. A group of seven to nine individuals was gathered in a classroom to take part in what appeared to be a simple experiment in visual discrimination. The subjects were all male, white college students, ranging in age from 17 to 25; the mean age was 20. For certain purposes a large number of critical subjects was required for the present experiment. The present report is based on a total of 123 subjects. The task consisted of the comparison of a standard line with three other lines, one of which was equal in length to the standard. We investigated some of the conditions responsible for independence and lack of independence in the face of arbitrary group pressure. To this end we produced a disagreement between a group and one individual member about a clear and simple issue of fact. The interview, which followed the experimental session, provided qualitative evidence concerning the effects produced by the majority, The particular properties of the experimental situation and their relation to more usual social contradictions were described.
Article
Research into leadership effectiveness has largely overlooked the implications of the fact that leadership processes are enacted in the context of a shared group membership, where leaders, as group members, ask followers, as group members, to exert themselves on behalf of the collective. In contrast, the social identity model of organizational leadership, proposed here, emphasizes the characteristics of the leader as a group member, and the leader’s ability to speak to followers as group members. In salient groups with which group members identify, leadership effectiveness rests on the extent to which the leader is prototypical of the group (i.e. representative of the group’s identity) and engages in group-oriented behavior (i.e. behavior perceived to benefit the group). Explicating the added value of our model and going beyond contemporary approaches to leadership effectiveness, we discuss how our model extends, and may be integrated with, three major contemporary approaches to leadership effectiveness (charismatic leadership theories, Leader-Member Exchange theory, and leadership categorization theories). In addition, we outline how our model provides a viable framework to integrate future developments in research on leadership such as a growing attention to leader fairness and the role of emotions in leadership effectiveness.