Gender-Specific Disparities in Obesity

Department of Health Policy and Management, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-7199, USA.
Journal of Community Health (Impact Factor: 1.28). 03/2006; 31(1):57-68. DOI: 10.1007/s10900-005-8189-8
Source: PubMed


Little prior research has investigated whether the correlates of obesity differ between men and women. The objective of this study was to examine gender-specific disparities in obesity by rurality of residence, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Particular emphasis was devoted to examining potential differences between residents of urban, suburban, and rural areas. Data from the adult version of the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for the state of Texas were used to model the crude and adjusted odds of being obese as compared to normal weight. The findings showed that males of other race/ethnicity had lower adjusted odds of obesity than non-Hispanic whites, but other race/ethnicity was insignificant for females. Females who were Hispanic or black/African American had higher adjusted odds of obesity than non-Hispanic whites, but Hispanic ethnicity and black/African American race were insignificant for males. Men and women residing in non-metropolitan areas had higher adjusted odds of obesity than their counterparts in metropolitan areas. No economic disparities were revealed among men, but females with high household income had lower odds of obesity than those with low income. Educational status was insignificant for men and women. The findings suggest that programs and policies aimed at curbing obesity should target males and females residing in non-metropolitan localities. Other initiatives should focus on particular groups of women, including those who are Hispanic or black/African American and have low household income.

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    • "Additionally, since OB clusters were identified using PI prevalence estimates as covariate (BiLISA), the identified high-high clusters likely reflect areas of both higher OB and PI rates. These findings are in line with previous studies that have investigated disparities in OB in Texas, and indicating that higher OB rates were associated with poor dietary intake and sedentary life style (Borders et al. 2006; Patterson et al. 2004).  The identified high-high spatial clusters should be prioritized for public health interventions, which include resources allocation, programs development and strategies for reducing higher OB prevalence rates. "
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    DESCRIPTION: This study examines the gender-specific spatial patterns (clusters) of Obesity in Texas and explores potential social and environmental differences between identified spatial clusters.
    Full-text · Research · Nov 2015
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    • "or odds ratios (OR), and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) presented between brackets (respectively linear or logistic ones, using the “xtreg” and the “xtmelogit” command in Stata11 software, specifying that the collected data were clustered by census block). All the analyses were performed for men and women separately, since the literature usually reports gender differences for factors associated with overweight [21,22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI) and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA) was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55) and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age), and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men (< 35 years of age) did we observe any association with parental nationality, with a higher BMI when having a MENA parentage. Regarding the association between the proportion of lifetime spent in France and overweight, we observed that, in women, a proportion of 50% to 99% appeared to be associated with overweight, especially after the age of 35. In men, having spent more than half of one’s lifetime in France was associated with a higher risk of overweight among oldest men. Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Public Health
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    • "For example, Schall (1995) notes that among Pacific women, age is a better predictor of hypertension than is modernization, whereas among Pacific men, modernization is a better predictor of higher BP than is age. Indeed, several researchers note that the effect of migration on BMI and BP is gender specific (Borders et al. 2006; Bruce et al. 2007; Gloria-Bottini et al. 2007; Newell-Morris 1995; Nirmala 2001; Schall 1995). Therefore, a clinical question such as whether BMI and BP increase with migration is best understood by incorporating cultural information such as gender roles. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of migration on human health have been a topic of interest for demographers and human biologists. Even if migrants to a new region achieve a higher standard of living in their new place of residence, their improved living conditions may not be associated with better health. Part of the difficulty of understanding the health consequences of migration is the complications in trying to control for variables that may affect health, such as gender, age, and urban or rural environment of migrants and nonmigrants. In this paper we report results of a meta-analysis of the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) of people of South Asian descent, by comparing nonmigrants who inhabit the subcontinent, with migrants who moved to various places around the globe. Our results indicate that BMI almost always increases to a significant level upon migration and that an increase in BMI is most pronounced in female migrants. Our results also show that BP does not always increase in migrant communities and that it is actually lower in some migrant samples than it is in comparable nonmigrant groups. Therefore, our results show that BP and the BMI do not behave in the same manner following a migration event. We propose that the BMI changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect different activity levels and diet in the new homeland. However, the BP changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect stress broadly defined. Such stress may be increased or decreased, depending on the specific migration experience. We propose that the BMI and BP measure two different dimensions of the migration experience.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Human Biology
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