An introductory review of cell mechanobiology. Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 5:1-16

MechanoBiology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 210 Lothrop St. BST, E1640, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology (Impact Factor: 3.15). 04/2006; 5(1):1-16. DOI: 10.1007/s10237-005-0012-z
Source: PubMed


Mechanical loads induce changes in the structure, composition, and function of living tissues. Cells in tissues are responsible for these changes, which cause physiological or pathological alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This article provides an introductory review of the mechanobiology of load-sensitive cells in vivo, which include fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Many studies have shown that mechanical loads affect diverse cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, ECM gene and protein expression, and the production of soluble factors. Major cellular components involved in the mechanotransduction mechanisms include the cytoskeleton, integrins, G proteins, receptor tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and stretch-activated ion channels. Future research in the area of cell mechanobiology will require novel experimental and theoretical methodologies to determine the type and magnitude of the forces experienced at the cellular and sub-cellular levels and to identify the force sensors/receptors that initiate the cascade of cellular and molecular events.

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Available from: James Wang, Feb 05, 2015
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    • "In turn, the cell's cytoskeleton influences a broad range of cellular activities. For example, cytoskeletal arrangements in arterial endothelial cells affect intracellular signaling and gene expression which regulate cellular functions such as apoptosis, proliferation and morphology (Wang and Thampatty 2006). "
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    • "In comparison, mechanical behavior of MSCs during differentiation to a vascular cell fate, such as SMCs, is less well defined and more controversial. It is reported that many physiological cell activities such as motility, differentiation, migration and proliferation are influenced by cell structural integrity and consequently cell mechanical properties (Wang and Thampatty, 2006). "
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    • "Vibration seems to play a role in some processes related to embryo culturing, where it increases fertilization rates, although the exact reason for this effect is unknown[6,12,19]. Indeed, mechanical stimulation has been shown to activate DNA synthesis and gene transcription in endothelial and bone cells[32], an effect thought to be a direct result of the microvibrations on cytoplasmic maturation. It has been demonstrated that cells other than auditory hair cells could respond to audible sound[33]. "

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