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Abstract

This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

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... Although to a large extent mass media avenue have been used to promote health messages, they can also facilitate risk sexual behaviors [17]- [20]. This is however due to the reason that sex is most often presented as a casual activity without risks [15], [21], [22]. It is also argued that young people are becoming sexy too soon given what is displayed around them in music videos, social media, television etc. ...
... Past studies show that mass media and pop culture genres used in health promotion activities and for entertainment purposes may have some unintended consequences for the people who use them [5], [22], [25], [36]. A number of studies have also discussed the unintended consequences associated with negative portrayals of Black people including stigma, risky sexual behaviors, and stereotypical representation of Black people [17], [19], [31], [37], [38]. ...
... Other studies have shown that the media have failed to take note of the negative consequences associated with sexual contents in the media as well as the failure of current pop culture to show possible ways of dealing with the negative outcomes, which are critical aspects for many consumers to discern bad and good things for their wellbeing [22], [36]. For instance, music artists have a huge influence on young people's sexual behaviors, attitudes and sexuality through their music and their lifestyles [20], [39]. ...
Article
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Mass media and pop culture have contributed to unhealthy sexualities and irresponsible sexual behaviors. In these platforms, casual sex is normalized while minimizing its serious social and health consequences. Sexual contents and activities hype unhealthy sexual attitudes, which feed into African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) men’s stereotypes as hyper-sexualized, irresponsible, reckless, and incapable of dealing with issues affecting their health. Based on 3 focus group discussions with 31 self-identified heterosexual ACB men, aged 16 years and above, the paper explores how mass media and pop-culture have impacted young heterosexual ACB men's social, and sexual attitudes and behaviors in Windsor, Ontario. The results suggest that exposure to sexual content and materials influence unhealthy and irresponsible sexual behaviors, especially among young heterosexual ACB men. Also, the negative portrayal of ACB men in the media and pop culture define and shape how ACB men conduct themselves.
... Indeed, people are more confident in their ability to engage in sexual behavior when they report using media to develop these social norms (Bleakley et al. 2012). Many other experts argue that mass media can play a significant role in young people's sexual education, influencing sexual attitudes, sexual behavior, and sexual self-efficacy (e.g., Bleakley et al. 2011;Kim et al. 2007;L'Engle et al. 2006;Pardun et al. 2005;Ward 2003;Ward and Friedman 2006). ...
... Young people are further susceptible to messages about sexuality in mass media because they are more likely to idolize media's models of behavior (i.e., celebrities) and have less developed cognitive function (Gruber and Grube 2000). This population also has a heightened sense of information seeking, particularly regarding roles that are conceptualized as being for adults-such as sexuality (L'Engle et al. 2006). Perhaps because sex education from schools and parents lack the breadth and depth of information to properly help young people make informed sexual decisions (Kohler et al. 2008;Santelli et al. 2017), young people turn to the media to learn about social norms regarding sexuality Hust et al. 2017). ...
Article
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People communicate their sexual consent using cues that are explicit or implicit and verbal or nonverbal; implicit or nonverbal consent cues are the most common strategies. As a sexual educator, mass media may provide young people with models of sexual consent that are inconsistent with the explicit verbal cues endorsed by some legal and educational advocates. Guided by Social Cognitive Theory, we examined the effects of film rating on how mainstream films model sexual consent communication and on whether they positively reinforce implicit or nonverbal consent cues. We conducted a content analysis of popular films from 2013 (n = 49) using a codebook that was developed with an inductive process and demonstrated strong inter-rater reliability. Films rated PG-13 depicted characters that were younger than those in films rated R. Further, films rated R more frequently modeled sexual behavior without any preceding consent communication cues. All films tended to rely on implicit or nonverbal models of consent communication; however, these cues were more frequently positively reinforced with consensual sexual behaviors in films rated PG-13 than in those rated R. Because young people are primarily exposed to implicit or nonverbal sexual consent cues in films, they may continue to adopt these types of communication—despite efforts from formal sexual educators to encourage explicit verbal consent cues.
... ause teenagers are exposed to sexual media and adolescents is a community that has become a recipient of support from the media for sexual behavior in addition to these two other factors that become the development of sexual behavior is a strong impulse of teenagers when it will do not just sexual relations but also sexual activity. (Andriyani 2016. Brown, 2006 The relationship between the exposure of the media with family planning in adolescents is obtained by the result of P value = 0.000 and OR (CI 95%) = 7.9 (5.3 s.d 11.9), p = <0.05 then it can be concluded that there is a HUB-TRAN between the exposure of the media to planning marriages in adolescents In Banten in 2019, teenagers who are ...
... ted by Ronate, 2018 tentang hubungan pemanfaatan pusat informasi dan konseling mahasiswa (PIK M) IMPACT Dewantara dengan sikap seksual pranikah mahasiswa di Yogyakarta menyatakan bahwa 40% mahasiswa setuju dengan perilaku seks pranikah dan ini terjadi kepada mahasiswa yang dapat mengakses media informasi yang menyajikan pornografi. (Andriyani, 2016. Brown, 2006. Septiana,2019. Ronate, 2018 The Relationship Between Informasi Officers with Family Planning In Adolescents ...
... Although a full review of how the media, and increasingly, social media, act as significant influence on human attitudes, behaviours and development is far beyond the scope of this chapter, we must at least signpost social psychology's contributions to such debates on the media as a force for pro and anti-social outcomes, such as aggression (e.g. L'Engle, Brown & Kenneavy, 2006;Anderson et al., 2003), health behaviours (e.g. L'Engle, Brown, & Kenneavy, 2006), attitudes towards women (e.g. ...
... L'Engle, Brown & Kenneavy, 2006;Anderson et al., 2003), health behaviours (e.g. L'Engle, Brown, & Kenneavy, 2006), attitudes towards women (e.g. Trolan, 2013) and marginalised groups. ...
Book
T he Psychology of Journalism takes a media psychological approach towards a better understanding of key aspects of news production and reception. Media Psychology is an emerging discipline which is concerned with understanding the interaction between individuals and communication technology. Scholars interested in this area ask questions concerning the way in which communication between individuals is shaped by the media in terms of both its social and cultural characteristics. At a time when the role and function of news journalism are under intense public scrutiny, The Psychology of Journalism explores the psychological processes involved in the production, delivery, and consumption of news. With contributions from an international team of scholars with backgrounds in both media and psychology, the chapters provide theoretical and empirical evidence to better understand why and how journalists and audience alike select, attend, understand, and co-construct meaning from reported events.This book is suitable for students and researchers in Journalism, Media Communication, Political Communication, and Psychology.
... Physical resources which are visual for example textbooks, laboratory equipment and materials for both teaching and learning helps students achieve a lot in science. Many of these are classified as instructional materials (L'Engle et al., 2006). However, the roles of certain visual media, television or video have been reported to have negative effect on academic performance. ...
... The social media particularly is very popular among adolescent of school age (Jan & Hermkens, 2011). Even though this research support the assertion that physical resources which are visual for example textbooks, laboratory equipment and materials for both teaching and learning helps students achieve a lot in science (L'Engle et al., 2006), the social media has been found to have negative impact. Many researches on the impact of media and academic performance that have been conducted had varied notion on the impact of social media as some agreed that social networking sites have a positive impact on student's academic performance and also helps individuals become more knowledgeable while some reported that it actually distracts student's attention (Hall & Pearsons, 2001;Al-Rahmi & Othman, 2014;Intakhab, 2015). ...
Article
This research was designed to investigate the effect of media usage, religiosity and gender on performance in chemistry subject. This study employed survey research design. Two hundred participants (66 males and 134 females) drawn from public Senior Secondary Schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo State constituted the study's sample. The instruments used to collect data included four structured questionnaires-Academic Performance Questionnaire in Chemistry (APQC) (α = .914), Media Questionnaire (MQ) (α = .792), Religiosity Questionnaire (RQ) (α = .735), and Gender Questionnaire (GQ) (α = .899). Chemistry Achievement Test (CHAT) was used to determine performance level and ability difference between male and female. Four research questions were answered and three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 Alpha level of significance. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analyses. The findings of this study showed that media (r=0.119, df = 199, P< 0.05) is a significant correlate of academic performance in chemistry while religiosity (r= 0.057, df = 199, P> 0.05) and gender (r=0.032, df = 199, P> 0.05) are not. It was also revealed that the three independent variables (media, religiosity and gender) are not joint predictors of academic performance in chemistry (R = 0.125, R square = 0.016, p<0.05). It was evident from the findings that media (beta=.112, 11.2%, t=1.552, p<0.05) had the highest significant contribution to academic performance in chemistry. The results also showed that there is no statistical difference in the ability of male (x=3.89, SD=1.609) and female (x=4.01, SD=1.573) even though 59.5% of the students scored less than 50 in Chemistry Achievement test. The study, therefore, concluded that media is a potent correlate and significant determinant of performance in public Senior Secondary Schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria while religiosity and gender are not.
... Engagement into behaviors such as substance abuse, alcohol use and marijuana smoking has been linked with adolescents' sexual behavior in the sense that, adolescents who engage in these behaviors are more likely to be sexually experienced and report multiple partners than those who do not [21][22][23][24][25]15] and initiation of these behaviors is to a significant extent a result of peer influence which itself has been reported to be a strong correlate of sexual behavior [26][27][28]. Furthermore, exposure to the media has been reported to be associated significantly with sexual behavior; the media gives the impression that sex is something that everyone is doing and generates misconceptions among teenagers and it has been observed that adolescents who are exposed to sexual content on the media are more likely to be sexually experienced [29,5]; but it has also been argued that, females are more likely to display sexual content than do males while male are more likely to purposively seek out for it [30,31]. Gender differences in sexual behavior have been discussed at length with males in most of the cases reporting more incidences of sexual activities at lower ages than do females [5,32]. ...
... The male gender has in a couple of studies been associated with higher rates of reported sexual activity than females [32,35,19]; however, these higher rates among males have to be considered with a certain level of doubt because some times they tend to over report their sexual experience due to peer and media induced misconceptions that sex is part of proving one's manhood and the reverse is true for the case of females. Exposure to sexually explicit social media as observed, increased odds of sexual activity; this finding is in line with other studies which linked explicit content with increased sexual experience [29,31]. It could as well explain higher rates among males because they tend to seek for explicit content more than the females [30]. ...
... Engagement into behaviors such as substance abuse, alcohol use and marijuana smoking has been linked with adolescents' sexual behavior in the sense that, adolescents who engage in these behaviors are more likely to be sexually experienced and report multiple partners than those who do not [21][22][23][24][25]15] and initiation of these behaviors is to a significant extent a result of peer influence which itself has been reported to be a strong correlate of sexual behavior [26][27][28]. Furthermore, exposure to the media has been reported to be associated significantly with sexual behavior; the media gives the impression that sex is something that everyone is doing and generates misconceptions among teenagers and it has been observed that adolescents who are exposed to sexual content on the media are more likely to be sexually experienced [29,5]; but it has also been argued that, females are more likely to display sexual content than do males while male are more likely to purposively seek out for it [30,31]. Gender differences in sexual behavior have been discussed at length with males in most of the cases reporting more incidences of sexual activities at lower ages than do females [5,32]. ...
... The male gender has in a couple of studies been associated with higher rates of reported sexual activity than females [32,35,19]; however, these higher rates among males have to be considered with a certain level of doubt because some times they tend to over report their sexual experience due to peer and media induced misconceptions that sex is part of proving one's manhood and the reverse is true for the case of females. Exposure to sexually explicit social media as observed, increased odds of sexual activity; this finding is in line with other studies which linked explicit content with increased sexual experience [29,31]. It could as well explain higher rates among males because they tend to seek for explicit content more than the females [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There are both individual and environmental factors that are believed to be significantly associated with sexual experience among adolescent students. This cross sectional study aimed at exploring them using the ecological systems theory. A random sample of 407 students completed a semi structured survey questionnaire and the data gathered were processed using SPSS 20 and analysed using Chi Square, linear and Logistic regression methods. Results showed that, by their 16 th birthday, 32.4 percent of the surveyed students were sexually experienced. Significant correlates of sexual experience included male gender (OR = 1.867, p = .013), alcohol use (OR = 6.96, p = .001), being in a relationship (OR = 3.492, p = .001), relaxed sexual image (OR = 2.169, p = .005), having ever been seduced by a peer (OR = 4.71, p = .001), teachers' unethical behaviors (OR = 1.63, p = .041), exposure to explicit media (OR = 1.67, p = .021), having ever received sex education from a parent (OR = 0.47, p = .021). Age at puberty explained a 29.4 percent variation in age at sexual debut; (Adjusted R 2 = .294, p = .001). It is concluded that, personal factors correlated more with sexual experience than did environmental factors; it is suggested that, sex education and the monitoring of the whereabouts of student be enhanced by responsible parties.
... Media and internet use have been recognized as important sources of receiving and sharing sexual information among adolescents (e.g., L'Engle et al. 2006;Lou et al. 2012). Because of easy access and anonymity of the internet, adolescents are easily exposed to an enormous amount of sexual information (Simon and Daneback 2013). ...
... Also, depending on the topic of information, the impact of the sources on sexual intercourse was different from other studies. For example, media was considered as a risk factor in several studies (e.g., Brown et al. 2005;Gonzalez-Ortega et al. 2015;L'Engle et al. 2006), but we found that receiving information about contraception from media decreased the probability of having sex. ...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescent risky sexual behaviors are closely associated with adverse health outcomes, and losing future educational and economic opportunities. Communication about sex-related topics with various people influences adolescent sexual behavior through sexual socialization. This study aimed to examine the effects of the sex-related information on sexual behavior by considering three important aspects which are multiple sources, messages, and frequency of communication. Data on this study were from the cross-sectional survey on integrated health of 493 adolescents aged 15–19 from four secondary schools in the Capital of Lao PDR. We used Firth’s penalized likelihood estimation to test hypotheses. The results showed that several messages and sources of sexual information have significant effects on adolescent sexual engagement. Among the six different contents of sex, receiving messages about contraception from media and doctor decreased the probability of having sex. Sibling’s information about pregnancy was significantly associated with having sex. Sexual messages from mother increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. Regardless of sexual contents, partner’s information was closely related to sexual engagement. However, none of the sexual messages from teacher had an impact on adolescents’ sexual behavior. This study provides practical implications to parents, teachers, and policymakers in Lao PDR as well as novel insights to research on sexual behaviors of adolescent.
... The effects of the media have repeatedly been found to be mediated by family relationships (Myers et al. 2003;L'Engle et al. 2004;Ybarra and Mitchell 2005;Markey and Markey 2010). The ability to talk to parents or other family members is key in counteracting some of the negative messages found in pornography. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently interest into the effects of pornography on children and young people’s sexual development has increased leading to an increase in studies in the area, laws being changed and public concern growing. This paper aims to recap these findings including more recent studies carried out in the UK. The literature shows links between viewing pornography and sexually explicit material and young people’s attitudes and behaviours. This suggests that young people’s sexuality is affected by sexual imagery and that this influences children and young people’s sexual attitudes and behaviours. The impact is contingent on the young person’s support network, social learning and other demographic factors, not least gender which has been consistently found to be significant. Recent studies have found changes in sexual practices of young people which are attributed to viewing pornography such as an increase in anal sex and casual attitudes to consent. Links between porn use and sexual coercion have also been found. How and in what ways children and young people are affected by such imagery—and what can be done to reduce the negative impact on young people is debated in the light of the gaps in the literature and the issues with the existing literature. Further need for study is discussed.
... celebrity). L'engle, Brown, and Kenneavy (2006) indicated that the majority of sexual content in the media portrays consequence-free and promiscuous sexual behaviour between non-married people. Media users (mostly adolescents and youths) are more likely to adopt behaviors depicted by characters who are perceived as attractive and realistic and who are not punished, but rewarded, for their behaviour. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined talent promotion programs and management of formal education among youth in Nigeria. This quantitative study determined the perception of administrators and lecturers on the importance of personality development, sports, music and reality television shows towards effective management of formal education. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 45 participants in three departments at the University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using a Talent Promotion Programs and Management of Formal Education Questionnaire (TPPMFEQ), and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that personality development, sports, music and reality television shows are important towards effective management of formal education. The findings indicate that the government should promote personality development of youth by upgrading the monetary value given to high achievers in school after completion of their programs or degree in order to spur more interest in appreciating education and shaping the behaviour of individuals. Also, the government should provide sports-academic scholarship schemes that would serve as criteria and support for talented youth in order to assist them in pursuing their dreams and ensuring that all citizens are catered for educationally. In addition, the government should also place more emphasis on music as a way of bringing about a better life for youth. As well, the government should ensure the effective regulation of television programs so that they are educative, meaningful and relevant to the progress of youth in order to empower and reduce the problem of unemployment and poverty among youth.
... Media tends to transmit similar information as peers (Bleakley et al., 2018), and certain forms of mass media, such as music, magazines, movies, and television shows, may function like a so-called "super peer" or substitute peer, for some adolescents . Studies of the influence of television and other media on youth sexual behavior has found that intentions to have sex and sexual behavior are positively associated with the amount of sexual content in the media that youth consume L'Engle et al., 2006;Pardun et al., 2005). Conversely, when parents and youth communicate about sex, it tends to promote safer sexual behavior on the part of the adolescent (Bleakley et al., 2018;Rogers, 2017;Widman et al., 2016;Wright et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a U.S. nationally representative survey of individuals ages 14–24 years old on what sources of information from the past year they considered to be the most helpful about how to have sex (n = 600 adolescents ages 14–17 years old, and n = 666 young adults ages 18–24 years old). Among the 324 adolescents who indicated that they had been helped by at least one source of information, helpful information was most likely to have come from parents (31.0%) and friends (21.6%). Only 8.4% of adolescents said pornography was helpful. However, for those in the 18–24-year-old age group, pornography was the most commonly endorsed helpful source (24.5%), as compared to other possible options such as sexual partners, friends, media, and health care professionals. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that indicating that pornography was the most helpful source of information about how to have sex, compared to the other sources, was inversely associated with being female (OR = 0.32, p = .001), inversely associated with identifying as bisexual compared to heterosexual (OR = 0.15, p = .038), positively associated with being Black compared to being white non-Hispanic (OR = 4.26, p = .021), inversely associated with reporting a household income of either $25 K to $49,999 (OR = 0.31, p = .010) or $50 K to $74,999 (OR = 0.36, p = .019) compared to more than $75 K, and positively associated with having masturbated (OR = 13.20, p = .005). Subsequent research should investigate the role of pornography in both adolescent and adult sexual development, including why one-quarter of U.S. young adults say that pornography is a helpful source of information about how to have sex and what they think that they are learning from it.
... Sexual education can come from a variety of sources for adolescents, including peers (Sprecher et al., 2008;Whitfield et al., 2013), teachers (Bleakley et al., 2009;Donaldson et al., 2013), and the media (Buhi et al., 2009;L'Engle et al. 2006;Selkie et al., 2011). Parents, in particular, have been noted as an important source of sexual education and information for adolescents (Flores & Barroso, 2017;Hadley et al., 2018;Herrman et al., 2017;Widman et al., 2016). ...
Article
Research on parent-adolescent sexual communication has often used self-report measures despite discrepancies among family members. The current study was designed to use a multi-method approach to better understand mother-adolescent sexual communication. This study examined maternal and adolescent self-reports on sexual communication and observed ratings of mothers’ and adolescents’ comfort during an interaction task. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Canadian city and included 68 dyads of mothers and adolescents who were between 12 and 17 years old. Based on an actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), results indicated that mothers’ observed comfort was positively associated with adolescent girls’ but not boys’ reports of sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of using a multi-method approach to studying parent-adolescent sexual communication and the role of gender in parent-adolescent sexual communication.
... As an opportunity for social exploration and networking the Internet holds the potential to play an enormous role in the development of adolescent sexual identities. Research has consistently shown that both peers and media play a significant role in the formation of adolescents' sexual attitudes, beliefs and behaviors (Berndt & Savin-Williams, 1993;Brown, 2000;Brown et al., 2006;Connolly, Furman, & Konarski, 2000;Kallen, Stephenson & Doughty, 1983;Kraus & Russell, 2008;Lefkowitz, Boone, & Shearer, 2004;L'Engle, et al., 2006;Martino et al., 2005;Taylor, 2005). The multimedia, networked nature of the Internet means that it offers greater connectivity between peers, as well as access to content from more traditional media sources than any pre-existing medium. ...
Chapter
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This chapter considers the potential role of the Internet in the process of adolescent sexual identity construction. It starts by providing evidence of the ever-increasing role the Internet is playing in the lives of adolescents and by considering the potential impact such a technology is likely to have given the transitional nature of the adolescent brain. A consideration of theoretical approaches for understanding the role the Internet is likely to play in individuals’ sexual self-identity development is then undertaken. A review of the specific role Internet communication technologies have come to play in the process of adolescent sexual socialization is then carried out. In doing so the authors argue that future research addressing the role of the Internet in the process of adolescent sexual socialization and identity development must consider both the specific structure of the adolescent brain and the unique nature of the Internet as a source of information and an opportunity for social networking.
... It is infused in the television they watch, in the music they hear, on the billboards they see, and in their interactions with others. Issues related to sex and sexuality influence adolescents' experiences within schools and schooling and conversely shape youth sexualities in profound and sometimes unintended ways (Epstein & Johnson, 1998;Johnson, 2004;L'Engle, Brown, & Kenneavy, 2004). Despite this, schools do little to help adolescents make sense of their developing sexual identities (Ashcraft, 2008;Epstein & Johnson, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
It is critical to engage today's students in the realities of the world--and the realities depicted in quality literature--in our ELA classrooms. This includes explorations of sex, sexuality, and gender dynamics. To do this, however, teachers need to be adequately prepared so as to avoid inadvertently reproducing their own cultural norms and biases onto students.
... Different instruments and questionnaires have been used to assess screen time, but we are unaware of questionnaires that asses the broad screen media environment that also include use of specific media content (2), family screen media rules and other screen media habits. Most questionnaires have investigated either screen time (3)(4)(5), or media content (6)(7)(8) and the majority of the studies have addressed only TV time and computer use, and do not include screen use from other devices such as smartphones and tablets (2). Furthermore, the target group in some of these studies have been infants or children too young to control the media use by themselves; thus measuring their exposure to screen media through their parents' media use (2)(3)(4)9). ...
Preprint
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Background: The screen-media landscape has changed drastically during the last decade with wide-scale ownership and use of new portable touchscreen-based devices plausibly causing changes in the volume of screen media use and the way children and young people entertain themselves and communicate with friends and family members. This rapid development is not sufficiently mirrored in available tools for measuring children’s screen media use. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parent-reported standardized questionnaire to assess 6-10-year old children’s multiple screen media use and habits, their screen media environment, and its plausible proximal correlates based on a suggested socio-ecological model. Methods: An iterative process was conducted developing the SCREENS questionnaire. Informed by the literature, media experts and end-users, a conceptual framework was made to guide the development of the questionnaire. Parents and media experts evaluated face and content validity. Pilot and field testing in the target group was conducted to assess test-retest reliability using Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity of relevant items was assessed using pairwise non-parametric correlations (Spearman’s). The SCREENS questionnaire is based on a multidimensional and formative model. Results: The SCREENS questionnaire covers six domains validated to be important factors of screen media use in children and comprises 19 questions and 92 items. Test-retest reliability (n=37 parents) for continuous variables was moderate to substantial with ICC’s ranging from 0.67 to 0.90. For relevant nominal and ordinal data, kappa values were all above 0.50 with more than 80 percent of the values above 0.61 indicating good test-retest reliability. Internal consistency between two different time use variables (from n=243) showed good correlations with rho ranging from 0.59 to 0.66. Response-time was within 15 min for all participants. Conclusions: SCREENS-Q is a comprehensive tool to assess children’s screen media habits, the screen media environment and possible related correlates. It is a feasible questionnaire with multiple validated constructs and moderate to substantial test-retest reliability of all evaluated items. The SCREENS-Q is a promising tool to investigate children screen media use.
... Different instruments and questionnaires have been used to assess screen time, but we are unaware of questionnaires that asses the broad screen media environment that also include use of specific media content [2], family screen media rules and other screen media habits. Most questionnaires have investigated either screen time [3][4][5], or media content [6][7][8] and the majority of the studies have addressed only TV time and computer use, and do not include screen use from other devices such as smartphones and tablets [2]. Furthermore, the target group in some of these studies have been infants or children too young to control the media use by themselves; thus measuring their exposure to screen media through their parents' media use [2][3][4]9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The screen-media landscape has changed drastically during the last decade with wide-scale ownership and use of new portable touchscreen-based devices plausibly causing changes in the volume of screen media use and the way children and young people entertain themselves and communicate with friends and family members. This rapid development is not sufficiently mirrored in available tools for measuring children's screen media use. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parent-reported standardized questionnaire to assess 6-10-year old children's multiple screen media use and habits, their screen media environment, and its plausible proximal correlates based on a suggested socio-ecological model. Methods: An iterative process was conducted developing the SCREENS questionnaire. Informed by the literature, media experts and end-users, a conceptual framework was made to guide the development of the questionnaire. Parents and media experts evaluated face and content validity. Pilot and field testing in the target group was conducted to assess test-retest reliability using Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity of relevant items was assessed using pairwise non-parametric correlations (Spearman's). The SCREENS questionnaire is based on a multidimensional and formative model. Results: The SCREENS questionnaire covers six domains validated to be important factors of screen media use in children and comprises 19 questions and 92 items. Test-retest reliability (n = 37 parents) for continuous variables was moderate to substantial with ICC's ranging from 0.67 to 0.90. For relevant nominal and ordinal data, kappa values were all above 0.50 with more than 80% of the values above 0.61 indicating good test-retest reliability. Internal consistency between two different time use variables (from n = 243) showed good correlations with rho ranging from 0.59 to 0.66. Response-time was within 15 min for all participants. Conclusions: SCREENS-Q is a comprehensive tool to assess children's screen media habits, the screen media environment and possible related correlates. It is a feasible questionnaire with multiple validated constructs and moderate to substantial test-retest reliability of all evaluated items. The SCREENS-Q is a promising tool to investigate children screen media use.
... Research in this field predominantly portrays pornography consumption as a way adolescents nowadays choose to explore sexuality and as something that is becoming normative [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in this field predominantly portrays pornography consumption as a way adolescents nowadays choose to explore sexuality and as something that is becoming normative. However, it is our opinion that the possibility of watching pornographic material by early adolescents should be carefully considered rather than passively accepted as something inevitable due to the ubiquitous use of the internet.
... Different instruments and questionnaires have been used to assess screen time, but we are unaware of questionnaires that asses the broad screen media environment that also include use of specific media content (2), family screen media rules and other screen media habits. Most questionnaires have investigated either screen time (3)(4)(5), or media content (6)(7)(8) and the majority of the studies have addressed only TV time and computer use, and do not include screen use from other devices such as smartphones and tablets. Furthermore, the target group in some of these studies have been infants or children too young to control the media use by themselves; thus measuring their exposure to screen media through their parents' media use (2)(3)(4)9). ...
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Background: The screen-media landscape has changed drastically during the last decade with wide-scale ownership and use of new portable touchscreen-based devices plausibly causing changes in the volume of screen media use and the way children and young people entertain themselves and communicate with friends and family members. This rapid development is not sufficiently mirrored in available tools for measuring children’s screen media use. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parent-reported standardized questionnaire to assess 6-10-year old children’s multiple screen media use and habits, their screen media environment, and its plausible proximal correlates based on a suggested socio-ecological model. Methods: An iterative process was conducted developing the SCREENS questionnaire. Informed by the literature, media experts and end-users, a conceptual framework was made to guide the development of the questionnaire. Parents and media experts evaluated face and content validity. Pilot and field testing in the target group was conducted to assess test-retest reliability using Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity of relevant items was assessed using pairwise non-parametric correlations (Spearman’s). The SCREENS questionnaire is based on a multidimensional and formative model. Results: The SCREENS questionnaire covers six domains validated to be important factors of screen media use in children and comprises 19 questions and 92 items. Test-retest reliability (n=37 parents) for continuous variables was moderate to substantial with ICC’s ranging from 0.67 to 0.90. For relevant nominal and ordinal data, kappa values were all above 0.50 with more than 80 percent of the values above 0.61 indicating good test-retest reliability. Internal consistency between two different time use variables (from n=243) showed good correlations with rho ranging from 0.59 to 0.66. Response-time was within 15 min for all participants. Conclusions: SCREENS-Q is a comprehensive tool to assess children’s screen media habits, the screen media environment and possible related correlates. It is a feasible questionnaire with multiple validated constructs and moderate to substantial test-retest reliability of all evaluated items. The SCREENS-Q is a promising tool to investigate children screen media use. Keywords: screen-media use, children, questionnaire, correlates
... Thus, exposure to Internet pornography or music with sexually explicit lyrics among teens is a major introduction to sexual material which may lead to modeling effects, as well as provide an outlet for expression among sensation-seeking youth, and eventually addictive sexual behavior (Martino et al., 2006;Ybarra & Mitchell, 2005). In fact, one study found evidence that 13% of the variance in young adolescents' intentions to have sexual intercourse in the near future is due to type of media exposure (L'Engle, Brown, & Kenneavy, 2006). The growth of use of the online media since the last review deserves more discussion. ...
Chapter
Behavioral addictions consist of a series of actions that expose one to “mood-altering events” on which one achieves pleasure and becomes dependent, which may alter neurotransmitter function, particularly mesolimbic dopaminergic turnover. Compulsive sexual behavior is a behavioral addiction. Sexual addiction is a pattern of sexual behavior that is initially pleasurable but becomes unfulfilling, self-destructive, and that a person is unable to stop. A pattern of physically or emotionally abusive relationships may facilitate sexual acting out. Adult sexual addicts have been found to report being depressed, low in self-esteem, and feeling alone. There is no consistent set of strategies agreed on to decrease risky sexual behavior among teens. Given that the Internet is becoming a platform for teens to explore their sexuality, and may facilitate sex and Internet addiction among teens, sexual addiction prevention should address ways to minimize exposure to unwanted online sexual material and dependency on the Internet.
... Participants will be asked to indicate on a 4-point Likert scale (1 = not at all likely; 2 = unlikely; 3 = likely; 4 = extremely likely) how likely they are to engage in sexual activity in the next year (e.g., How likely is it that you will have any type of sexual contact with another person [oral sex, anal sex, vaginal sex, or genital-to-genital contact] in the next year?). This measure was adapted from L'Engle et al. [39], α = .77. 7. Intentions to use contraception/protection (3 items). ...
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Background: School-based comprehensive sexual health education can improve adolescent health outcomes, and web-based programs are a promising approach to overcoming challenges associated with teacher-led formats by ensuring that students receive content that is consistent, unbiased, and medically accurate. However, many adolescents do not receive high-quality sexual health education and turn to the media for information about sex and relationships. Consumption of sexual media messages is related to early and risky sexual behaviors. Media literacy education (MLE) is a proven approach to adolescent sexual health promotion, yet there are no rigorously evaluated web-based MLE programs to promote sexual and relationship health among high school students. Methods: This study will test the efficacy, in a randomized controlled trial, of Media Aware, a web-based comprehensive sexual health promotion program for high school students that uses an MLE approach. Participants will be students in 9th and 10th grade health classes in participating schools. Randomization will take place at the school level, and data collection will take place at three time points (i.e., pretest, posttest, and 3 months follow-up). Students in the intervention classrooms will receive Media Aware between pretest and posttest, and students in the delayed-intervention classrooms will receive Media Aware after study completion (i.e., after 3 months follow-up data collection). Students in the delayed-intervention classes will receive their standard health education programming, and teachers in the delayed-intervention classes will be asked to refrain from teaching sexual health or MLE during the study timeframe. The primary outcome variables are intentions, willingness, and behaviors related to sexual health and sexual activity. Discussion: There are currently no evidence-based comprehensive sexual health programs for high school students that are web-based and use an MLE approach. Media Aware has the potential to be an engaging, less expensive, and effective sexual and relationship health program for high school students. Media Aware is unique in two important ways: (1) the web-based format reduces many of the challenges to fidelity of implementation associated with teacher-led sexual health education; and (2) the MLE approach addresses a commonly ignored influence on adolescent sexual and relationship health, namely, media. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04035694. Registered on 29 July 2019. Contact for Scientific Queries: Tracy Scull, PhD (Principal Investigator); innovation Research & Training at 5316 Highgate Drive, Suite 121, Durham, North Carolina, USA 27713; tscull@irtinc.us.
... Another finding from the current study indicates that non-pregnant adolescents were more likely to have access to pregnancy prevention information from media compared to pregnant adolescents. In line with previous studies [e.g., (47,76,77)] on SRH, the media offers a remarkable role in the lives of adolescents by giving them enough information on their sexuality. The mass media serves as one of the great tools for the youth in terms of accessibility to information during this contemporary era (78). ...
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Background: Pregnancy among girls 10-19 years remains a challenge that requires critical resolution all over the world. Despite this worrying sexual phenomenon, research pertaining to prevention information and related services in Sub-Saharan nations like Ghana is sparse. This study sought to determine the influence of access to pregnancy prevention information and services on adolescent pregnancy in the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana. Methods and Results: Adopting a matched case-control research design with a 1:1 mapping, female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years in the KEEA Municipality were selected using a facility based sampling technique. Results from both bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that non-pregnant adolescents were about two times more likely to have access to pregnancy prevention information from health workers compared to pregnant adolescents [OR = 0.57, 95% CI = (0.33-0.96), p = 0.036]. Likewise, pregnant adolescents were five times more likely to have access to pregnancy prevention information from media compared to non-pregnant adolescents [OR = 5.44, 95% CI = (2.64-11.23), p = 0.000]. Additionally, non-pregnant adolescents were two times more likely to receive information on pregnancy prevention from school compared to pregnant adolescents [OR = 0.48, 95% CI = (0.28-0.81), p = 0.006]. Conclusion: Sexuality and reproductive health (SRH) programme organizers should target specific intervention programmes that focus on training health workers and/or other analogous staff to enhance their awareness, attitudes, and skills to more effectively meet with the specific needs of adolescents. Specific health workers training and redesign of health facilities to foster more adolescent user friendly working environment (e.g., extension in operational times, reduction in fees of SRH services, transforming physical design to promote privacy or confidentiality) ought to be encouraged. Different media outreach programmes should also combine other community level events [e.g., Ahinkorah et al. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Information and Services informative methods through schools (e.g., focus group discussions, participatory learning), assisting connections to health services, community information network (e.g., use of sirens)] to provide well-tailored advocacy that would help modify SRH and sociocultural norms that hinder positive sexual behaviors among young people.
... Therefore, they may influence their sexual beliefs and behaviors differently (Bleakley, Hennessy, Fishbein, & Jordan, 2009). While parents and schools often promote healthy socialization, peers and the mass media may accelerate teens' sexual activities (L'Engle, Brown, & Kenneavy, 2006). Lammers, Ireland, Resnick, and Blum (2000) found that the perceived parental disapproval of sexual relationships is associated with a lower likelihood of sexual activity, and Dilorio et al. (2001) found that perceived peer approval is associated with an increased likelihood of it. ...
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Sexual perception refers to the attitudes, expectations, beliefs, and values associated with sexual behaviors. Adolescents’ sexual behaviors is affected by the knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, and social norms in their society. In this respect, the sexual perception of adolescents can be studied from a cultural perspective. The present study was designed to identify factors affecting Iranian adolescent girls’ perceptions of premarital sexual relationships. A qualitative study was conducted using a conventional content analysis approach. Data was collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with 18 adolescents recruited through purposive sampling. Data analysis resulted in the development of a primary main theme, meaning and value of sexual self-care, and three main categories: significant others, sexual norms, and attitudes, and perceived risks. Overall, findings of the present study revealed that the sexual perceptions of Iranian adolescent girls motivated them to abstain from premarital sexual relationships. However, apart from the perceived double standards involved in social norms and attitudes identified in the study, the presence of a conflict caused by their families, schools, and peers necessitated the importance of establishing and consolidating parent-adolescent communication about sexual issues. Findings of this study point to the need for appropriate sexual education for adolescents and parents to promote adolescent sexual literacy and health.
... Movies with sexual content can play a significant role in adolescents' sexual development (Coyne et al., 2019). Exposure to movie character behavior involving sex influences youth sexual activity, decreases contraception use, and increases sexual risk-taking behaviors (Wingood et al., 2001), such as engaging in sex at a young age L'Engle et al., 2006). Individuals who have more frequent exposure to sexually oriented media have more casual attitudes about sex, which may impact their risk-taking behaviors such as choosing not to use birth control (Ward, 2003). ...
Article
Sexual and violent media content is prevalent, and adolescents exposed to this content may be more likely to enact risky sexual and aggressive behaviors. According to the Differential Susceptibility Model, dispositional traits, such as empathy, can predict risky media exposure and moderate the relationship between exposure and behavior. A total of 2,424 US adolescents (ages 14-17) participated in an online study that measured exposure to sex, violence, and their co-occurrence from the same character in a list of movies content analyzed for sex and violence. The survey outcomes of interest included adolescent sexual behavior, aggressive behavior, and both behaviors together, as well as empathy, which was included as a moderator. The exposure to movie character behavior was matched to adolescents' survey responses. Results showed that empathy was a predictor of media exposure to sex and violence in movies, and was a moderator of the exposure-behavior relationship. The exposure-behavior relationship was moderated by empathy, such that empathy had an ameliorating effect on the exposure-behavior relationship, but did not negate it completely. This study furthers our understanding of how exposure to sexual and violent content in media, combined with individual differences, may play a role in adolescent enactment of risky behaviors.
... Definition of premarital sexual behavior is all forms of sexual behavior that comes from sexual desire in the opposite sex by adolescents before marriage, either from performing the less intimate relationships to performing sexual intercourse (kissing, necking, petting, and intercourse) [14]. Adolescent sexual behaviors from kissing to touching sensitive areas, will often continue to sexual intercourse [15], [16]. ...
Article
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Inadaquate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems, including early premarital sexual behavior. Previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely effect to adolescents premarital sexual behavior. Parental monitoring is the most important and effective factor to prevent early adolescents sexual activity. This paper examines the role of perceived parental monitoring in adolescent’s premarital sexual behavior (study on Adolescent’s Junior High School in Pontianak). A cross-sectional study and proportionated random sampling was conducted among 402 adolescents of junior high school at six subdistricts in Pontianak. SEM analyses was conducted using SMART-PLS. Result of path analysis revealed that parental knowledge (r = 0.389) and parental-adolescence relationship (r = 0.334) had a strong influence on parental monitoring. Then, parental monitoring had a significant indirect relationship with adolescent premarital sexual behavior through attitudes about premarital sexual (path coefficient = 0.063), and attitudes about premarital sexual and intention to sexual behaviour (path coefficient = 0.03). Parental monitoring can act as protective factor in early adolescent premarital sexual behavior. Therefore, risk reduction interventions with adolescents should include their parents to learn about monitoring skill and develop skill that will allow them to buffer negative influences.
... Similar pattern was observed for UP and Bihar. Also, various studies conducted in and around world has shown that mass media always found important predictor for explaining the behaviours among adolescents [31][32][33]. In our study also, we found that the role of mass media exposure found positively associated with the higher level of dietary patterns among adolescents in the two states. ...
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Background: Adolescence is a period transition from childhood to adulthood , in which they undergo various rapid changes from physical appearances to changes in the food habits. During this period, childbearing age starts, particularly for women, which is one of the most precarious time wherein optimum nutritional status need to be achieved. So, Eating healthy during adolescence is important as rapid physical growth increases the need of several nutrients. Methods: In our study, we have used the UDAYA longitudinal study design which provides a unique opportunity to determine the role of dietary pattern at one time point to the changes at the time 2. For analysis, cross-tabulation and chi-square test is used to test independence of various groups. Binary logistic regression is used to identify determinants of minimum dietary diversity (Yes=1, No=0) of the adolescents. Adjusted odds ratio are computed for Uttar Pradesh and Bihar separately, as well as for combined sample. Results: In the present study, the average adherence to the dietary pattern in our adolescents was 58%, while in Bihar it was 61% , and in UP it was 56%. Using the logistic regression analysis, we found that there was significant difference in the MDD of adolescents by their socio-economic characteristics. But no differentials were found among young and old adolescents in UP and Bihar. Also, food consumption score index (A.O.R.=2.6, 95% CI (2.1-3.1), and media exposure of adolescents at wave1 (A.O.R.=2.1, 95% CI (1.7-2.7) were found significant in depicting the MDD at wave2. Conclusions: India launched ICDS scheme in 1975s to strengthen the nutritional status of young children in the country, but the recent data of NFHS-5 (2019-20), shows that the nutritional status of the country improved only marginally, or rather decreased in some parts. Strengthening and proper evaluation of ICDS programme can help to improve the pro-nutrition among the adolescents. Also, there should be a specific state policy to address the needs of adolescents, and various educational programmes should be conducted in schools where students along with their parents should be educated about the need of healthy dietary habits.
... Further, the early sexualization influences adolescent behavior. For instance, adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in media have expressed greater intent to engage in sexual intercourse and activity (L'Engle et al. 2006). One study indicates that watching sexual music videos may increase misogynistic beliefs among adolescents over time (van Oosten et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
In May 2018, an old interview resurfaced with DJ Khaled in The Breakfast Club, a popular morning radio show. In this interview, he mentioned that he does not perform cunnilingus on his wife, repeatedly stating, “I don’t do that” and explained “[there are] different rules for men.” Although depictions of oral sex are rampant in hip hop, most focus on fellatio in heterosexual relationships. Narratives are shifting both in society and within hip hop regarding female sexuality and cunnilingus, particularly with the influx of female rappers and sex positive lyricism. This chapter aims to examine the evolution of sexual scripts surrounding cunnilingus in hip hop from a sex positive framework and evaluates how toxic masculinity and misogyny negatively affect sex positive sexual scripts.
... Additional study questions were developed by the research team through using preliminary research assessing the impact of HIV prevention content on sexual risk behavior [20][21][22] along with preliminary research evaluating Black women's perceptions of HIV prevention content and the influence of media on their sexual health needs [9,23,24]. ...
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Background Black women in college are disproportionately affected by HIV, but have not been a population of focus for HIV prevention campaigns. This study used content from a preexisting HIV media campaign to assess its relevancy and acceptability among Black women in college. Methods Media viewing and listening sessions were convened with Black women enrolled at an HBCU (n = 10) using perception analyzer technology—hardware and software tools that are calibrated to gather and interpret continuous, in-the-moment feedback. Matched pre-and-post-test responses from focus groups were obtained from the perception analyzer data. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to characterize the data. Results Students were more likely to personally identify with media content that included profound statements, along with memorable people and actors [95% CI: 1.38, 2.27]. In over half of the vignettes, participants reported that content representing students’ society, culture, or interests was missing. Conclusions HIV prevention media campaigns may offer potential in increasing HIV awareness and risk perceptions; further research is needed to evaluate optimal content tailoring for both cultural and climate relevancy.
... Today, there is a strong emphasis on mass media, advertising and social media, which can influence an individual's behavior, attitude, and self-image (10)(11)(12)(13). Internet orientation and mass media can be very useful for health (14)(15)(16)(17), but they can also pose great dangers due to the lack of credibility and social media trends (18). ...
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Background Many factors can influence health behavior during adolescence, and the lifestyle of adolescents is associated with health behavior during adulthood. Therefore, their behavior can determine not only present, but also later health status. Objective We aimed to develop an intervention program to improve high school students' health behavior and to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods We performed our study at a secondary school in a rural town in East Hungary between 2016 and 2020. Sessions about healthy lifestyles were organized regularly for the intervention group to improve students' knowledge, to help them acquire the right skills and attitudes, and to shape their behavior accordingly. Data collection was carried out via self-administered, anonymous questionnaires ( n = 192; boys = 49.5%; girls = 50.5%; age range: 14–16). To determine the intervention-specific effect, we took into account the differences between baseline and post-intervention status, and between the intervention and control groups using individual follow-up data. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the effectiveness of our health promotion program. Results Our health promotion program had a positive effect on the students' health-related knowledge and health behavior in the case of unhealthy eating, moderate to vigorous physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings suggest that school health promotion can be effective in knowledge transfer and lifestyle modification. To achieve a more positive impact on health behavior, preventive actions must use a complex approach during implementation.
... Intent to have sex Participants were asked how likely it is that they will have any type of sexual contact with another person (including oral, anal, and vaginal sex and genital-to-genital contact) in the next year [1-item; 4-point Likert scale (1 = not at all likely, 4 = extremely likely); adapted from L'Engle, Brown, and Kenneavy (2006)]. ...
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Media may function as sex educators for adolescents; unfortunately, media messages often glamorize risky sexual behaviors and unhealthy relationships and neglect sexual health behaviors and communication. Media Aware is a web-based comprehensive sexual health program for high school students that uses a media literacy education approach. It is designed to improve adolescents’ critical thinking about media messages and provide medically-accurate information and skills building related to sexual health and communication. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2019-2020 with students (grades 9 and 10; n = 590) from 17 high schools across the United States. The sample was 53% female, 58% white/Caucasian; and 13% Hispanic/Latinx. One high school teacher per school and all of their 9th and 10th grade students were randomly assigned to either the intervention or delayed-intervention (control) condition. The study assessed the immediate (posttest) and short-term (3-month) effects of Media Aware on adolescents’ media, sexual health, and communication outcomes. For 9 of the 17 schools, students were home from school due to the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic during the time of their 3-month data collection, which left the short-term analyses underpowered. However, several impacts of the program were found in the immediate posttest analyses. Media Aware was found to improve sexual health knowledge and redress inaccurate normative beliefs about the frequency of risky teen sex. Media Aware also improved critical thinking about media messages with demonstrated improvements in media message deconstruction skills and decreases in the perceived realism of media messages. Moderator analyses found some differential immediate effects of the program attributable to gender. Media Aware reduced girls’ normative beliefs about teen sex, generally, and increased their sexual health communication with parents as well as reduced boys’ acceptance of dating violence. Students gave positive feedback about Media Aware, especially related to the online format of the program. The results from this study provide evidence that Media Aware is an effective web-based program for positively enhancing high school students’ media, sexual health, and sexual health communication outcomes.
... Sexual guilt can result in adverse health outcomes throughout their lifetime [87]. Additionally, it may lead girls to gain additional messaging from other sources, such as primary friends or the media [86], which may be unreliable or promote risky behaviors [88]. Together, sex-positive and gain-framed messaging within family-or community-based prevention programming can be a more effective method of promoting preventative practices, sexual safety, and consequently sexual wellbeing and reducing the stigma attached to sex for Black girls and women. ...
Article
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While Black girls and women are disproportionately impacted by sexual health disparities, there continues to be an overwhelming focus on individual risk behaviors within prevention initiatives, which offers a fragmented narrative of the multidimensional nature of risk and plausibly limits effectiveness of prevention programs and attenuates reductions in disparities. Because sexual health is experienced within an individual’s beliefs/values, interpersonal relationships, and behaviors and reflects larger social and cultural systems, it is important to critically examine common theories used to inform HIV/STI prevention interventions for Black women and girls. To fill this gap in the literature, we critique two commonly used theories in HIV/STI prevention interventions, namely the social cognitive theory and the theory of gender and power, by highlighting theoretical and practical strengths and weaknesses. We propose research implications that incorporate key strengths of the two theories while adding new concepts grounded in the intersectionality theory. The overall goal is to introduce a more comprehensive conceptual model that is reflective of and applicable to the multidimensional sexual experiences of Black girls and women within the evolving definition of sexual health and behavior.
... Apparently, aspects of SDS-socialization by the media and peers, and not by parents, were associated with adolescents' SDS-norms. This is consistent with the diminishing influence of parents on adolescent development, and the increased influence of peers and the media, especially in the domain of sexual development (L'Engle & Jackson, 2008;L'Engle et al., 2006;Ragsdale et al., 2014;Scull et al., 2018). Also, adolescents perceive the media to convey more stereotypical norms about sexual behavior of girls and boys, followed by peers and parents (Epstein & Ward, 2008). ...
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(Hetero)sexual double standards (SDS) entail that different sexual behaviors are appropriate for men and women. There is large variation in whether people endorse SDS in their expectations about the sexual behavior of women and men (i.e., SDS-norms). To explain these individual differences, we examined associations between SDS-norms of Dutch adolescents (aged 16–20 years, N = 566) and what parents, peers, and the media teach adolescents about appropriate sexual behavior of boys and girls (i.e., SDS-socialization). Adolescents completed an online survey at school. Regarding SDS-socialization, more traditional SDS-norms conveyed by the media and peers, but not of parents, and less perceived sexual activity of female peers, were associated with more traditional SDS-norms. Only for boys, exposure to sexy girls/women on social media and sexual music videos of female artists were associated with more traditional SDS-norms. Thus, SDS-socialization by peers and the media and opposite gender models (for boys) are important in light of adolescents’ SDS-norms.
... Kinby (2011) stressed further that children of single parents are more vulnerable to teenage pregnancy. In the same vein exposure to sexual content on television, sexuality in the media, pornographic and sex chart rooms by teenagers, could most likely tune them to engage in sexual activities (L'Engle, Brown and Kenneavy, 2016;Park, 2018). Acceptance of gift for sex and some adult deliberately taking advantage of poor teenagers, encouraging them into having sex were also noted as factors responsible for teenage pregnancy (United Nation, 2011). ...
... Kinby (2011) stressed further that children of single parents are more vulnerable to teenage pregnancy. In the same vein exposure to sexual content on television, sexuality in the media, pornographic and sex chart rooms by teenagers, could most likely tune them to engage in sexual activities (L'Engle, Brown and Kenneavy, 2016;Park, 2018). Acceptance of gift for sex and some adult deliberately taking advantage of poor teenagers, encouraging them into having sex were also noted as factors responsible for teenage pregnancy (United Nation, 2011). ...
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Abstract The study investigated socio-demographic factors in marital instability among couples in Igbo-Etiti Local Government Area, Enugu North Senatorial District, Enugu South East Nigeria. Two research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The population consisted of 88,859 married couples in the area. The sample size was 400 married couples drawn using multi-stage sampling procedure. Questionnaire was used for data collection. Frequency count, percentage, median and linear multiple regressions were used for data analysis. Findings reveal that more than half (52.9%) of married couples had high marital instability while nearly half (47.1%) of married couples had low marital instability in their marriages. Age, education level, occupation, number of children and gender were not significantly associated with marital instability of married couples (p >.05). However, professional counselors should intensify counseling in non-school settings through community education, group counseling, seminars and workshops which should be conducted in organizations, religious institutions and other relevant settings so as to create awareness on how to manage marital conflicts considering socio-demographic characteristics of spouses. Key words: Marital, Instability, Couples, Socio-Demographic, Factors, counselling
... Another surprising result is that more than 70% of teenagers are orphans, justifying the early school abandon and bad consequences among others, getting pregnancy. Again, the fact that 100% of young girls affirmed to have unprotected first intercourses from which they got pregnancies, shows a lack of maturity and sexual education that they should get from school and from parents and the community in general ( Maynard, 1997, L'engle, 2006, Kost et ali, 2010 . ...
Article
This paper examined root causes of early pregnant teenagers under 19 years old. We selected 30 young girls from 3 districts of the southern Rwanda, who have been pregnant between 2018, 2019 and 2020. We decided to use "life story telling" methods whose analysis led us to the surprising major findings like the fact that more than 70% of our sample got pregnancy after the school abandon, 80% did not have any or false information on the sexual education and 90% of men pregnancy responsible are under 23 years old and are single. The findings showed also that more than 70% of the samples have no both parents. The findings established that negative influences from peers and environment, care free attitude of parents among others were factors that pre-dispose the girl-child to early motherhood. Also the effects include disruption of academic process, school drop-outs and poor public image. It was therefore, recommended that schools and homes should be more protective and shields the girl-child from negative influences. Education of the girl-child should be free and compulsory to enable teenage mothers go back to school after nursing her baby as many would love to do but for financial constraints The findings showed also that more than 70% of the sample have no both parents.
Thesis
Sociolinguists often assume that media influences language attitudes, but that assumption has not been tested using a methodology that can attribute cause. This dissertation examines implicit and explicit attitudes about American Southern English (ASE) and the influence television has upon them. Adapting methodologies and constructs from sociolinguistics, social psychology, and communications studies, I test listener attitudes before and after exposure to stereotypically unintelligent and counterstereotypically intelligent representations of Southern-accented speakers in scripted fictional television. The first attitudes experiment tests implicit attitudes through an Implicit Association Test (IAT). This experiment also serves to test sociolinguistic use of the IAT with a more holistic accent as opposed to single linguistic features. The second attitudes experiment tests the effect of television exposure on explicit attitudes towards an ASE-accented research assistant (RA). The experiments also investigate the influence of listener knowledge of regional origin of actors (speaker information), listener perception of how closely television represents the world around them (perceived realism), listener exposure to the South, and listener identity. The hypothesis is that those who hear counterstereotypically intelligent Southern characters will rate a Southern-accented research assistant higher in intelligence than those who hear stereotypically unintelligent Southern characters. The same pattern will hold in the auditory-based IAT. Accents in both the implicit and explicit attitudes experiments are viewed holistically, including multiple features rather than focusing on the most salient features. To clarify results related to the speaker information and perceived realism variables, a separate experiment tests how successful listeners are at differentiating natives from performers of regionally accented American English. Results indicate that televised representations of Southern accents affect explicit, but not implicit attitudes. Participants who heard intelligent Southern characters rated an ASE-accented RA higher in competence than those who heard unintelligent Southern characters. Several demographic variables influenced results regardless of the stereotypicality of the speakers that the listener heard in the television clips, including self-identified race and exposure to Southern television. While implicit attitudes were not affected by television in this case, the IAT was successfully adapted for use with a holistic accent rather than a single feature and also captures associations between an L1 regional accent and a specific stereotype of that accent. I discuss these results in regard to language attitudes at large as well as their implications for an indirect language change model, the Associative-Propositional Evaluation (APE) model of attitudes, and cultivation theory. The dissertation argues that scripted television does influence language attitudes, but in more complex ways than a simple cause-and-effect relationship. While television can affect explicit attitudes towards individual speakers, implicit attitude shift is more difficult and may need more time and/or need a direct cause for a shift to occur. Regardless of media influence, language attitudes are affected by identity and demographic features listeners bring into the interaction with speakers.
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Background: The screen-media landscape has changed drastically during the last decade with wide-scale ownership and use of new portable touchscreen-based devices plausibly causing changes in the volume of screen media use and the way children and young people entertain themselves and communicate with friends and family members. This rapid development is not sufficiently mirrored in available tools for measuring children’s screen media use. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a parent-reported standardized questionnaire to assess 6-10-year old children’s multiple screen media use and habits, their screen media environment, and its plausible proximal correlates based on a suggested socio-ecological model. Methods: An iterative process was conducted developing the SCREENS questionnaire. Informed by the literature, media experts and end-users, a conceptual framework was made to guide the development of the questionnaire. Parents and media experts evaluated face and content validity. Pilot and field testing in the target group was conducted to assess test-retest reliability using Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Construct validity of relevant items was assessed using pairwise non-parametric correlations (Spearman’s). The SCREENS questionnaire is based on a multidimensional and formative model. Results: The SCREENS questionnaire covers six domains validated to be important factors of screen media use in children and comprises 19 questions and 92 items. Test-retest reliability (n=37 parents) for continuous variables was moderate to substantial with ICC’s ranging from 0.67 to 0.90. For relevant nominal and ordinal data, kappa values were all above 0.50 with more than 80 percent of the values above 0.61 indicating good test-retest reliability. Internal consistency between two different time use variables (from n=243) showed good correlations with rho ranging from 0.59 to 0.66. Response-time was within 15 min for all participants. Conclusions: SCREENS-Q is a comprehensive tool to assess children’s screen media habits, the screen media environment and possible related correlates. It is a feasible questionnaire with multiple validated constructs and moderate to substantial test-retest reliability of all evaluated items. The SCREENS-Q is a promising tool to investigate children screen media use.
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Comprehensive sexual health education (SHE) is an effective strategy for improving adolescent sexual health. However, few of these programs address media influence on sexual cognitions and behaviors. Also, more research is needed on using web-based instruction for SHE. Seventeen classes (N = 331 students) in one high school in the United States were enrolled in a pre-post randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility of Media Aware, a web-based SHE program that uses a media literacy education (MLE) approach. Compared to a delayed-intervention group, students who received Media Aware had significant reductions in their perceived realism of and similarity to media messaging, improved cognitive elaboration of media messages, more realistic perceptions of teen sex norms and risky sex norms, increased efficacy and intention to act as a bystander to potential sexual assault, increased intent to communicate before sex, and increased efficacy to use contraception/protection. These students reported being less willing to hook up, being less willing to have unprotected sex (for males), and positive feedback on their experiences using a web-based program. This study provides evidence that web-based MLE sexual health programming is a feasible and acceptable strategy for improving media-related and sexual health outcomes among adolescents.
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Pornography viewing is gradually becoming a part of life in many countries around the world, including India. However, the role of the extensive consumption of pornography among the Indian youths has not been given much attention by the society and government. Pornography is fuel for global sex trade industry. In the contemporary world due to advancement in ICT, they access to the porn is on the tip of finger which is causing Psycho-social health among youth. Main aim of the present study is to study the psycho-social effect of pornography among post-graduate students in Kolhapur city and check the effectiveness of the pornography preventive model on PG students. The survey and experimental method was adopted by the researcher. The data was collected with researcher-made questionnaire from N=325 PG students by convenient sampling method. The finding of the study are: More than 3/4 of respondents suffer from following psycho-social effects of pornography: Feeling live away from society, Masturbation, Feeling guiltiness, Mental stress, increase in aggressive behaviour, Staring at women/girls as a 'Sex object'. Developed Preventive model is helpful to overcome from pornography by the PG students.
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This research longitudinally explored adolescent pornography (porn) consumption and its association with sexual development in early and middle adolescence. A four-wave design with half-year intervals investigated pornography consumption and different (sexual) activities, such as masturbation, French kissing, petting, giving/receiving manual and oral sex, and intercourse, among 630 respondents (47.9% female, mean age 13.7 years; SD = 0.48) years at T1). A latent growth mixture analysis of pornography consumption revealed two groups with relatively low pornography (LP; 51.8% of the boys, 91.4% of the girls) versus high pornography (HP; 48.2% of the boys; 8.6% of the girls) consumption across time. At T1, HP boys on average watched pornography less than once a month, but more than once a year at T1. At T4, their average pornography use had increased to almost one to two times a week. LP boys never watched pornography at T1. At T4, their average pornography use was still less than once a year. At T1, HP girls never watched pornography, but consumption increased to almost one to three times a month at T4. Across waves of the study, LP girls (almost) never watched pornography. A discrete-time survival mixture analysis of sexual developmental patterning indicated that, compared to their LP peers, both girls and boys in the HP groups showed accelerated development of masturbation, petting, and receiving manual sex. Girls in the HP group were also more inclined to receive oral sex, whereas boys in the HP group also showed earlier and more frequent manual sex and intercourse. Thus, whereas the HP group of boys was substantially larger compared to that of girls, pornography consumption was related to accelerated development of sexual activities for both genders across early and middle adolescence. The discussion deliberates on pornography as a driving force in adolescent sexual development versus pornography as a medium of choice for sexually advanced adolescents.
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Chapter
Based upon both theory and research, pornography appears to play a major teaching role in the sexual beliefs and behaviors of men, women, and children. As a teacher, it is arousing, rewarding, and modeling. It miseducates about sexuality and relationships. It teaches unhealthy self-esteem, sexual narcissism, sexual entitlement, and relative deprivation. It is a potent drug that is both flexible and fast. It encourages permission-giving beliefs that include that sex is a commodity that we buy and if we can buy it, we can steal it. This makes a natural and potent pathway to sexual violence. Numerous studies show a variety of negative effects in both attitudes and behaviors, but the most troubling is this connection to sexual violence. The messages of pornography damage the providers of sex as well as the users of sex. The continuum of the sexual exploitation industry and the continuum of sexual abuse and violence are seamlessly interconnected.
Chapter
Drawing on research from the social sciences, and in particular psychology, this chapter explores sexuality socialization. This chapter examines the processes of acquiring knowledge, norms, attitudes, cultural symbols, codes of conduct, and values relative to sex and sexuality. We begin by highlighting three overarching theories that inform feminist psychological understandings of sexuality socialization: symbolic interactionism, scripting theory, and intersectionality. These theories elucidate how processes of sexuality socialization are socially constructed. Next, we focus on sources of sexuality socialization to show how, over the course of their life, individuals acquire information on sexuality through a variety of formal and informal sources, including social relationships (e.g. parents and peers) and institutions (e.g. media, education, government and policies, and religion). We provide an overview of the content of these messages, how they are conveyed, and to what extent they occur within and across cultural and national contexts. We conclude with a discussion that bridges the connection between theory and sources of sexuality socialization.
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A media-use questionnaire was completed by 3,261 7th and 8th graders and a subsample of 1,074 respondents was interviewed about their sexual attitudes and be-haviors. Based on results from the media survey, respondents' top television shows, movies, music, Internet sites, and newspapers were content analyzed for portrayals or references to pubertal development, romantic relationships, body exposure or nu-dity, sexual innuendo, touching and kissing, and sexual intercourse. Overall, 11% of the media used by respondents contained sexual content. A measure called the Sexual Media Diet (SMD) was developed to assess each individual's exposure to sexual con-tent in the media, based on the combination of media consumption and content. The SMD measure showed a statistically significant association with adolescents'sexual activity and future intentions to be sexually active, with measures of movie and music exposure showing the strongest associations.
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During the past 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in societal interest in preventing disability and death in the United States by changing individual behaviors linked to the risk of contracting chronic diseases. This renewed interest in health pro motion and disease prevention has not been without its critics. Some critics have accused proponents of life-style interventions of promoting a victim-blaming ideology by neglecting the importance of social influences on health and disease. This article proposes an ecological model for health promotion which focuses atten tion on both individual and social environmental factors as targets for health promo tion interventions. It addresses the importance of interventions directed at changing interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy, factors which support and maintain unhealthy behaviors. The model assumes that appropriate changes in the social environment will produce changes in individuals, and that the support of individ uals in the population is essential for implementing environmental changes.
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Adolescents are increasingly at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially in poor urban minority communities. To aid the design of interventions in these communities, this study investigated the role of knowledge, attitudes, perceived parental monitoring, and peer behavior in the onset and progression of sexual behavior in children at risk for exposure to HIV. A computerized personal interview was administered to 300 African-American 9- to 15-year-old children living in six public housing developments in a large US city. Although children's knowledge about the hazards of sex increased with age, their sexual activity also increased (from 12% sexually experienced at 9 years of age to more than 80% experienced at 15 years of age). Parental monitoring appeared able to influence sexual activity. However, the perceived behavior of friends was associated with the rate at which sexual activity progressed with age and the degree to which condom use was maintained with age. The early onset and prevalence of sexual behavior and the importance of peer group influence call for early interventions that simultaneously influence the parents and peers in children's social networks.
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A new, interdisciplinary paradigm is emerging in developmental psychology. It includes contextual as well as individual variation and is more consonant with the complexity of adolescent behavior and development than traditional research paradigms. Social problems, such as poverty and racial discrimination, and the ways that young people negotiate adolescence successfully, are objects of research. A research program sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation, that embodies the new paradigm, is described.
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Research on intrinsic and extrinsic religion has been troubled by conceptual diffuseness and questionable scale validity. Hunt and King have proposed greater specificity in conceptualization and measurement in future work. This paper attempts to specify and measure a single crucial dimension identified by Hunt and King, namely ultimate versus instrumental religious motivation. Two validation studies were done utilizing persons nominated by ministers as having either ultimate (intrinsic) or instrumental (extrinsic) religious motivation. A new 10-item Intrinsic Religious Motivation Scale is proposed, and measurement problems are discussed.
Book
Examining the full array of media available to children and adolescents, this book describes not only the amount of time they spend with each medium, but the kinds of content they choose, and the physical, social, and psychological context of much of their exposure. This national sample study provides a comprehensive picture of young people's media behavior.
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The primary purpose of this study was to track changes in the numbers and types of sexual behaviors in prime time network TV programs. A probability sample of eighty-eight hours of programs and promos was analyzed for a wide variety of sexual behaviors (verbal, implied, and physical). Contrary to public perceptions, the results indicated a substantial decrease in the hourly rates of sexual behaviors in the programs from fall 1987 to fall 1991.
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Media portrayals involving sexuality can contribute to the sexual socialization of young people. If television is an important source of information and potential influence about sex for young people, then obviously it is important to understand the nature and extent of sexual information that is being conveyed by television. This report contains findings from a study which represents an effort to overcome the limitations of previous content-based projects that have been relatively narrow in scope and modest in size, limiting the generalizability of the findings--this new study provides a complete and comprehensive examination of sexual messages found across the overall television environment. Following an introduction, the report is divided into these sections: Description of Methods; Presence of Sexual Messages; Types of Talk about Sex; Types of Sexual Behaviors; Messages Involving Sexual Risks or Responsibilities; Further Contextual Elements in Scenes with Sexual Intercourse; Comparing Patterns of Sexual Content across Program Genres; Sexual Messages Involving Teenagers; Sexual Messages in Prime-Time Network Programming; Sexual Messages in Children's Programming; and Summary and Conclusions. Contains 29 references. Appendix A contains a composite week sample, and Appendix B contains a broadcast network prime-time over-sample. Contains 29 references and 21 tables of data. A chart pack contains 6 data charts. (NKA)
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Young people's age expectations for the Initiation by boys and girls of a range of sexual practices were elicited from a sample of 522 15- and 16-year-olds. As expected, there was a progression in the modal ages nominated from the least intimate (kissing) to more intimate behaviors (sexual intercourse). There were few gender differences, either for age expectations of the practices of boys and girls or between male and female respondents. There was a strong relationship between sexual timetables and timetables for autonomy and use of common drugs such as alcohol, and several marker sexual behaviors were identified that may signify the appropriateness of a range of sexual practices, It is suggested that there is a group of young people whose desire for early autonomy, substance use, and belief in early sexual activity may put them at risk.
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Adolescents are at high risk for a number of negative health consequences associated with early and unsafe sexual activity, including infection with human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy. As a result, researchers have attempted to identify those factors that influence adolescent sexual risk behavior so that meaningful prevention and intervention programs may be developed. We propose that research efforts so far have been hampered by the adoption of models and perspectives that are narrow and do not adequately capture the complexity associated with the adolescent sexual experience. In this article, we review the recent literature (i.e., 1990–1999) pertaining to the correlates of adolescent sexual risk-taking, and organize the findings into a multisystemic perspective. Factors from the self, family, and extrafamilial systems of influence are discussed. We also consider several methodological problems that limit the literature's current scope, and consider implications of the adoption of a multisystemic framework for future research endeavors. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the available research for practitioners working to reduce sexual risk behavior among adolescents.
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Data from a survey of 869 students aged 11 to 15 years and attending six urban middle schools were analyzed to identify differences in sex attitudes and behaviors between self-reported very religious students and their less religious peers. The two groups were demographically similar. They differed on only two attitude items, one suggesting that intercourse was a normal part of teenage dating and the other suggesting intercourse was alright if the two people were in love. The groups did not differ in their estimation of their peers' sexual activity or attitude or in terms of their own intercourse behavior or future intentions.
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Thesis (Specialist of Psychology)--Brigham Young University. Dept. of Psychology. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 19-22).
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This study compares estimates of self-reported substance use and psychological well-being obtained in computer-assisted and paper-and-pencil self-administered surveys. We examine the extent to which mode effects on survey responses are moderated by respondent characteristics and respondent attitudes, including attitudes toward computers, attitudes about confidentiality and privacy, and their general mistrust of others. Respondents age 12-34 were selected through a multistage area probability sample of urban and suburban areas nationally and were randomly assigned to interview mode. There were few main effects of mode on self-reported substance use and well-being. Significant mode-by-age interaction terms revealed that adolescents were more sensitive to mode of administration than older respondents. Adolescents reported significantly higher levels of alcohol use, illicit drug use, and psychological distress in the computer mode than on paper self-administered questionnaires. Significant mode-by-mistrust interactions were also found. Respondents with higher levels of mistrust in others were less likely to report substance use in the computer mode than in the paper-and-pencil format.
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Over the past two decades the sexual content on television has increased in frequency and explicitness but has seldom included depiction of the use of contraceptives. Concurrently, the age of initiation of heterosexual intercourse has decreased and the number of teenaged pregnancies has remained high. Are these trends related? This survey of 391 adolescents found that those who chose heavier diets of sexy television shows were more likely than those who viewed a smaller proportion of sexual content on television to have had sexual intercourse. This relationship held regardless of perceived peer encouragement to engage in sex and across race and gender groups. While causal direction is not clear from these data, the relationship suggests that either sexual activity results in increased interest in sexual content in the media and/or that viewing such content leads to sexual activity. In either case, the finding points to the need for further research and increased discussion and portrayal of the use of contraceptives on television.
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This study examined the sequence of sexual behavior of 695 African American and 637 Puerto Rican adolescents and the relationship of this sequence to other problem behavior measures. Analyses indicated that adolescents proceed through four stages of sexual behavior: no involvement, then deep kissing, then petting, and, finally, sexual intercourse. The sequence was similar in both ethnic groups and seemed both unidimensional and cumulative. In addition, for both ethnic groups the degree of sexual involvement was significantly related to the level of drug use and to the frequency of delinquent behavior, thereby suggesting an underlying problem behavior syndrome. Directions for future research are suggested.
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The average age of first sexual intercourse, the high rate of teenage pregnancies, and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases indicate the extent to which sex and sexuality have created major threats to adolescent health. A crucial factor is the highly sexual content of the media. The authors examine factors that determine selection of and reaction to sexual content in the media, including gender and racial differences and family structure.
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Adolescents are at high risk for a number of negative health consequences associated with early and unsafe sexual activity, such as infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as unintended pregnancy. In the present study, a multisystem model was applied to one adolescent sexual behavior, penile-vaginal intercourse. Nine hundred seven Black and Hispanic adolescents (aged 14 to 17 years) and their mothers were interviewed. Factors from three systems (self, family, and extrafamilial) that are influential in the lives of adolescents were evaluated using four outcome measures. Factors from most or all systems emerged as predictors of each outcome measure. A cumulative risk index suggested a linear relationship between the number of systems identified as being at risk and indicators of adolescent sexual behavior. The implications for prevention are discussed.
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Media critics point to adolescents' exposure to "sexy" television and popular music. Developmental transitions lead to increased information seeking, and developmental tasks force adolescents to find information sources other than their parents, implying a link between sexy media and adolescent development. Media research informed by knowledge of adolescent development may be able to clarify this connection, and model development is discussed here.
Article
To discuss developmental systems models of human development and explain how they offer a productive frame for research, policies, and programs aimed at understanding adolescents' development and enhancing their health and positive development. Contemporary developmental theory stresses that the multiple levels of organization involved in human life (ranging from biology through culture, the natural and designed ecology, and history) are systemically integrated across ontogeny. Relations within this developmental system are the focus of developmental analysis and application. The key features of developmental systems theories are reviewed, and their use for framing scholarship about and applications for improving adolescent development are assessed. We demonstrate the potential of contemporary developmental theory for understanding the character and dynamics of adolescent development and for using this knowledge for the design of effective policies and programs that promote positive youth development. An adequate and sufficient science of adolescent development, and one that is able to help in the development of successful policies and programs for youth, must integratively study the relations between individuals and contexts in an integrated, systemic, and temporal manner.
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) screening during pregnancy has been widely discussed for several years, but still no consensus has been agreed. With a number of live births of 750,000 per year in France, we would expect 7500 infected infants at birth per year (rate of congenital infection of 1%). Among infected infants at birth, the number of severely infected foetuses would be approximately 75, the number of infants with severe sequelae would be 480, 675 approximately would present with hearing loss and the number of asymptomatic infants would be 6270. Five different preventive methods for congenital CMV infection are possible: (1) Routine CMV screening at the beginning of pregnancy for primary prevention. (2) Secondary prevention by antenatal diagnosis of congenital CMV infection complications. (3) Tertiary prevention by serological testing during pregnancy. (4) Tertiary prevention by serological screening at birth. (5) Tertiary prevention: Hearing loss screening at birth. The aims of this review are to define the advantages and disadvantages of these different methods of CMV screening during pregnancy and to determine if the current available information would make systematic testing acceptable.
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To investigate the possibility that the mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) serve as a kind of super peer for girls who enter puberty sooner than their age-mates. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant associations between earlier pubertal timing and earlier transition to first sex. Does puberty also stimulate interest in sexual media content that is seen as giving permission to engage in sexual behavior? White and African-American female adolescents (n = 471; average age 13.7 years) recruited from public middle schools in central North Carolina completed two self-administered surveys in their homes about their pubertal status, interest in and exposure to various media, and perceptions of sexual media content. Earlier maturing girls reported more interest than later maturing girls in seeing sexual content in movies, television, and magazines, and in listening to sexual content in music, regardless of age or race. Earlier maturing girls were also more likely to be listening to music and reading magazines with sexual content, more likely to see R-rated movies, and to interpret the messages they saw in the media as approving of teens having sexual intercourse. The mass media may be serving as a kind of sexual super peer, especially for earlier maturing girls. Given the lack of sexual health messages in most media adolescents attend to, these findings give cause for concern. The media should be encouraged to provide more sexually healthy content, and youth service providers and physicians should be aware that earlier maturing girls may be interested in sexual information.
Equipment for living: adolescent uses of popular music It's Not Only Rock & Roll: Popular Music in the Lives of Adolescents
  • Christenson Pg Df
Christenson PG, Roberts DF. Equipment for living: adolescent uses of popular music. In: Christensen PG, Roberts DF, eds. It's Not Only Rock & Roll: Popular Music in the Lives of Adolescents. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc., 1998:31–71.
Shaking the tree of knowledge for forbidden fruit: where adolescents learn about sexuality and contraception
  • Mj Sutton
  • Brown
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