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Efficacy of an essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Psoroptes cuniculi

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo acaricidal effects of an essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicun leaves on Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite. In vitro, 2.5 ml of the essential oil diluted at different concentrations, from 10% to 0.03%, in paraffin oil were added to Petri dishes containing all motile stages of P. cuniculi. Mites mortality observed in these dishes was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (AcaCerulen R) control plates. In vivo, one group of six P. cuniculi infected rabbits was topically treated two times at seven days interval with two ml of the essential oil at the concentration of 2.5% in paraffin oil and compared with untreated and treated (AcaCerulen R) control groups of six rabbits each. After 24 h of contact, all concentrations of essential oil between 0.10 and 10% showed a good in vitro acaricidal efficacy if compared with the untreated controls (p<0.01), but only the concentrations between 0.16 and 10% turned out as active as the drug. In vivo, the treatment with the essential oil cured all infested rabbits and no statistical differences were observed with the treated control group.

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... and seem to have strong acaricidal efficacy in vitro by using contact and vapour exposure assays Fang et al., 2016;Pasay et al., 2010;Seddiek et al., 2013;Shang et al., 2016;Shang et al., 2013;. Several essential oils were also tested in vivo against S. scabiei in rabbits, goats and pigs Nong et al., 2013a;Nong et al., 2013b), against P. cuniculi in rabbits (Fichi et al., 2007a;Fichi et al., 2007b;Shang et al., 2016) and against Chorioptes texanus in cattle (Nong et al., 2014). Generally, essential oils are considered as a potential source of alternative acaricides, ...
... scabiei in rabbits, goats and pigs Nong et al., 2013b), against P. cuniculi in rabbits (Fichi et al., 2007a;Fichi et al., 2007b;Shang et al., 2016) and against Chorioptes texanus in cattle (Nong et al., 2014). Essential oils are volatile oils which are naturally produced by plants as secondary compounds, and are commercially available as concentrated products containing volatile aroma compounds Shaaban et al., 2012). ...
... Previous studies have shown that a large number of essential oils had acaricidal activity in vitro and in vivo. Clove oil, tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil, eupatorium extracts and lemon oil caused significant mortality in S. scabiei Fang et al., 2016;Nong et al., 2013a;Pasay et al., 2010;Thomas et al., 2016); cinnamon oil, oregano oil, Laurus and rhododendron in P. cuniculi Fang et al., 2016;Fichi et al., 2007b;; and trans-cinnamic acid in P. ovis . Although the acaricidal efficacy of many essential oils has been well documented, the involved mechanism and effective ingredients of the acaricidal activity are barely understood. ...
... The plant species that produce essential oils with potential insecticidal activities for pest control include clove, Syzygium aromaticum, and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The insecticidal activity of clove and cinnamon oils is well documented [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24], but relatively little attention has been paid to the respiratory and locomotory responses induced by these compounds in insects, although these physiological and behavioral traits indicate the adaptability of insect populations to the environmental conditions to which they are exposed [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. ...
... Despite the fact that the insecticidal activity of clove and cinnamon oils is well documented [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24], relatively little attention has been paid to the respiratory responses induced by these compounds in insects. Decreased oxygen uptake by animals that have been poisoned with pesticides is related to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation processes and the regulation of breathing [59][60][61][62], and subtle changes in the respiratory responses may compromise the efficacy of control strategies, especially for insect populations that are already resistant to traditional insecticides [30,62,63]. ...
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Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides.
... Degree of infestation was determined by the presence of scabs and/or mites in the hosting rabbit's pinna and the ear canal was observed with an otoscope, designating the following qualitative criteria: Absence of scabs or mites = 0, irritation in the ear canal but no mites observed = 0.5, small number of scabs in the ear canal and mites present = 1, external ear canal filled with scabs and mites present = 2, scabs in ∼1/4 of the pinnal area and mites present = 3, scabs in ∼1/2 of the pinnal area and mites present = 4, scabs in ∼3/4 of the pinnal area and mites present = 5, pinna full of scabs and mites present = 6 ( Guillot and Wright, 1981;Fichi et al., 2007b;Fichi et al., 2007a). Scores of 1-2 were considered as low, 3-4 as moderate and 5-6 as high. ...
... The B. thuringiensis protein concentration used in the present study for the treatment of psoroptic mange, was similar to that previously reported in the in vitro treatment of the cestode Dypilidium caninum ( Wei et al., 2003), and ticks of the species H. dromedari ( Hassanain et al., 1997) thus confirming the potential of B. thuringiensis for controlling parasites relevant to human and animal health. In addition to B. thuringiensis, treatment with certain essential oils, such as Cinnamomum zeylanicum, can result in a significant reduction in infestation degree (to lower than 0.5), and in the case of Eugenia caryophyllata a complete reduction to grade 0 can be achieved ( Fichi et al., 2007a;Fichi et al., 2007b). Likewise, the botanical extract of E. adenophorum is effective topically, a decrease in the average infestation degree at day 14 (from 3.37 to 3.48 to 0) was reported ( Hu et al., 2014a;Hu et al., 2014b). ...
Article
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacteria known for its bioinsecticidal toxins and it has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of several parasites that infect domestic animals (helminths, ticks, mites). In this work, we evaluated the clinical efficiency of the Bacillus thuringiensis GP532 strain in the treatment of six rabbits naturally infested with the P. cuniculi mite. GP532 extract (10 mg/ml) was applied by aspersion in both pinna, with a second application after seven days, and the therapeutic effect was measured in both qualitative and quantitative manner. GP532 application resulted in a decreased infestation rate, which was observed as early as 3 days post-treatment. At day 14, a decrease from 4.66 ± 0.61 to 0.50 ± 0.10 in the left pinna and from 1.66 ± 0.21 to 0.66 ± 0.16 (P < 0.05) in the right pinna was observed. This response was comparable to the commercial drug Ivermectin, which induced a decreased infestation rate from 4.00 ± 0.51 to 0.16 ± 0.10 in the left pinna and from 4.66 ± 0.80 to 0.25 ± 0.11 in the right pinna (P < 0.05). At day 30 post-treatment, GP532 decreased the total infested area by 76.80 ± 16.06%, whereas Ivermectin resulted in a 97.41 ± 0.99% decrease. Neither treatment produced irritation or macroscopic lesions. Our results show that the B. thuringiensis GP532 strain has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of psoroptic mange in rabbits.
... Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) is a perennial tree, and its essential oil (EO) is used as a flavoring and a natural food preservative, and it is one of the main products responsible for pharmacological activities (Marques, 2001). The EO composition of C. verum is quite variable; however, many studies report eugenol and cinnamaldehyde as the main component of the essential oil from the leaves and bark, respectively (Fichi et al., 2007;Cardoso et al., 2012). Eugenol is a terpene that has been shown to be acaricidal against R. microplus (Hue et al., 2015). ...
... The species C. verum studied belongs to the chemotype benzyl benzoate, which has known uses against mange and others parasites (Chang et al., 1996;Kim et al., 2008;Silva et al., 2009). Compounds found in smaller concentration in the C. verum oil in the present study has shown acaricidal activity or could act as a synergist for other terpenes, such as E-cinnamaldehyde (Senra et al., 2013) and eugenol (Fichi et al., 2007;Valente et al., 2014;Araújo et al., 2016). The presence of these active ingredients can be the reason for good acaricidal activity against the larvae of R. microplus shown by the essential oil from the leaves of C. verum investigated in this study. ...
Article
The Essential Oils (EOs) from the leaves of species Cinnamomum verum J. Presl are used in the pharmaceutical industry for their numerous biological activities. Currently, the main compound of C. verum EO is eugenol which has acaricidal activity; however, a rare chemotype with benzyl benzoate as the main component can be found. Benzyl benzoate is recognized as an acaricide; however, studies of the C. verum EOs benzyl benzoate chemotype on Rhipicephalus microplus were not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricide activity of an EO from a rare chemotype of C. verum, as well as purified benzyl benzoate, against larvae and engorged females of R. microplus resistant to amidines and pyrethroids. The EO was extracted from C. verum leaves and the compounds present were identified using a gas phase chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Efficacy against R. microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. A rare chemotype of C. verum was found to produce EOs with benzyl benzoate (65.4%) as the main compound. The C. verum essential oil was 3.3 times more efficient on the R. microplus larvae than was benzyl benzoate. However, no differences were found on the R. microplus engorged females. This is the first report regarding the acaricidal activity of C. verum with chemotype benzyl benzoate, and this compound showed acaricidal activity on R. microplus larvae.
... The plant species that produce essential oils with potential insecticidal activities for pest control include clove, Syzygium aromaticum, and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The insecticidal activity of clove and cinnamon oils is well documented [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24], but relatively little attention has been paid to the respiratory and locomotory responses induced by these compounds in insects, although these physiological and behavioral traits indicate the adaptability of insect populations to the environmental conditions to which they are exposed [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. ...
... Despite the fact that the insecticidal activity of clove and cinnamon oils is well documented [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24], relatively little attention has been paid to the respiratory responses induced by these compounds in insects. Decreased oxygen uptake by animals that have been poisoned with pesticides is related to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation processes and the regulation of breathing [59][60][61][62], and subtle changes in the respiratory responses may compromise the efficacy of control strategies, especially for insect populations that are already resistant to traditional insecticides [30,62,63]. ...
... The collected scales were put in plastic tubes, then were transferred to the laboratory. The collected scabs were placed in petri dishes, then were incubated immediately at 35°C for 30 min in a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) incubator (Fichi et al. 2007). The scabs were examined microscopically for the presence of mites and identification using descriptions and diagnostic keys of Baker (1999). ...
... Twenty-four rabbits were divided into three groups of eight as follows; infected group (non-treated positive control), deltamethrin-treated (DT) group (infected rabbits treated with 5 % deltamethrin [1 cm 3 /l]), and the third group was lemon oil-treated (LT) group (infected rabbits treated with 20 % lemon oil). The treatment in each group was made through dipping the infected parts once a week for four successive weeks (Fichi et al. 2007). Each rabbit was housed in a separate cage, 35 × 35 × 25 cm dimensions. ...
Article
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The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro application was done in five replicates for each concentration in petri dishes in the laboratory. The treated mites were observed at 1, 12, and 24 h post application (PA) for lemon oil effect. In addition, oxidative stress profile was evaluated for the treated mite. Dependent on in vitro results, 20 % lemon oil was used in vivo trial. Twenty-four naturally infected rabbits were divided into three groups of eight: 20 % lemon oil, deltamethrin, and untreated control. The infected parts of rabbits were treated topically once a week for four successive weeks. In vitro application results showed that lemon oil 10 and 20 % diluted in water caused mortality to 100 % of mites after 24 h PA. The oxidative stress profile revealed that mites treated with 20 % lemon oil had significantly (P < 0.05) higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde when compared with mites treated with deltamethrin or distilled water. In vivo application of 20 % lemon oil on naturally infected rabbits showed complete recovery from clinical signs, absence of mite in microscopic examination from the second week of treatment. In addition, productive performance was significantly better than infected untreated group. Also, the treated tissue showed stoppage of scale formation and hair growth faster than deltamethrin-treated rabbits. Consequently, lemon oil has remarkable miticidal activity in vitro and in vivo applications.
... and seem to have strong acaricidal efficacy in vitro [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. Several essential oils were also tested in vivo against S. scabiei in rabbits, goats and pigs [21][22][23][24], against P. cuniculi in rabbits [13,[25][26][27] and against Chorioptes texanus in cattle [28]. Essential oils are volatile oils which are naturally produced by plants as secondary compounds, and are commercially available as concentrated products containing volatile aroma compounds [29,30]. ...
... Previous studies have shown that a large number of essential oils had acaricidal activity in vitro and in vivo. Clove oil, tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil, eupatorium extracts and lemon oil caused significant mortality in S. scabiei [14,17,23,24,33,46]; cinnamon oil, oregano oil, Laurus and rhododendron in P. cuniculi [13,18,20,25,27]; and trans-cinnamic acid in P. ovis [15]. Although the acaricidal efficacy of many essential oils has been well documented, the involved mechanism and effective ingredients of the acaricidal activity are barely Fig. 4 Survival curves of adult P. ovis mites exposed to LC 50 and LC 90 values of geraniol, eugenol, and carvacrol following incubation of these compounds for 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 h in a residual activity assay understood. ...
Article
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Background: Treatment of Psoroptes ovis in cattle is limited to topical acaricides or systemic treatment with macrocyclic lactones. Treatment failure of macrocyclic lactones has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential alternative treatment against P. ovis. Methods: The acaricidal activity against P. ovis of four plant-derived essential oil components, i.e. geraniol, eugenol, 1,8-cineol and carvacrol, was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro contact, fumigation and residual bioassays were performed. In addition, 12 Belgium Blue cattle were artificially infested and treated topically once a week for three successive weeks with carvacrol in Tween-80 (treatment group) or with Tween-80 alone (control). The efficacy of carvacrol was determined by the reduction in lesion size and mite counts. Six additional animals were topically treated with carvacrol to assess local adverse reactions. Results: Three components showed a concentration-dependent acaricidal activity in a contact assay, with LC50 of 0.56, 0.38 and 0.26% at 24 h for geraniol, eugenol, and carvacrol, respectively. However, 1,8-cineol showed no activity at any of the tested concentrations in a contact bioassay. In a fumigation bioassay, carvacrol killed all mites within 50 min after treatment, whereas geraniol, eugenol and 1,8-cineol needed 90 to 150 min. Following a 72 h incubation period in a residual bioassay, carvacrol killed all mites after 4 h of exposure to LC90, while geraniol and eugenol killed all mites only after 8 h exposure. Based on these results, carvacrol was further assessed in vivo. Mite counts in the treatment group were reduced by 98.5 ± 2.4% at 6 weeks post-treatment, while in the control group the mite population had increased. Topical application of carvacrol only caused mild and transient erythema 20 min after treatment. No other side effects were observed. Conclusions: Considering the strong acaricidal activity of carvacrol in vitro and in vivo and the mild and transient local side effects, carvacrol shows potential as an acaricidal agent in the treatment of P. ovis in cattle.
... Cinnamom oil has never been tested on S. scabiei. Its efficacy against Psoroptes mites, major parasites of ruminants or rabbits, has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo studies 34 . The sample of Cinnamom oil used in the present study contained, besides eugenol, its majoritory compound, a high concentration of benzyl benzoate. ...
Article
Full-text available
The mite Sarcoptes scabiei is responsible for scabies, a pruritic and contagious skin disease in humans. S. scabiei is also responsible for mange in a wide range of animal species. The treatment of S. scabiei infection is hampered by an under-effectiveness of the few available drugs. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro acaricide activity of a large number of plant essential oils (EOs) against S. scabiei. EOs were selected mainly on the basis of traditional treatments for dermatological infections in Madagascar. The sarcoptes originating from a porcine animal model were tested at concentrations ranging from 10 to 0.1%. The viability of sarcoptes was assessed by stereomicroscopic observation at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min and then every hour until 6 h after treatment. Estimates of lethal time and lethal concentration producing 50% mortality were generated using a probit analysis. The survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. A total of 31 EOs from different plants were tested. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamom) and Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) oils were the most active for all concentrations tested. They may be included in in vivo studies, in order to further assess their potential interest as topical treatments.
... The plant extract and its constituents possess antimicrobial, insecticidal (Dušan, Marián, Katarína, & Dobroslava, 2006;Yang, Lee, Lee, Clark, & Ahn, 2005), acaricidal (Fichi, Flamini, Zaralli, & Perrucci, 2007), and antimutagenic (Jayaprakasha, Negi, Jena, & Rao, 2007) activities. In addition, other evidence suggests that cinnamon may be effective in the treatment of cancer (Nishida et al., 2003) and infectious diseases (Hayashi et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) is a plant with potent antioxidant activity and has been used in traditional medicine for improvement of heart function. The effects of cinnamon bark ethanolic extract were investigated against ischemia‐induced arrhythmias and heart injury in an in vivo rat model of regional heart ischemia. The extract was also standardized, and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Adultmale Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 5 days of reperfusion. Thirty‐two animals were randomized to receive daily oral administration of vehicle or C. zeylanicum bark extract (intragastric, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 14 days before ischemia. C. zeylanicum was standardized through HPLC analysis. Administration of cinnamon bark extract significantly improved ischemia/reperfusion‐ induced myocardial injury as evidenced by reduction of the infarct size. Also, during the ischemic period, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular ectopic beats episodes decreased as compared with that of the control group. The extract stabilized the ST segment changes and QTc shortening, decreased R‐wave amplitude, and increased heart rate during ischemia. The extract also caused significant elevations in serum superoxide dismutase and glutation proxidase activities as well as a significant decrease in serum cardiac troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde levels, 5 days after reperfusion. InHPLC analysis, the amounts of Cinamic acid,Methyl eugenol, and Cinnamaldehyde were8.99±0.5,13.02±1.8, and14.63±1.1mg/g, respectively. The results show that the ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark is able to protect the heart against ischemia– reperfusion injury probably due to its antioxidant properties. Hence, it might be beneficial in these patients and this remedy might be used for preparation of new drugs
... The plant extract and its constituents possess antimicrobial, insecticidal (Dušan, Marián, Katarína, & Dobroslava, 2006;Yang, Lee, Lee, Clark, & Ahn, 2005), acaricidal (Fichi, Flamini, Zaralli, & Perrucci, 2007), and antimutagenic (Jayaprakasha, Negi, Jena, & Rao, 2007) activities. In addition, other evidence suggests that cinnamon may be effective in the treatment of cancer (Nishida et al., 2003) and infectious diseases (Hayashi et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) is a plant with potent antioxidant activity and has been used in traditional medicine for improvement of heart function. The effects of cinnamon bark ethanolic extract were investigated against ischemia‐induced arrhythmias and heart injury in an in vivo rat model of regional heart ischemia. The extract was also standardized, and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 5 days of reperfusion. Thirty‐two animals were randomized to receive daily oral administration of vehicle or C. zeylanicum bark extract (intragastric, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 14 days before ischemia. C. zeylanicum was standardized through HPLC analysis. Administration of cinnamon bark extract significantly improved ischemia/reperfusion‐induced myocardial injury as evidenced by reduction of the infarct size. Also, during the ischemic period, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular ectopic beats episodes decreased as compared with that of the control group. The extract stabilized the ST segment changes and QTc shortening, decreased R‐wave amplitude, and increased heart rate during ischemia. The extract also caused significant elevations in serum superoxide dismutase and glutation proxidase activities as well as a significant decrease in serum cardiac troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde levels, 5 days after reperfusion. In HPLC analysis, the amounts of Cinamic acid, Methyl eugenol, and Cinnamaldehyde were 8.99 ± 0.5, 13.02 ± 1.8, and 14.63 ± 1.1 mg/g, respectively. The results show that the ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark is able to protect the heart against ischemia–reperfusion injury probably due to its antioxidant properties. Hence, it might be beneficial in these patients and this remedy might be used for preparation of new drugs.
... The chemical constituents of the essential oil of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) have antimicrobial, insecticidal, and acaricidal properties (Yang et al., 2005;Fichi et al., 2007;Shahverdi et al., 2007), while clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr at Perry (Myrtaceae) have biological activities and use as medical treatment, food, cosmetic items, and bioinsecticide (Ho et al., 1994;Yoo et al., 2005;Jirovetz et al., 2006). Toxic effects of cinnamon and clove essential oil and their constituents have been evaluated with success to control of agricultural pests (Regnault-Roger et al., 1993;Ho et al., 1994;Isman, 2006). ...
Article
This study evaluated toxic effects, repellency and respiration rate caused by terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils and against Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50and LC90), repellent effect, and behavior repellency response on adults of S. granarius after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and terpenoids were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.5%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (10.2%), benzyl benzoate (9.99%), caryophyllene (9.34%), eugenyl acetate (7.71%), α-phellandrene (7.41%), and α-pinene (7.14%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (27.1%), caryophyllene (24.5%), caryophyllene oxide (18.3%), 2-propenoic acid (12.2%), α-humulene (10.8%), γ-cadinene (5.01%), and humulene oxide (4.84%). Cinnamon and clove essential oil was toxic to S. granarius. In toxic terpenoids compounds, eugenol has stronger contact toxicity in S. granarius than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-humulene, and α-phellandrene. Insects reduced their respiratory rates after being exposed to essential oil terpenoids and avoided or reduced their mobility on terpenoid-treated surfaces. Cinnamon and clove essential oil, and their terpenoid constituents were toxic and repellent to adult S. granarius and, therefore, have the potential to prevent or retard the development of insecticide resistance.
... Cinnamon oil has been shown to inhibit growth of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseuodmonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus fecalis and Salmonella Typhimurium (Chang et al., 2008;Chang et al., 2001;Brenes and Roura, 2010;Pesavento et al., 2015). Several other properties of cinnamon EO like antioxidant (Jayaprakasha et al., 2007), acaricidal (Fichi et al., 2007), and insecticidal (Yang et al., 2005) are also well established. ...
Chapter
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The antimicrobial-resistance (AMR) is a serious global concern. The development of antimicrobial resistance appeared soon after the discovery of 'Penicillin' in 1928 and at present, the microbes are already equipped to resist against fifth generation of antibiotics available in the market. Antimicrobial resistance is responsible for death of millions of people each year leading to heavy losses to the global economy. This situation is alarming and further intensified due to substantial drop in the invention of new antibiotics. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, there is need to explore for alternative strategies to combat microbes with special focus on drug resistance microorganisms. Although, development of new antimicrobials is always a first priority, alternative antimicrobials can be effectively used to reduce the dependence on antibiotics to mitigate onset and spread of AMR. One of these alternative antimicrobials is essentials oils. Essential oils are aromatic liquids which have been used in traditional Indian medicine and food production since ancient times. Their importance has resurfaced in the current scenario due to the emergence of drug resistance in microbes and demand for chemical preservative free food from general public.
... The inner bark of the tree is used in ethno-medicine and flavoring for foods (Bakkali et al., 2008). Different studies showed that extracts and constituents of C. zeylanicum have antimicrobial, insecticidal, and acaricidal properties (Yang et al., 2005;Fichi et al., 2007;Shahverdi et al., 2007). Clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr at Perry (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen tree and native from Indonesia. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the herbicide mixture nicosulfuron + atrazine on 10 trichogrammatid species. A female of each trichogrammatid was placed in a test tube (no-choice) with a card with 45 Anagasta kuehniella eggs. Parasitism was allowed over a 48 h period, then the cards were sprayed with a solution containing nicosulfuron (30 g ha−1) + atrazine (1500 g ha−1), besides the control (distilled water). The nicosulfuron + atrazine mixture increased the Trichogramma atopovirilia and T. pretiosum female emergence. The percentage of T. acacioi, T. atopovilia and T. pretiosum male parasitoids emerged was higher in the control, and for T. demoraesi and Trichogrammatoidea annulata with nicosulfuron + atrazine. Sex ratio of the trichogrammatids was similar with nicosulfuron + atrazine.
... The inner bark of the tree is used in ethno-medicine and flavoring for foods (Bakkali et al., 2008). Different studies showed that extracts and constituents of C. zeylanicum have antimicrobial, insecticidal, and acaricidal properties (Yang et al., 2005;Fichi et al., 2007;Shahverdi et al., 2007). Clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr at Perry (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen tree and native from Indonesia. ...
Article
The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 ), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans -3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor . In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor . Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.
... The results of dose-mortality experiments, carried out by Shen et al. (2012) to test the effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde (a component of cinnamon essential oil) on the common worldwide parasite of rabbits, the rabbit ear mite Psoroptes cuniculi, indicated that this compound had a good killing activity against P. cuniculi adults, and that trans-cinnamaldehyde can be considered as a promising agent for mite control. Similar results were already reported by Fichi et al. (2007), as he showed cinnamon leaf to have high levels of acaricidal efficacy against P. cuniculi in rabbits at concentrations of 2.5%. ...
Chapter
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Cinnamon is a common spice that has been used for several centuries by different cultures around the world. It is obtained from different parts of a tropical evergreen tree belonging to the genus Cinnamomum. Various reports have dealt with the numerous properties of cinnamon and its major components not only for human health but also for agriculture applications. In this chapter, important aspects of trees from the Cinnamomum genus, and their products, such as botany, pharmacology, toxicology, and some end uses, with a special focus on the pesticidal potential for agriculture and indoor uses, are covered.
... Essential oils (0.10 and 10%) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and of Eugenia caryophyllata (Thumb.) showed a good in vitro acaricidal efficacy on the mange mite, Psoroptes cuniculi (Delafond) (Fichi et al. 2007a(Fichi et al. , 2007b. There are also many reports regarding the efficacy of plant extracts on the house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and D. pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Akendengue et al. 2003;Raynaud et al. 2000;Kim et al. 2003a;Kwon & Ahn 2002;Chang et al. 2001;Miyazaki et al. 1989) This study was conducted in order to evaluate the acaricidal properties of crude extracts of clove, Syzygium aromaticum, cinnamon, Cinamomum bejolghota, sweet flag, Acorus calamus and black piper, Piper nigrum, on the mushroom mites, L. perniciosus and F. heteromorphus. ...
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Crude methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts obtained from the flowers of clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, bark of cinnamon, Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) Sweet, rhizome of sweet flag, Acorus calamus L. and seed of black piper, Piper nigrum L., were tested against the mushroom mites Luciaphorus perniciosus Rack and Formicomotes heteromorphus Magowski. A contact method with a completely randomize design was employed. Clove and cinnamon extracts of 125 mg/cm2 caused 88.7–100% mortality of both mites. Dichloromethane extracts of clove and cinnamon showed the highest toxicity against L. perniciosus and F. heteromorphus with LD50 values of 34.97 and 20.44 mg/cm2, respectively. Methanol extracts of sweet flag and black pepper (125 mg/cm2) caused 70–79% L. perniciosus and F. heteromorphus mortalities. Hexane and dichloromethane sweet flag extracts were more toxic to L. perniciosus than the methanol extract of the same plant. Dichloromethane and hexane black pepper crude extracts and methanol extract of sweet flag caused less than 50% L. perniciosus mortality.
... Cinnamon is the inner stem bark of Cinnamomum cassiae of family Lauraceae. Despite of its culinary benefits, it has also been employed to treat various health conditions like as an antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypotensive antidiabetic and [5][6][7][8][9][10] lipid lowering agent . However, its hepatoprotective effect is still not well explored. ...
... Other studies report other chemotypes for cinnamon samples collected outside of Brazil. For instance, eugenol (85.00%) and isoeugenol (74.50%) were found to be the major components of the oil from cinnamon leaves collected in Italy (Fichi et al. 2007) and India (Kiran et al. 2016), respectively. The chemical composition of plant-derived essential oils can vary for the same species from different locations or collected at different times of the year due to the influence of environmental and biological factors (Tak et al. 2016). ...
Article
Diaphania hyalinata is an important pest in organic melon crops and has caused considerable harm to growers in northeastern Brazil. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of essential oils from Eugenia uniflora (pitanga) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) as well as evaluate the repellant action, oviposition deterrence and effect on body mass caused by the oils and the constituents linalool and β-pinene in D. hyalinata. The essential oils from pitanga and cinnamon had a predominance of sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, respectively. The pitanga oil was more effective as a larval repellent than the cinnamon oil and the constituents tested exhibited low repellent activity. In the evaluation of oviposition deterrence, the response of D. hyalinata exposed to the cinnamon oil did not vary with the distance between the treated and untreated leaf disks, but varied significantly when exposed to the pitanga oil. Linalool exhibited greater long-distance oviposition deterrence in comparison with β-pinene. In the experiments on body mass gain, second-instar larvae were more susceptible to the cinnamon oil than the pitanga oil and constituents tested. The findings suggest that these oils, especially the pitanga oil, could be an alternative for the control of D. hyalinata in the larval and adult phases. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect on natural enemies and pollinating insects as well as the cost–benefit of the formulation of an insecticide for use on organic crops in northeastern Brazil.
... In addition to its culinary uses, cinnamon has been employed in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of health conditions (Gruenwald et al., 2010). Some studies showed that extracts and its constituents from cinnamon also posses antimicrobial (Carmo et al., 2008;Chao et al., 2000;Dusan et al., 2006;Ranasinghe et al., 2002;Shahverdi et al., 2007), insecticidal (Yang et al. 2005), acaricidal (Fichi et al., 2007), antityrosinase (Marongiu et al., 2007), antioxidant and antimutagenic (Jayaprakasha et al., 2007) activities. In addition, other evidence suggests that cinnamon may be effective in the treatment of cancer (Hyeon et al., 2003;Nishida et al., 2003) and infectious diseases (Hayashi et al., 2007;Premanathan et al., 2000), and that it also shows anti-inflammatory (Hong et al., 2002;Tung et al., 2008), antioxidant (Su et al., 2007;Murcia et al., 2004;Okawa et al., 2001), hypotensive (Preuss et al., 2006), and cholesterol-lowering effects (Khan et al., 2003;Subash Babu et al., 2007). ...
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The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of cinnamon bark extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Administration with cinnamon extracts (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, treatment of cinnamon extract resulted in markedly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in rats. The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also supported that cinnamon extract markedly reduced the toxicity of CCl4 and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue to near normal. Thus, the results suggest that cinnamon extract acts as a potent hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
... Some other in vitro studies have demonstrated that essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia and most of its ingredients have shown potential against Psoroptes cuniculi (Perrucci et al., 1996). Furthermore, essential oil of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) leaf have been revealed to have great acaricidal effectiveness against Psoroptes cuniculi on rabbits (Fichi et al., 2007). In an in vitro trial among four tested commercially available monoterpenes (Sigma-Aldrich, Milan, Italy) geraniol caused 100% mortality of Otodectes cynotis (dog ear mite) whereas limonene, p-cymene and α-pinene were proved to be less effective (Traina et al., 2005). ...
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Ectoparasitism in animals has become an issue of great concern that needs to be resolved to prevent huge economic losses occurring to livestock industry all over the world. Synthetic adrugs have been playing a major role in controlling ectoparasites, but their frequent and irrational use has resulted in drug resistance to routinely used chemicals and their residual effects on food and environment. Therefore, this approach of using chemical acaricides and insecticides is losing its popularity and effectiveness in controlling ectoparasites. So, the development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Among alternative protocols, plants and their essential oils have played remarkable role in controlling different ectoparasites (ticks, flies, mites, lice) of veterinary importance. Essential oils have been proved to be cheaper, more effective and safer therapeautic agents against different ectoparasites of livestock importance. Resumen: En los animales el ectoparasitismo se ha convertido en un tema de gran preocupación que debe resolverse para evitar que se produzcan grandes pérdidas económicas para la industria ganadera en todo el mundo. Los aditivos sintéticos han desempeñado un papel importante en el control de los ectoparásitos, pero su uso frecuente e irracional ha dado como resultado la resistencia a los fármacos utilizados habitualmente y efectos residuales sobre los alimentos y el medio ambiente. Por lo tanto, el enfoque basado en el uso de acaricidas e insecticidas químicos está perdiendo popularidad y efectividad en el control de los ectoparásitos. Por lo tanto, actualment e se requiere el desarrollo de enfoques alternativos en el manejo de ectoparásitos. Entre los protocolos alternativos, las plantas y sus aceites esenciales han jugado un papel notable en el control de diferentes ectoparásitos (garrapatas, moscas, ácaros, piojos) de importancia veterinaria. Se ha demostrado que los aceites esenciales son agentes terapéuticos más baratos, más efectivos y más seguros contra diferentes ectoparásitos de importancia ganadera. Este artículo puede ser citado como / This article must be cited as: A Abbas, RZ Abbas, S Masood, Z Iqbal, MK Khan, MK Saleemi, MA Raza, MS Mahmood, JA Khan, ZD Sindhu. 2018. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plant Med Aromat 17 (5): 441-452 Abbas et al. Acaricidal and insecticidal effects of essential oils against ectoparasites of veterinary importance
... Scabs were obtained from the edges of skin lesions by a scalpel from 15 postweaning rabbits suffering from mange clinical signs, were placed into plastic tubes, and were transferred to the laboratory. Scabs were placed in Petri dishes, incubated at 35 • C for 30 min in a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) incubator (Velp, Usmate Velate MB, Italy), and examined microscopically for the presence of mites [15]. ...
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Simple Summary: Pre-and postweaning stages are critical in the management of rabbits due to the increased risk of mortalities. Mortality rates during pre-and postweaning periods were 67.10% and 31.90%, respectively. The preweaning mortality was mainly due to causes related to does (95.23%) and infectious agents, including Escherichia coli, and Salmonella (4.77%). The postweaning mortality was mainly referred to managemental factors and infectious causes, including Eimeria species, E. coli, and Salmonella. Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the causes of mortality in young rabbits. A total of 110 V-Line breed female rabbits aged 5 m were used in this study. Rabbit kits were examined daily in pre-and postweaning stages to detect clinical disorders that caused death. The postmortem examination was carried out on dead kits. Furthermore, rabbits were examined for the probable bacteriological and parasitological causes of death. Fecal samples were collected from each dead kit and examined by standard microbiological procedures for bacterial pathogens and macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of endo-and ectoparasites. Throughout two breeding seasons, 2238 newborns were obtained, of which 1736 died, accounting for a 77.57% mortality rate. During preweaning (1st month of age) and postweaning (up to 3 months of age), 1501 (67.10%) and 235 (31.90%) deaths were recorded, respectively. A postweaning fecal examination revealed that 198 out of 229 (86.50%) were diarrheic rabbits due to Eimeria infection. Cittotaenia spp. eggs were detected in 4.37% of fecal samples, and mites (Sarcoptis scabiei) were present in 6.55%. E. coli was detected in 100% of examined animals during pre-and postweaning periods; however, Salmonella spp. were 97.22% and 43.67, respectively. Managemental risk factors were the main causes in preweaning mortality, including insufficient milk supply (37.37%), cannibalism (26.38%), mange infestation of a rabbit doe (22.20%), mastitis (4.30%), lack of doe care (5.00%), bronchopneumonia (2.13%), and enteritis (1.80%). However, risk factors in postweaning mortality included sudden death with general septicemia (13.80%), enteritis (9.63%), bronchopneumonia (5.43%), mange infestation (2.04%), and malnutrition (0.81%). In conclusion, the etiology of preweaning mortality in kits was related mainly to the doe, especially managemental risk factors. However, a combination of multiple pathogenic agents (parasites and bacteria) and managemental factors was reported in the postweaning stage. Careful attention must be paid to avoid these causes.
... The use of cinnamon was found to be quite effective in hypertension (Preuss et al., 2006) and diabetes (Anderson et al., 2016). Researchers have investigated cinnamon for its antimicrobial (Carmo et al., 2008) acaricidal (Fichi et al., 2007), antimutagenic and antioxidant (Jayaprakasha et al., 2007) properties. Cinnamon effectively pre- (Tuzcu et al., 2017). ...
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A butter-enriched high-fat diet changes lipid metabolism, resulting in fat storage, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Effects of cinnamon powder were investigated in butter fed mice. 40 Swiss Albino mice, aged 28 to30 days, were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A was untreated control group (n=8) and another group (n=32) was butter-treated group fed 10% butter. In the fifth week, mice of the butter-fed group were further divided into four equal groups: B, C, D, and E (n=8), fed 10% butter with cinnamon 200 mg, 400 mg, and 600 mg powder per liter drinking water, respectively for 10 weeks. The butter fed group was gained the most weight. Cinnamon supplementation significantly normalized weight gain and had no harmful effects on hematological parameters. Butter supplementation significantly increased total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) whereas, cinnamon powder significantly reduced TC, LDL-c and glucose levels. In butter-fed mice, a significant increase was observed in the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels with subsequent fat deposition in the liver. Excitingly, these enzymes were decreased and no fat depositions were observed in the liver of cinnamon-treated mice. Applying different concentrations of cinnamon powder improved the lipid profile in butter-fed female albino mice.
... Eugenol (79.75%) was the major volatile component instead of trans-cinnamaldehyde (16.25%). FICHI et al. [27] stressed that eugenol (76.1%), caryophyllene (6.7%) and linalool (3.7%) were the major components in the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. zeylanicum leaves. Similar to the current study, UNLU et al. [28] analyzed the essential oil from the bark of C. zeylanicum by using GC-MS. ...
Article
The essential oil from bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Lauraceae was analyzed by GC and GC-MS systems in this research. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, in 0.7 (v/w) oil yields. Twelve constituents representing 99.2% of the cinnamon oil were identified. The major compounds in the oil were cinnamaldehyde (88.2%), benzyl alcohol (8.0%) and eugenol (1.0%). To determine antioxidant activity of the cinnamon oil, a total of 180 quails, fifteen-days-old, were allocated into 6 groups consisting of 10 birds of 3 replicates according to balanced gender and inital live weight. The birds were kept in wire cages in a temperature controlled room at 22 degrees C for 24 h/d in thermo-neutral (TN) groups. For heat-stress (HS) groups, the birds were exposed to 34 degrees C for 8 h/d (from 9: 00 to 17: 00), and later 22 degrees C 16 h/d was performed. Relative humidity was approximately 60-65%. Basal diet was given to control groups in both TN and HS. The birds were fed with the basal diet supplemented 250 or 500 ppm cinnamon oil in the other experimental groups. Heat stress increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of liver (P<0.001), heart (P<0.01) and kidney (P<0.05). It also induced superoxide dismutase (SOD) production of liver (P<0.001) and kidney (P<0.05). Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and glutathione (GSH) level of liver (P<0.001, P<0.05) and heart (P<0.001, P<0.05) were found lower under HS condition. Cinnamon oil supplementation to diet significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activity and GSH level of the tissues in both enviromental conditions (P<0.01). Dose of 500 ppm cinnamon oil had strong effect on antioxidant activity of the internal organs (P<0.01). In conclusion, cinnamon oil supplementation to diet reduced the adverse effects of heat stress and resulted the protective effect on the internal organs by activating antioxidant mechanism.
... Cinnamon oil has been shown to inhibit growth of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseuodmonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus fecalis and Salmonella Typhimurium (Chang et al., 2008;Chang et al., 2001;Brenes and Roura, 2010;Pesavento et al., 2015). Several other properties of cinnamon EO like antioxidant (Jayaprakasha et al., 2007), acaricidal (Fichi et al., 2007), and insecticidal (Yang et al., 2005) are also well established. Oregano (Origanum vulgare): oregano oil and they are largely responsible for the antimicrobial activity (Kokkini et al., 1997). ...
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The development of antimicrobial resistance parallels the discovery of the first antibiotic ‘Penicillin’ by Alexander Flaming in 1928. Currently, the fifth generation of antibiotics is in the market but the microbes are already equipped to resist all generations of antimicrobials. Failure of antimicrobial therapy is rampant leading to the death of about 0.7 million people every year and this toll is predicted to rise to 10 million people per year by 2050, costing up to USD 210 trillion to the global economy. This situation is alarming and further intensified due to a substantial drop in the invention of new antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is now a serious problem of global concern and all concerned expressed the urgent need for new treatment modalities. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat present levels of AMR emergence. This has led to fears of entering into a ‘pre-antibiotic era’. Therefore, there is a need to explore alternative strategies to combat drug-resistant infections. In the last few decades, AMR has led to the generation of “superbugs”, i.e. super-resistant strains with increased virulence and enhanced transmissibility. The factors causing AMR emergence are mainly poor antibiotic stewardship as overuse and indiscriminate use of antibiotics, easy and on-counter availability of all kinds of antibiotics, substandard antimicrobials, poor sanitation, excessive use of newer and potent antibiotics (otherwise reserved for emergency use in severely infected patients), and dissemination of R factors through food and poultry products. Besides, genetic jugglery, intrinsic resistance, the existence of resistome and subsistome, and natural resistance genes are other contributors to the spread of AMR. The decades of experience show that resistance to antibiotics cannot be avoided but can be sufficiently delayed or its onset can be manipulated. The AMR strains are not restricted to human beings rather also constantly extending to economically important livestock and naive ecosystems like Arctic and Antarctic regions, deep seas, and wildlife. Though the development of new antimicrobials is always the first priority, alternate strategies can be effectively used to reduce the dependence on antimicrobials to mitigate the onset and spread of AMR. Alternative to conventional antibiotics will be extremely helpful especially when there are no new antimicrobials in the pipeline in the last few years. The threat of antimicrobial resistance is substantial therefore myriad approaches to circumvent it are to be researched. These include classical approaches, such as searching for natural products in the environment, more synthetic attempts, like the discovery of new compounds with previously unknown mechanisms, rationally mutated bacterial toxins, small molecules designed by virtual docking process, ancient approaches including Ayurveda and herbal antimicrobials, Homeopathy, bacteriophage therapy, bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and nanotechnology for targeted delivery of antimicrobial for better efficacy. If some of these methods can successfully be translated to a therapeutic option, the bacteriological apocalypse may yet be averted. This book compiled the research of scientists working for alternative antimicrobials in India and abroad using Ayurvedic, Homeopathic, herbalist approaches, and also the modern methods including targeted phage therapy, antimicrobial peptides, and nanotechnology. Observation of leaders in the different areas of alternative therapies to mitigate AMR and its after-effects seem to solve this imminent global problem. Editors strongly feel that the compilation shall be of immense use to the researchers working in the area in tackling the global problem of AMR.
... Nasr et al. (2019) found that cinnamon oil caused 73.3% mortality to T. cinnabarinus, since 1 day after application under laboratory conditions. Phytochemical studies have shown that eugenol is the most abundant compound and one of the molecules responsible for the effects C. zeylanicum-derived products (Fichi et al. 2007). In addition, a second compound named cinnamaldehyde, contained in the bark oil of cinnamon, may be also part of the array of toxic compounds (Shahrima and Khalequzzaman 2016; Nasr Means within columns that do not share letters are significantly different (n ¼ 10; Tukey P < 0.05). ...
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In this study, three commercial botanical acaricides (BA) were evaluated on two species of phytophagous mites, the red palm mite (Raiella indica) and the papaya mite (Oligonychus sp.). The toxicity of the BA on the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis was also assessed. For R. indica, CinnAcar and EPA-90 caused more than 90% decrease in the population density in the laboratory. In field trial, CinnAcar was the most effective in suppressing the mite population density. For Oligonychus sp., CinnAcar and EPA-90 caused up to 88.5 and 95.2% mortality in the laboratory. In greenhouse trial, EPA-90 caused more than 90% decrease in the population density of motile stages. Residual exposure showed that EPA-90 had moderate toxicity to the phytoseiid predators, causing 48% mortality in N. californicus and 55% mortality in P. persimilis, whereas CinnAcar and NeemAcar produced 22 to 32% mortality.
... Majority of Cinnamomum species are aromatic trees with a characteristic smell and the reports on their volatile components are readily available in the literature. Recent findings revealed that the volatile oils of Cinnamomum species possess variety of biological activities such as cytokine modulatory effect [5], antioxidant and antibacterial [6], toxicity and insecticidal activity [7,8], anti-inflammatory [9], xanthine oxidase inhibitor [10] and cytotoxicity [11]. The volatile compounds are usually mono-and sesquiterpene compounds, though (E)cinnamaldehyde featured prominently as the major compound of some species which included C. paciflorum [12], C. pubescens [6], C. aromaticum [8] and C. zeylanicum [13]. ...
... Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf oil is characterized by eugenol (75-85%), followed by smaller amounts of linalool (1.6-8.5%), and benzyl benzoate (0.1-8.3%) [13][14][15]. Bergamot oil is rich in limonene (23-55%), linalool (2-37%), and linalyl acetate (12-41%), with lesser quantities of β−pinene (up to 10%) and γ−terpinene (up to 10%) [16][17][18][19][20]. Geranial (48-54%) and neral (29-33%) have been reported as the major components of C. flexuosus, but many chemotypes, cultivars, and variants have been reported for C. flexuosus [21,22]. ...
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Essential oils have shown promise as antiviral agents against several pathogenic viruses. In this work we hypothesized that essential oil components may interact with key protein targets of the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS−CoV−2). A molecular docking analysis was carried out using 171 essential oil components with SARS−CoV−2 main protease (SARS−CoV−2 M pro), SARS−CoV−2 endoribonucleoase (SARS−CoV−2 Nsp15/NendoU), SARS−CoV−2 ADP−ribose−1″−phosphatase (SARS−CoV−2 ADRP), SARS−CoV−2 RNA−dependent RNA polymerase (SARS−CoV−2 RdRp), the binding domain of the SARS−CoV−2 spike protein (SARS−CoV−2 rS), and human angiotensin−converting enzyme (hACE2). The compound with the best normalized docking score to SARS−CoV−2 M pro was the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (E)−β−farnesene. The best docking ligands for SARS−CoV Nsp15/NendoU were (E,E)−α−farnesene, (E)−β−farnesene, and (E,E)−farnesol. (E,E)−Farnesol showed the most exothermic docking to SARS−CoV−2 ADRP. Unfortunately, the docking energies of (E,E)−α−farnesene, (E)−β−farnesene, and (E,E)−farnesol with SARS−CoV−2 targets were relatively weak compared to docking energies with other proteins and are, therefore, unlikely to interact with the virus targets. However, essential oil components may act synergistically, essential oils may potentiate other antiviral agents, or they may provide some relief of COVID−19 symptoms.
... Numbers with the superscript "v" are rabbits with viable (live) mites, while those with the superscript "d" are rabbits with nonviable (dead) mites. Journal of Tropical Medicine demonstrated for plant essential oils [31,32] and for other plant extracts [33]. In the laboratory trial, carbaryl-liquid paraffin combination recorded the fastest action in clearing mite infestations and associated lesions compared with the use of carbaryl-water combination (as used in field trial), liquid paraffin, and ivermectin. ...
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Mange is a common disease of rabbits globally, and knowledge of efficacy of drugs used in its treatment is critical for effective disease control. The current study evaluated the efficacy of three commonly used therapeutic agents in Kenya against mange. In a controlled laboratory trial, 20 adult rabbits were recruited for the study (16 of which were infested with mange, while 4 were mange-free). The 16 mange-infested rabbits were randomly allocated into 4 treatment groups each consisting of 4 rabbits, while 4 mange-free rabbits formed the negative control group. Treatments were administered as follows: group 1 (G1) received two ivermectin injections at an interval of 14 days, group 2 (G2) was treated with a combination of carbaryl and liquid paraffin applied every other day up to the end of the experiment, group 3 (G3) was treated with liquid paraffin droplets applied daily until the lesion cleared, while group 4 (G4, infected-untreated) received distilled water applied topically on their ears and group 5 (G5, uninfected-untreated negative control) was not treated with any preparation. The lesions were scored and sampled daily to check the viability of the mites. A field efficacy trial of the test compounds was performed using 105 mange-infested rabbits. The results revealed that all the test agents: ivermectin, liquid paraffin, carbaryl-water, and carbaryl-liquid paraffin combination were effective against mange, recording the lesion score of zero for psoroptic mange by day 21 in the laboratory and field trials. Lesion scores in the treated groups were significantly reduced ( p<0.05 ) at the termination of study compared with those of the positive control group in the laboratory trial. A point-biserial correlation revealed a strong association ( rpb = 0.79, p<0.05 ) between the presence of viable mites and degree of psoroptic lesions in the field trial.
... The antimicrobial effect of cinnamon essential oil against various bacteria such as E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus fecalis, S. aureus, Salmonella sp., and Vibrio parahaemolyticus have been reported (8,9). Moreover, antioxidant (10), acaricidal (11), and insecticidal (12) effects of this essential oil are well established. Nisin is a well-known bactericide produced by Lactococcus lactis that is active against several Gram-positive pathogens (13). ...
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Background: Various studies have been conducted to determine the effects of essential oils and other natural antimicrobials on foodborne pathogens in culture media. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the antibacterial effects of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone and in combination, in culture media. Materials and Methods: Cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and the major component was identified as cinnamaldehyde. Broth microdilution assay and agar disk diffusion method were used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and EDTA alone and in combination against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: The MIC of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and EDTA for S. aureus was 3125.00, > 500.00, > 125.00, and > 250.00 µg/ mL, respectively, while the MIC of the aforementioned materials for E. coli was 780.00, 31.25, 15.60, and 250.00 µg/mL. In the present study, S. aureus was found to be more sensitive than E. coli and monolaurin and nisin showed the lowest MIC for E. coli. Increased antimicrobial effect was observed when cinnamon essential oil was used in combination with nisin, monolaurin, and EDTA. Conclusions: The present study showed that cinnamon essential oil when used in combination with nisin, monolaurin or EDTA demonstrated stronger antimicrobial effect against foodborne pathogens than when used alone.
... Some other in vitro studies have demonstrated that essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia and most of its ingredients have shown potential against Psoroptes cuniculi (Perrucci et al., 1996). Furthermore, essential oil of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) leaf have been revealed to have great acaricidal effectiveness against Psoroptes cuniculi on rabbits (Fichi et al., 2007). In an in vitro trial among four tested commercially available monoterpenes (Sigma-Aldrich, Milan, Italy) geraniol caused 100% mortality of Otodectes cynotis (dog ear mite) whereas limonene, p-cymene and α-pinene were proved to be less effective (Traina et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ectoparasitism in animals has become an issue of great concern that needs to be resolved to prevent huge economic losses occurring to livestock industry all over the world. Synthetic adrugs have been playing a major role in controlling ectoparasites, but their frequent and irrational use has resulted in drug resistance to routinely used chemicals and their residual effects on food and environment. Therefore, this approach of using chemical acaricides and insecticides is losing its popularity and effectiveness in controll ing ectoparasites. So, the development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Among alternative protocols, plants and their essential oils have played remarkable role in controlling different ectoparasites (ticks, flies, mites, lice) of veterinary importance. Essential oils have been proved to be cheaper, more effective and safer therapeautic agents against different ectoparasites of livestock importance.
... They found this species of mange in over 16% of examined rabbits (Aleri et al., 2012;Okumu, 2014). Cases of otoacarinosis caused by P. cuniculi were recorded in rabbits in India (Sivajothi et al., 2014), Italy (Fichi et al., 2007), Turkey (Kurtdede et al., 2007), Romania (Mederle, 2010), Korea (Kyung-Yeon and Oh-Deog, 2010), and USA (Yeatts, 1994). ...
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A study was made on the prevalence of some parasitic infections appearing in domestic rabbits obtained from individual breeders in Serbia in order to improve the agricultural production of these animals. Aside from economic reasons (meat production and reproduction) rabbits are bred for the research purposes, and races are kept as household pets. For these reasons, among others, it is important to gain knowledge of medical culprits including causes of parasitic diseases that compromise their health, well-being and cause economic losses. This parasitological research was conducted in the period from 2010 to 2015 in 8 epidemiological regions of Serbia, on 433 rabbits as representative samples of different races (154 individuals up to 1 years of age and 279 individuals older than 5). Out of the total number of examined rabbits parasitic infections were established in 82.68% of animals. We detected 3 species of endoparasites (Eimeria spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Passalurus ambiguus) and 3 species of ectoparasites (Scabies from genera Sarcoptes, Psoroptes and Notoedres). In "kits" (small rabbits) coccidiosis was the most prevalent disease (50.65%), while in older animals trichostrongilidosis was common (39.07%). The most represented scabies infection was with the species Psoroptes cuniculi (12.01%). Aiming at better control on the health of rabbits, there is a growing need for continual monitoring of parasitic infections including appropriate diagnosis, application efficient therapeutic protocols and control measures.
... It is being served as condiment in many cultures (Chaudhry and Tariq, 2006). Despite of its culinary benefits, it has also been employed to treat various health conditions and researchers have investigated cinnamon for its antimicrobial (Carmo et al., 2008), acaricidal (Fichi et al., 2007), insecticidal (Yang et al., 2005), antityrosinase (Marongiu et al., 2007), antimutagenic and antioxidant (Jayaprakasha et al., 2007) activities and found it effective in these conditions. It was also found to be effective in hypertension (Preuss et al., 2006),) and in diabetes (Anderson, 2008;Khan et al., 2003). ...
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The objective of this study was to assess the antihyperlipidemic efficacy of cinnamon powder in albino rats. For this purpose 180 adult albino rats (average weight 210 ± 11 grams) were purchased and divided into six groups. In rats blood lipid profile was raised using cholesterol @ 400mg/Kg body weight of rat which was mixed into rat feed for first 15 days of the study. Cinnamon bark powder equivalent to 1gm/kg, 2gm/kg, 4gm/kg and 6gm/kg was administered to the rats of treatment groups 15-60 days. Treatment control group was given Simvastatin at the dose rate of 0.6mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in sterilized gel tubes by direct heart puncturing. Serum was separated and analyzed for lipid profile parameters using reagent kits. Findings of present study revealed that various doses of Cinnamomum cassiae powder improved the serum lipid profile in albino rats by reducing Total Lipids, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol levels in cinnamon treated groups. Furthermore, the most significant effect was shown by 6 mg/kg dose level. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that Cinnamon powder has curative effect against hyperlipidemia.
Article
Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 %) in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %), which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR) was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .
Article
Two male domestic rabbits, weighing 2.8 and 3.4 kg, were referred to the Animal Health Center of the Seoul Zoo with clinical signs of head shaking and extensive pinnal pruritus. Diagnosis was accomplished by clinical signs and microscopic examination of skin lesions. Psoroptes cuniculi, the ear mite of domestic rabbits, was identified as the cause of the lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. cuniculi in domestic rabbits in Korea.
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The bark and the leaves of Cinnamomum species are commonly used as spices and their distilled essential oils are used as flavouring agent. The extract or essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark is composed of a number of compounds (Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, Benzyl benzoate, a-Terpineol) and not all of them appear to have antimicrobial activities. The two (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) barks oil extracts were prepared by hydro distillation method. Streptomycin (10μg/disc) and Chloramphenicol (30μg/disc) were used as standard drug, compared with C. zeylanicum and C. cassia crude oil extract. They were used 10μl for each experiment five pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (ATCC-6633), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC-13883), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-10145), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-126000) and Escherichia coli (ATCC-6633) were used in this study. Among all these experiments the highest percentage of growth inhibition recorded in B. subtilis (53.3%) and S.aureus (53.3%) and the lowest growth inhibition recorded in E. Coli (44.4%), K. Pneumoniae (44.4%) with C. cassia oil extracts. The highest growth inhibition recorded in E. Coli (40%) with C. zeylanicum and lowest growth inhibition recorded in S. aureus (37.8%) with C. zeylanicum. The comparative analysis of bark oil extracts of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia with all these pathogenic bacteria were studied and recorded. C. cassia showed highest growth inhibition range than the C. zeylanicum.
Chapter
Cortex Cinnamomi cassiae, the official Chinese drug cannot be easily discriminated (distinguished) from Cortex Cinnamomi ceylanici alone by TLC- and HPLC-fingerprint analysis, because the chemical composition of their extracts and essential oils vary in dependence of the origin. For the therapeutic use further pharmacological investigations are needed.
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As important secondary plant metabolites, naphthoquinones exhibit a wide range of biological activities. However, their potential as sustainable alternatives to synthetic acaricides has not been studied. This study for the first time investigates the acaricidal activity of naphthoquinones against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo activity, the skin irritation effects, the cytotoxicity and the inhibitory activities against mite acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the two compounds that displayed the best insecticidal activity in vitro were evaluated. Among fourteen naphthoquinones and their analogs, juglone and plumbagin were observed to possess the strongest acaricidal activities against P. cuniculi with LC50 values of 20.53 ppm and 17.96 ppm, respectively, at 24 h. After three treatments, these two chemicals completely cured naturally infested rabbits in vivo within 15 days, and no skin irritation was found in any of the treated rabbits. Compared to plumbagin, juglone presented no or weak cytotoxicity against HL-7702 cells. Moreover, these two chemicals significantly inhibited AChE and GST activity. These results indicate that juglone has promising toxicity against P. cuniculi, is safe for both humans and animals at certain doses, and could be used as a potential alternative bio-acaricide for controlling the development of psoroptic mange in agricultural applications.
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The effect of addition of dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate in the maceration step, which precedes hydrodistillation, on yield and composition of the essential oil of cinnamon dried bark and cortex has been evaluated. The use of a 1:1 ionic liquid (IL)-water mixture permitted the improvement of the essential oil yield by about 200%. Moreover, an appreciable change in the composition of the essential oils when the IL was added was observed. Noteworthy, an enrichment in (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the active metabolite of cinnamon essential oil, attributable to the degradation of lignin by the IL accompanied the impressive increase in essential oil yield.
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The objective of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on biological activities (in vitro and in vivo) of extracts and constituents from Cinnamomum. An extensive review of the literature available in various recognised databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus on the biological activities of various species of the Cinnamomum were undertaken. The literature provided information on biological activities of the species of the genus Cinnamomum. Crude extracts and constituents from about 30 species of Cinnamomum displayed significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antioxidant, chemopreventive, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antispasmodic, antiulcer, antiplatelet, anodyne, choleretic, immunostimulant, anaesthetic and sedative activities. Essential oil, aqueous/alcoholic extracts, cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins were reported to be mainly responsible for biological activities displayed by most of the plants. Plants of Cinnamomum genus possess a wide spread of biological activities validating their use in traditional medicine. However, most of the available references lack information on active constituents, doses, duration of the treatment, storage conditions and positive controls for examining biological activities. The molecular mechanisms involved in eliciting biological activities were not comprehensively elucidated. Investigations to prove the safe use of these plants in traditional medicine are very limited. Thus, more studies on identification of bioactive constituents and their molecular mechanisms are needed. In addition, given that various species of Cinnamomum are being widely used in traditional medicine and culinary purposes, their main therapeutic aspects, toxicity, and adverse effects warrant further investigation in the future. Keywords Cinnamomum, Biological activities, Ethnomedicinal uses, Bioactive constituents
Article
The in vitro acaricidal activities of 16 different traditional Chinese medicines against Psoroptes ovis var. cuniculi were evaluated using extracts prepared by water decocting and ethanol thermal circumfluence. The decoction extracts of Leonurus japonicus, Euphorbia lunulata, and Pyrethrum carneum had strong toxicities towards mites, as did mixtures of the aqueous extracts of L. japonicus and E. lunulata. The mixture containing aqueous extracts of L. japonicus and E. lunulata in a 1:1 ratio killed all mites within 6 h, and mixtures with ratios of 1:0 and 0.5:1 also exhibited strong toxicity. The results indicated that L. japonicus and E. lunulata contain potent acaricidal ingredients.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on biological activities (in vitro and in vivo) of extracts and constituents from Cinnamomum. An extensive review of the literature available in various recognised databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus on the biological activities of various species of the Cinnamomum were undertaken. The literature provided information on biological activities of the species of the genus Cinnamomum. Crude extracts and constituents from about 30 species of Cinnamomum displayed significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antioxidant, chemopreventive, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antispasmodic, antiulcer, antiplatelet, anodyne, choleretic, immunostimulant, anaesthetic and sedative activities. Essential oil, aqueous/alcoholic extracts, cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins were reported to be mainly responsible for biological activities displayed by most of the plants. Plants of Cinnamomum genus possess a wide spread of biological activities validating their use in traditional medicine. However, most of the available references lack information on active constituents, doses, duration of the treatment, storage conditions and positive controls for examining biological activities. The molecular mechanisms involved in eliciting biological activities were not comprehensively elucidated. Investigations to prove the safe use of these plants in traditional medicine are very limited. Thus, more studies on identification of bioactive constituents and their molecular mechanisms are needed. In addition, given that various species of Cinnamomum are being widely used in traditional medicine and culinary purposes, their main therapeutic aspects, toxicity, and adverse effects warrant further investigation in the future. � 2016 The Authors.
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The use of plant essential oils has been shown to efficiently control insect pests of stored beans, significantly reducing the threats associated with synthetic insecticides. Here, we evaluated the potential of applications of essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., to control Callosobruchus maculatus, considered as one of the most cosmopolitan pests of stored beans. Using four combinations of couples (i.e., unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples), we also evaluated how sublethal exposure to these essential oils impacted C. maculatus oviposition. Bioassays results revealed that both essential oils exhibited insecticidal activities similar to the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin. Furthermore, oil dosage increments proportionately decreased the growth rate and reduced the losses in bean weight caused by cowpea weevils, and offspring emergence was almost abolished when parents were exposed to the LD20 of each essential oil. Finally, significant oviposition impairments were perceived only in couples where females were exposed (i.e., females exposed and exposed couples) to the LD20 of cinnamon and clove essential oils. Thus, by exhibiting similar insecticidal activities as synthetic insecticides and by significantly affecting the oviposition of sublethally exposed C. maculatus females, the cinnamon and clove essential oils represent valuable tools with potential of integration into the management of C. maculatus infestations.
Article
Cinnamon oil is commercially available and has been used by the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. In present work, 22 batches of commercial cinnamon oils from different brands were investigated. There are no significant differences in the appearance profiles and physicochemical properties between the samples, but great variation in the content of cinnamaldehyde was found by gas chromatography quantitative analysis. They were further chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 54 volatile compounds were identified. According to principal component analysis of the GC-MS data set, the samples were clustered into three distinct groups with higher concentrations of cinnamaldehyde, diethyl phthalate, and eugenol as their markers, respectively. Moreover, coumarin, a hepatotoxic natural compound, was detected in some samples, which indicated that the samples with higher level of cinnamaldehyde and limited amount of coumarin would be better choice for efficacious and safe use.
Article
In this study, the acaricidal effect of eugenol was measured and its mechanism of action investigated. The results showed that eugenol possessed the effect of killing Psoroptes cuniculi, and could regulate the mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catechinic acid (Ca) and thioredoxin (Trx). PPAR, NF-kappa B, TNF, Rap 1 and Ras signaling pathways might be the main pathways that involved into the process of killing mites. These findings suggested that eugenol could be developed into a new kind of acaricide, and further expand current knowledge on the mechanisms of eugenol for killing Psoroptes cuniculi of eugenol.
Thesis
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Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. They have a short shelf-life that is mainly related to firmness loss, discoloration, desiccation and fungal rot.The reduction of losses resulting from bacterial and fungal rot is a major objective of postharvest technology for cucumbers, which tries to utilize safe and efficacious methods to control contamination and the growth of spoiling fungi and bacteria. A few studies have shown an interesting inhibitory effect of essential oils (EOs) and their constituents on food-related spoiling and pathogenic microorganisms. Although most essential oils are classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) food flavoring, their use in foods as preservatives is limited due to flavor considerations, since effective antimicrobial doses may exceed organoleptically acceptable levels. Besides, it is difficult to formulate solutions with EOs and their derivatives because they are volatile compound which can easily suffer degradation under the action of heat, pressure, light and oxygen. Furthermore, they are insoluble in water, and for certain applications a controlled release is required. In this perspective, encapsulation procedures represent a viable and efficient approach to increase the physical stability of antimicrobial compounds and enhance their bioactivity during food processing and storage. Additionally, the encapsulation of bioactive compounds improve water solubility, controls delivery, improves absorption, reduced toxicity and the cost of using them because a less amount of the active is required. While microencapsulation systems may guarantee protection of antimicrobial compounds against evaporation or degradation, nanoencapsulation systems due to high surface area to volume ratio has a versatile advantage for targeted site-specific delivery and efficient absorption through cells that could lead to higher antimicrobial activity. Also, the nanoencapsulation methods are useful to consolidate antimicrobial agents in material used for food packaging. In recent years, chitosan (CS) is receiving a lot of interest in the encapsulation of bioactive compounds owing to its general recognition as safe (GRAS), biocompatibility and excellent biodegradability, as well as ability to form films, membranes, gels, beads, fibers and particles. Among variety of methods developed to load bioactive compounds into CS nanoparticles (CSNPs), ionotropic gelation has attracted considerable attention due to this process is non-toxic, organic solvent free, convenient and controllable. The CS–TPP nanoparticles has shown its capacity for the loading and delivery of sensitive bioactive compounds such as lipophilic drugs, polyphenolic compounds, proteins, genes and vitamins. This study was performed with the following objectives: i) to encapsulate and optimize two EOs in CS tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles; ii) to characterize several physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS); iii) to evaluate the efficacy of the CSNPs obtained under optimized conditions to inhibit phytopathogenic cucumber bacteria and fungi in laboratory media and as a coating on the cucumbers; iv) to assess the effect of two EOs@CSNPs coating on some physical, physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the cucumbers during storage; and to extend cucumber shelf-life. Zataria multiflora (ZEO) essential oil was encapsulated by ionic gelation technique into CSNPs with an average size of 125–180 nm, as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) of ZEO decreased upon increasing initial ZEO concentration with a decrease in particle size. In addition, we have prepared Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CEO) essential oil-loaded CSNPs (CEO@CSNPs) with size range of 140–200 nm, loading capacity of 3-4%, and encapsulation efficiency of 2-17% ,in the initial CEO content of 0.25–1 g/g chitosan. The optimal weight ratio of CS to ZEO or CEO was found 1:0.25. In vitro release studies also demonstrated a controlled and sustained release of ZEO and CEO. For coating analyze, cucumbers obtained in commercial maturation stage from organic farming, were transported at low temperature to the laboratory and coating experiments were carried out on the same day. Cucumbers were selected for uniform size, shape and color, and without any signs of mechanical damage or deterioration. Then, fruits washed in sodium hypochlorite solution (1% v/v) and left for 2 h in a safe cabinet to dry. A total of 1000 fruit was used for conducting all experiments. The superior performance of ZEO or CEO when encapsulated by CSNPs under both in vitro and in vivo conditions in comparison with unmodified ZEO against P. drechsleri was revealed. The in vivo experiment showed that the encapsulated oils significantly decreased both disease severity and incidence of infected cucumbers by P. drechsleri, after 1 or 2 days shelf-life at 20°C following removal from storage at 4°C. The in vivo experiment also showed that the ZEO@CSNPs or CEO@CSNPs coating extended the shelf life of cucumber up to 21 days at 8±1°C while uncoated fruits could not reach this far (<15days). Furthermore, it was capable of improving the microbiological and physicochemical quality and preserving the quality of the fruit during the storage period. Coated fruits were firmer, maintained color, water content, and showed lower microbial counts (P <0.05) throughout storage. According to these results, ZEO@CSNPs or CEO@CSNPs coatings can be an alternative method with which to extend cucumber shelf-life. Results indicated that the potential application of nanoencapsulated EOs at sub-inhibitory concentrations as an alternative to the sensory impact, particularly flavor and odor, resulting from the application of EOs alone at higher concentrations on fruits.
Article
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The hydrodistilled essential oil obtained from leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) collected throughout the year was examined using gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC‐FID) and gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). The variation in essential oil yield was found to be in the range of 1.1–1.4% (w/w). Between 28 and 40 components, representing 97.92 ± 0.15% of the total oil, were identified. The chief compound was identified as eugenol, varying from 60.24 ± 0.42 to 89.82 ± 0.55%. The other constituents were eugenyl acetate (ranging from 0.10 ± 0.01 to 19.87 ± 0.52%), α‐phellandrene (ranging from 0.76 ± 0.04 to 6.23 ± 0.13%), benzyl benzoate (ranging from 0.91 ± 0.05 to 5.03 ± 0.20%), linalool (ranging from 1.11 ± 0.04 to 3.25 ± 0.08%), and β‐caryophyllene (ranging from 0.50 ± 0.01 to 2.92 ± 0.10%). The essential oils collected throughout the year were found to be rich in phenyl derivative constituents (88.49 ± 0.97%). The biosynthesis and conversion of eugenyl acetate to eugenol appeared as the leaves of C. zeylanicum reached maturity. It was noticed that when leaves were immature, in July and August during the full rainy season, the content of eugenyl acetate was found to be highest, as compared with mature leaves in the other months, with the exception of February (flowering season). Variation between eugenol and eugenyl acetate levels were observed in the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaves. When leaves were immature, in July and August during the full rainy season, the content of eugenyl acetate was found to be highest, as compared with mature leaves in the other months, with the exception of February (flowering season). The period between March and June, when the level of eugenol is higher than 85%, useful in the food industry and other medicinal purposes..
Article
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The present study has been conducted to know the histological changes and the effects on the skin of male sheep caused by the parasite Psoroptes ovis and treatment with cinnamon alcoholic extract as an alternative to the traditional treatment. The animals experimental were used(n=28) divided two groups control sheep that represent one group (n=7) and infected sheep (n=21) were treated with three different concentrations (10, 30, 50 mg / l) of cinnamon alcoholic extract were second group. The results indicated the highest rate of recovery from injury (100% of the animals) achieved at a daily treatment with the concentration of 50 mg/l for a period of four weeks. As for the two concentrations of 10 and 30 mg / l, the recovery rates for the same period reached 30% and 40%, respectively. The results of the longitudinal analysis of histological changes in the infected sheep confirmed that the parasite caused severe changes of altered skin layers, major epidermal distortion characterized by hyper keratinizization and sloughing of the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum, along with many burrowing mites surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates of histiocytes. We also recorded moderate dermatitis of the sub-epidermis with abnormal architecture when compared with the control animals. However, these histological abnormalities were shifted back to the normal state as a result of the treatment with 50 mg/l of cinnamon extract. We conclude that the alcoholic extract of cinnamon with a concentration of 50 mg/l is a highly efficient alternative for the treatment of mange in animals, as clearly demonstrated by the 100% recovery rate and the restoration of the normal histological architecture.
Article
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The present study has been conducted to know the histological changes and the effects on the skin of male sheep caused by the parasite Psoroptes ovis and treatment with cinnamon alcoholic extract as an alternative to the traditional treatment. The animals experimental were used(n=28) divided two groups control sheep that represent one group (n=7) and infected sheep (n=21) were treated with three different concentrations (10, 30, 50 mg / l) of cinnamon alcoholic extract were second group. The results indicated the highest rate of recovery from injury (100% of the animals) achieved at a daily treatment with the concentration of 50 mg/l for a period of four weeks. As for the two concentrations of 10 and 30 mg / l, the recovery rates for the same period reached 30% and 40%, respectively. The results of the longitudinal analysis of histological changes in the infected sheep confirmed that the parasite caused severe changes of altered skin layers, major epidermal distortion characterized by hyper keratinizization and sloughing of the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum, along with many burrowing mites surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates of histiocytes. We also recorded moderate dermatitis of the sub-epidermis with abnormal architecture when compared with the control animals. However, these histological abnormalities were shifted back to the normal state as a result of the treatment with 50 mg/l of cinnamon extract. We conclude that the alcoholic extract of cinnamon with a concentration of 50 mg/l is a highly efficient alternative for the treatment of mange in animals, as clearly demonstrated by the 100% recovery rate and the restoration of the normal histological architecture.
Article
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Investigations were performed on 135 pig half-carcasses of different genotypes, of both sexes, at several abattoirs in Vojvodina. The determination of the carcass halves according to body mass was performed on the grounds of the linear regression coefficient of characteristics per mass of chilled halves. The General Regression Models analysis, statistics 8, was applied. The percentage of muscle tissue was assessed in three ways: Simulation of the FOM instrumental method and using the dissection method: EU1 (Commission Regulation, 3127/94) and EU2 (Commission Regulation, 1197/2006). The obtained results demonstrated that the relative share of muscle tissue in pig carcass halves determined according to the EU1 regulation was significantly (<0.05) lower (49.90%) than the established share of muscle tissue according to the FOM mathematical model (53.71%) and according to the valid EU2 regulation (54.03 %). In the chilled pig carcass halves, ham meat accounted for 16.05%, muscle tissue of the shoulder for 7.11%, LSD 8.49% and TRD 4.95. According to the distribution of carcass halves into market classes according to the SEUROP system using the FOM and EU2 methods, all carcass halves were ranked medium market class (E and U), while the EU1 formula classified only 36.30% of the carcass halves into the same class, and 63.70% into a lower market class (R). None of the formulas classified any carcass half as having the highest 'S' or the lowest percentage of meat 'O' and 'P'. On these grounds, we conclude that the examined samples are of medium quality, in fact, that the carcass halves belong to the medium quality market class (E, U and R). In closing, it can be concluded that further investigations on this subject are necessary because of the established differences in the meat percentage obtained by applying the previous (EU1) and the currently valid (EU2) formula. .
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Analysis of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf, stem bark, and root bark oils indicated 72 compounds, of which 32 have not been reported before in cinnamon oils. All three oils had a similar array of compounds but in varying proportions. Of the new compounds reported there were 11 monoterpenes, 4 sesquiterpenes, 2 aliphatic, and 15 aromatic compounds.
Book
The book is in two parts: first part Essential Oil includes compositae; labiatae; verbenaceae; oleaceae; umbelliferae; myrtaceae; euphorbiaceae; rutaceae; geraniaceae; rosaceae; lauraceae; myristicaceae; anonaceae; santalaceae; moraceae; piperaceae; zingiberaceae; araceae; gramineae; and cupressaceae written in English and Japanese. Part two includes essential oil; gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry written in Japanese. (DP)
Article
Mosquito control properties of essential oils of leaf and bark of Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) and their eight compounds were investigated against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles tessellatus and Aedes aegypti. Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil showed good knock-down and mortality against A. tessellatus (LD50 0.33 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LD 0.66 μg/mL) than leaf oil (LD 1.03 and 2.1 μg/mL). Cinnamaldehyde was a major constituent of the bark oil and eugenol in the leaf oil. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol both were more active against C. quinquefasciatus, A. tessellatus and A. aegypti than the bark and leaf oil. Mosquitocidal activity of cinnamyl acetate against three mosquito species was comptarable to that of the Cinnamomum bark oil, whereas eugenyl acetate was effective on A. tessellatus and C. quinquefasciatus. The other compounds showed less or no activity against mosquitoes tested.
Article
Ethanol and methylene chloride extracts of cinnamon were compared for their effect on Helicobacter pylori growth and urease activity. Methylene chloride extract was found to inhibit growth of H. pylori, while ethanol extract counteracted its urease activity. Cinnamon extract (from methylene chloride) inhibited H. pylori at concentration range of common antibiotics. Complete inhibition in vitro was achieved by 50 microg/ml in solid medium (egg yolk emulsion agar) and by 15 microg/ml in liquid medium (supplemented brain heart infusion broth). The cinnamon extracts were more inhibitory on free urease than on whole cell urease.
Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.
Article
This chapter deals with current and developing methods and materials for the control of arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Some of these are parasites in their own right, while others act chiefly as vectors of one or several diseases. The control measures considered concern mainly the use of insecticides, but it cannot be stressed too strongly that good hygiene (or good animal husbandry) is a pre-requisite. The use of pesticidal chemicals is an integral part of good hygiene, but is not a substitute. Indiscriminate use of insecticides may actually unmask formerly unrecognized pests, themselves tolerant to the chemicals, but previously held in check by predatory insects. The control of anophelines and culicines is considered separately. The control of anopheline mosquitoes is inextricably bound up with programs for the control of malaria so that it is convenient to begin with a brief consideration of the present status of eradication of this disease. Chemical control of Aedes and Cirlex is by larviciding or by treating resting places of the adults with residual insecticides. Suitable larvicides include suspensions, solutions and granules of DDT, dieldrin, malathion, fenthion, tetrachlorvinphos (Gardona), difenphos or Dursban. Insecticides are screened in accordance with a seven-stage evaluation scheme organized by the World Health Organization. Control measures directed against adult flies include residual and space spraying inside farm buildings and the use of baits and impregnated cords. Tests for the investigation of suspected insecticide resistance is described. The chapter discusses the development of modern insecticides with notes of some quite controversial moves, such as the withdrawal of dieldrin from most of its former veterinary uses. Mechanisms of insecticide action are being examined with increasing interest and with vastly improved physical and chemical micro-techniques.
Article
The pharmacological activity of many essential oils on a large number of human and animal pathogens, as used in folk medicine, has been confirmed world-wide by several laboratory investigations. Unfortunately, the biological properties of essential oils can be extremely inconsistent because of the variability of their chemical composition. The acaricidal activities of some natural terpenoids, which are the main constitutents of several essential oils, were evaluated in vitro against the mange mite (Psoroptes cuniculi) of the rabbit, by direct contact and by inhalation. Because the test components represent different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, alcohols, and phenols, with free and esterified or etherified functional groups), it was also possible to discern in a preliminary fashion a correlation between chemical structure and acaricidal activity. The results obtained suggest that molecules possessing free alcoholic or phenolic groups showed the most potent acaricidal activity.
Article
Thirteen essential oils were isolated from officinal plants and tested in vitro against dermatophyte strains isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Of the tested oils, those obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eugenia uniflora and Alpinia speciosa were found to be the most active, inhibiting 80% of the dermatophyte strains tested and producing inhibition zones more than 10 mm in diameter. Zusammenfassung. Dreizehn ätherische Öle wurden aus Heilpflanzen isoliert und in vitro gegen Dermatophytenstämme getestet, die von Dermatophytose-Patienten isoliert worden waren. Von den untersuchten Ölen erwiesen sich die von Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ocimum gratissi-mum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eugenia uniflora und Alpinia speciosa gewonnenen als die aktivsten. Sie hemmten 80% der eingesetzten Dermatophytenstämme und bildeten Hemmzonen von mehr als 10 mm Durchmesser aus.
Article
Abamectin (avermectin B1) and ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin B1) are high molecular weight hydrophobic compounds, active against a variety of animal parasites and insects. Numerous environmental fate and effects studies have been carried out in the development of these two compounds as antiparasitic agents and for abamectin as a crop protection chemical. They were found to be immobile in soil (Koc > or = 4000), rapidly photodegraded in water (degradation half-life (t1/2) in the summer 0.5 days or less) and as thin films on surfaces (t1/2 < 1 day), and aerobically degraded in soil (ivermectin in soil/feces mixtures (t1/2) = 7-14 days; avermectin B1a in soils, t1/2 = 2-8 weeks) to less bioactive compounds. Abamectin is not taken up from the soil by plants, nor is it bioconcentrated by fish (calculated steady-state bioconcentration factor of 52, with rapid depuration). Daphnia magna is the fresh water species found to be most sensitive to ivermectin and abamectin (LC50 values of 0.025 and 0.34 ppb respectively); fish (e.g. rainbow trout) are much less sensitive to these compounds (LC50 values of 3.0 ppb and 3.2 ppb, respectively). In the presence of sediment, toxicity toward Daphnia is significantly reduced. The metabolism and degradation of ivermectin and abamectin result in reduced toxicity to Daphnia. Abamectin and ivermectin possess no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. They display little toxicity to earthworms (LC50 values of 315 ppm and 28 ppm in soil for ivermectin and abamectin, respectively) or avians (abamectin dietary LC50 values for bobwhite quail and mallard duck of 3102 ppm and 383 ppm, respectively), and no phytotoxicity. Residues of the avermectins in feces of livestock affect some dung-associated insects, especially their larval forms. This does not delay degradation of naturally formed cattle pats under field conditions; however, in some cases, delays have been observed with artificially formed pats. Based on usage patterns, the availability of residue-free dung and insect mobility, overall effects on dung-associated insects will be limited. As abamectin and ivermectin undergo rapid degradation in light and soil, and bind tightly to soil and sediment, they will not accumulate and will not undergo translocation in the environment, minimizing any environmental impact on non-target organisms resulting from their use.
Article
Cinnamic aldehyde has been identified as the active fungitoxic constituent of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil. The fungitoxic properties of the vapours of the oil/active constituent against fungi involved in respiratory tract mycoses, i.e., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans A. flavus, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, were determined in vitro as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum lethal concentration (MLC), inoculum density sustained, and exposure duration for fungicidal action at MIC and higher doses, as well as effect of incubation temperatures on fungitoxicity. It is concluded that these inhalable vapours appear to approach the ideal chemotherapy for respiratory tract mycoses.
Article
In this paper the taxonomy and relative importance of various species within the genus Psoroptes are reviewed with respect to inter- and intra-specific variations in cross infestivity and host specificity, site of infestation and morphological characters. Intra-specific variation within populations of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis will then be discussed critically with respect to virulence (the relative growth of the scab lesion and mite burdens), epidemiology, susceptibility to the systemic acaricide, ivermectin, and resistance to synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate acaricides. Finally, it is suggested that the ear mite, P. cuniculi, and the sheep scab mite, P. ovis are variants of the same species. Information was collected from published literature and from the results of unpublished studies carried out at the VLA, Weybridge over the last 10 years.
Article
Successful control depends on epidemiological knowledge, accurate diagnostic techniques, intimate knowledge of the mite's life cycle, its behaviour on and off the host, its macro and molecular biology, the nature of the pathogenesis of the disease, sheep husbandry practices, nutritional and environmental factors; also farmer awareness and attitudes. The variable responses of sheep to the mite, the unpredictable incubation period, course, manifestations and outcome make this an intriguing and perplexing disease. Ways to overcome these problems and to achieve possible eradication are discussed.
Article
Unlabelled: A study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity and mechanism of action of three essential oils (eugenol, alpha-terpineol and cinnamic alcohol) and an equal part mixture (3-blend) against American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). To address species differences in response to treatment with the test oils, Carpenter ants (Camponotus pennsylvanicus De Geer), and German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were included in this study. Exposed American cockroaches demonstrated hyperactivity followed by hyperextension of the legs and abdomen, then fast knockdown or quick immobilization followed by death. Ants and German cockroaches showed fast immobilization/knockdown followed by mortality. The 1:1:1 mixture (3-blend) was substantially effective against all test insects. One of the most remarkable observations was the increased frequency of heartbeats of American cockroaches in response to topical application of test oils. The changes in the pattern of cAMP level was biphasic. A significant increase in the cAMP level was found in response to 1 nmol/ml of eugenol, or 3-blend or 10 nmol/ml of alpha-terpineol. At higher concentrations a significant decrease in cAMP level was found. Blockage of octopamine receptors binding sites was also illustrated at lower concentrations of the test chemicals as judged by the decreased binding activity of [3H]octopamine to its receptors. In conclusion: (1) test oils are neuro-insecticides and their insecticidal activity is species-dependent; (2) a synergistic effect of the three oils was found when they were equally mixed (3-blend); and (3) the octpaminergic system mediates the insecticidal activity of eugenol, alpha-terpienol and the 3-blend.
Article
The antitermitic activities of the essential oils from the leaves of two Cinnamomum osmophloeumclones (A and B) and their chemical ingredients against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated according to direct contact application. Results from this experiment have demonstrated that the indigenous cinnamon B leaf essential oil has a more effective antitermitic activity than indigenous cinnamon A leaf essential oil. Furthermore, when cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and alpha-terpineol are extracted from indigenous cinnamon leaf essential oil and used at the strength of 1 mg/g, their antitermitic effectiveness is much higher than that using indigenous cinnamon leaf essential oil. Among the congeners of cinnamaldehyde examined, cinnamaldehyde has exhibited the strongest termiticidal property.
Article
Normal (pH 3.7) and adjusted (pH 5.0) pasteurized apple juice containing cinnamon (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%) was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A 49594 at 10(4) CFU/ml and stored at 5 and 20 degrees C for 7 days. Counts on tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified Oxford (MOX) medium, and thin agar layer (TAL) were determined at 1 h and 1, 3, and 7 days. The TAL method (MOX medium overlaid with TSA) was used for the recovery of injured cells. In apple juice, both at normal and adjusted pH, with any doses of cinnamon, no L. monocytogenes (a 4.6-log CFU/ml reduction) was detected after 1 h of storage at both temperatures, and no growth occurred at any points of storage. Therefore, cinnamon by itself (regardless of pH) had a pronounced killing effect. A further enrichment step with brain heart infusion agar showed that L monocytogenes was completely inactivated in apple juice stored at 20 degrees C, except in pH 5.0 samples with 0.1% of cinnamon. The TAL method was as effective as TSA in recovering injured cells of L. monocytogenes. Cinnamon considerably inactivates L. monocytogenes in apple juice and thus enhances the safety of this product.
Article
Vernonia amygdalina and Annona senegalensis, two plants used by local/smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria as anthelmintic were screened for in vitro anthelmintic activity using Haemonchus contortus eggs. The extract of V. amygdalina did not show any significant activity at concentrations up to 11.2mg/ml. The extract of A. senegalensis showed significant (P<0.001) reduction in egg hatch at a concentration of 7.1mg/ml. The in vitro fecal culture of eggs with A. senegalensis showed significant (P<0.001) reductions in larval recovery with increasing concentrations from 1 to 10% ((w/w) in fecal culture) when whole ground plant material was used. Although traditional veterinary healers and local livestock farmers claim both plants are effective as anthelmintics, our result indicate that only A. senegalensis showed promising anthelmintic activity especially with use of ground whole plant materials as used by some farmers.
Article
Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity.
Article
The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay with female lice at 0.25 mg/cm(2), benzaldehyde was 29- and 27-fold more toxic than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively, as judged by median lethal time (LT(50)) values. Salicylaldehyde was nine and eight times more active than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively. Pediculicidal activity of linalool was comparable with that of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Cinnamomum bark essential oil was slightly less effective than either d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. Benzyl alcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde exhibited moderate pediculicidal activity. After 24h of exposure, no hatching was observed with 0.063 mg/cm(2) salicylaldehyde, 0.125 mg/cm(2) benzaldehyde, 0.5mg/cm(2)Cinnamomum bark essential oil, 1.0 mg/cm(2) (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 1.0 mg/cm(2) benzyl cinnamate. Little or no ovicidal activity was observed with d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. In vapour phase toxicity tests with female lice, benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these compounds was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Neither d-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Cinnamomum bark essential oil and test compounds described merit further study as potential pediculicides or ovicides for the control of P. h. capitis.
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