Parafibromin mutations in hereditary hyperparathyroidism syndromes and parathyroid tumours
University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom Clinical Endocrinology
(Impact Factor: 3.46).
04/2006; 64(3):299-306. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2006.02460.x
To investigate two patients with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome and three patients with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), together with 31 parathyroid tumours (2 HPT-JT, 2 FIHP and 27 sporadic) for HRPT2 mutations. The HPT-JT syndrome and FIHP are autosomal dominant disorders that may be caused by abnormalities of the HRPT2 gene, located on chromosome 1q31.2. HRPT2 encodes a 531 amino acid protein, parafibromin, which interacts with human homologues of the yeast Paf1 complex.
Leukocyte and tumor DNA was used with HRPT2-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 17 exons and their splice junctions, and the DNA sequences of the polymerase chain reaction products determined.
Three heterozygous germline HRPT2 mutations, two in HPT-JT and one in FIHP patients, were identified. These consisted of one 1-bp duplication (745dup1bp), 1 nonsense (Arg234Stop) and 1 missense (Asp379Asn) mutation. One parathyroid tumour from an FIHP patient was demonstrated to harbour a germline deletion of 1 bp together with a somatic missense (Leu95Pro) mutation, consistent with a 'two-hit' model for hereditary cancer. The 27 sporadic benign parathyroid tumours did not harbour any HRPT2 somatic mutations. Six HRPT2 polymorphisms with allele frequencies ranging from 2% to 15% were detected.
Our results have identified three novel HRPT2 mutations (two germline and one somatic). The Asp379Asn mutation is likely to disrupt interaction with the human homologue of the yeast Paf1 complex, and the demonstration of combined germline and somatic HRPT2 mutations in a parathyroid tumour provide further evidence for the tumour suppressor role of the HRPT2 gene.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "HPT-JT, considered a rare variant of familial HPT, was first described in 1990 . Hypercalcemia and high PTH levels are associated with HPT-JT, andossifying fibromas reportedly occur in 25–50% of HPT-JT cases [16,54]. We reviewed the literature reporting cases of HPT-JT with jaw ossifying fibromas (Table 2). "
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ABSTRACT: The clinicopathologic characteristics of multiple ossifying fibroma (OF) are unclear due to the condition's rarity, making diagnosis challenging. Sporadic multiple OFs must be distinguished from hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT) related OF and other fibro-osseous lesions.
Multiple OF cases were identified from ossifying fibroma cases. Clinical data including age, sex, anatomic site, radiographic features, clinical impression, treatment and available follow-up data as well as serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were recorded. GNAS and HRPT2 genetic mutations were examined in the two present cases. Case reports of sporadic multiple ossifying fibroma and HPT-JT-related OF were also reviewed.
The two present cases were confirmed as sporadic multiple OF, with no genetic GNAS and HRPT2 mutations found. The incidence of sporadic multiple ossifying fibroma was 2.0% (2/102). The total 18 sporadic multiform OF cases were characterized as followed: 13 (72.2%) female; 5 (27.8%) male; mean age 28.6 years; 2/16 (11.1%) cases only in the mandible; 4/18 (22.2%) cases only in the maxilla; and 12/18 (66.7%) cases in both the maxilla and mandible. Radiographically, the lesions were radiolucent in 5/18 (27.8%) cases and mixed density in 13/18 (72.2%) cases. Along with 24 cases of HPT-JT related OF were reviewed, sixteen (66.7%) patients were diagnosed with a single lesion, and 8 patients (33.3%) were diagnosed with multiple jaw lesions.
Sporadic multiple OFs are very rare, but must be distinguished from HPT-JT related OF. We strongly recommend that patients diagnosed with multiple ossifying fibromas receive serum PTH testing and mutation screening of HRPT2.Virtual slides: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1194507146115753.
Available from: Massimo Carella
- "The vast majority of coding alterations are frameshift and nonsense, predicting a truncated protein. Only a few missense mutations (11 out of 124) have been reported and, among those, only two - p.Arg91Pro  and p.Leu95Pro  - were associated with NoLS motifs . "
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ABSTRACT: Hyperparathyroidism Jaw-Tumour Syndrome (HPT-JT) is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), maxillary/mandible ossifying fibromas and by parathyroid carcinoma in 15% of cases. Inactivating mutations of the tumour suppressor CDC73/HRPT2 gene have been found in HPT-JT patients and also as genetic determinants of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma/atypical adenomas and, rarely, typical adenomas, in familial PHPT. Here we report the genetic and molecular analysis of the CDC73/HRPT2 gene in three patients affected by PHPT due to atypical and typical parathyroid adenomas, in one case belonging to familial PHPT. Flag-tagged WT and mutant CDC73/HRPT2 proteins were transiently transfected in HEK293 cells and functional assays were performed in order to investigate the effect of the variants on the whole protein expression, nuclear localization and cell overgrowth induction. We identified four CDC73/HRPT2 gene mutations, three germline (c.679_680delAG, p.Val85_Val86del and p.Glu81_Pro84del), one somatic (p.Arg77Pro). In three cases the mutation was located within the Nucleolar Localisation Signals (NoLS). The three NoLS variants led to instability either of the corresponding mutated protein or mRNA or both. When transfected in HEK293 cells, NoLS mutated proteins mislocalized with a predeliction for cytoplasmic or nucleo-cytoplasmic localization and, finally, they resulted in overgrowth, consistent with a dominant negative interfering effect in the presence of the endogenous protein.
Available from: Inga-Lena Nilsson
- "1997 , Farnebo et al . 1998 ) . This revealed five cases with an MEN1 mutation predicted to give a truncated menin protein and one case with a missense HRPT2 mutation in agreement with the previous reports of frequent MEN1 mutations and rare HRPT2 mutations in parathyroid adenomas ( Carpten et al . 2002 , Howell et al . 2003 , Krebs et al . 2005 , Bradley et al . 2006 , Juhlin et al . 2006 ) . None of the patients for which a MEN1 or HRPT2 mutation was detected presented clinical indications or a family history indicating a familial form of the disease , which would suggest that the mutations are somatic . However , as constitutional DNA was not sequenced , the presence of constitutive mutations cann"
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we genetically characterized parathyroid adenomas with large glandular weights, for which independent observations suggest pronounced clinical manifestations. Large parathyroid adenomas (LPTAs) were defined as the 5% largest sporadic parathyroid adenomas identified among the 590 cases operated in our institution during 2005-2009. The LPTA group showed a higher relative number of male cases and significantly higher levels of total plasma and ionized serum calcium (P<0.001). Further analysis of 21 LPTAs revealed low MIB1 proliferation index (0.1-1.5%), MEN1 mutations in five cases, and one HRPT2 (CDC73) mutation. Total or partial loss of parafibromin expression was observed in ten tumors, two of which also showed loss of APC expression. Using array CGH, we demonstrated recurrent copy number alterations most frequently involving loss in 1p (29%), gain in 5 (38%), and loss in 11q (33%). Totally, 21 minimal overlapping regions were defined for losses in 1p, 7q, 9p, 11, and 15q and gains in 3q, 5, 7p, 8p, 16q, 17p, and 19q. In addition, 12 tumors showed gross alterations of entire or almost entire chromosomes most frequently gain of 5 and loss of chromosome 11. While gain of 5 was the most frequent alteration observed in LPTAs, it was only detected in a small proportion (4/58 cases, 7%) of parathyroid adenomas. A significant positive correlation was observed between parathyroid hormone level and total copy number gain (r=0.48, P=0.031). These results support that LPTAs represent a group of patients with pronounced parathyroid hyperfunction and associated with specific genomic features.
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