Article

In Vitro Effect of Reiki Treatment on Bacterial Cultures: Role of Experimental Context and Practitioner Well-Being

Institute for Frontier Science, Oakland, CA 94611, USA.
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.59). 01/2006; 12(1):7-13. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2006.12.7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To measure effects of Reiki treatments on growth of heat-shocked bacteria, and to determine the influence of healing context and practitioner well-being.
Overnight cultures of Escherichia coli K12 in fresh medium were used. Culture samples were paired with controls to minimize any ordering effects. Samples were heat-shocked prior to Reiki treatment, which was performed by Reiki practitioners for up to 15 minutes, with untreated controls. Plate-count assay using an automated colony counter determined the number of viable bacteria. Fourteen Reiki practitioners each completed 3 runs (n = 42 runs) without healing context, and another 2 runs (n = 28 runs) in which they first treated a pain patient for 30 minutes (healing context). Well-being questionnaires were administered to practitioners pre-post all sessions.
No overall difference was found between the Reiki and control plates in the nonhealing context. In the healing context, the Reiki treated cultures overall exhibited significantly more bacteria than controls (p < 0.05). Practitioner social (p < 0.013) and emotional well-being (p < 0.021) correlated with Reiki treatment outcome on bacterial cultures in the nonhealing context. Practitioner social (p < 0.031), physical (p < 0.030), and emotional (p < 0.026) well-being correlated with Reiki treatment outcome on the bacterial cultures in the healing context. For practitioners starting with diminished well-being, control counts were likely to be higher than Reiki-treated bacterial counts. For practitioners starting with a higher level of well-being, Reiki counts were likely to be higher than control counts.
Reiki improved growth of heat-shocked bacterial cultures in a healing context. The initial level of well-being of the Reiki practitioners correlates with the outcome of Reiki on bacterial culture growth and is key to the results obtained.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Audrey J Brooks
  • Source
    • "While various design limitations were present including a sample size of only 14 Participants [26], these studies were the first of their kind to employ randomised , double-blind designs, where healing was administered distantly or through a one-way screen. A randomised design that avoided expectation effects was employed by Rubic et al. [17] to investigate how Reiki affects the growth of overnight cultures of heat-shocked Escherichia coli K12 bacteria in vitro compared with untreated control cultures. In the experiments where the practitioners gave healing to a pain patient before treating the bacteria, the Reiki treated cultures exhibited statistically significantly more bacteria than controls. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study investigated whether participants who received Reiki would show greater health and well-being benefits than a group who received no Reiki. A method of blinding participants to Reiki was also tested, where non-contact Reiki or No-Reiki with random assignment was given to 35 healthy psychology undergraduates whose attention was absorbed in one of three tasks involving self-hypnosis/relaxation. Participants experienced ten 20-min intervention sessions over a period of two and a half to 12 weeks. Reiki was directed by the experimenter who sat behind the participants as they were absorbed in the tasks. Self-report measures of illness symptoms, mood and sleep were assessed pre-post-intervention as was salivary cortisol. While the Reiki group had a tendency towards a reduction in illness symptoms, a substantive increase was seen in the No-Reiki. The Reiki group also had a near-significant comparative reduction in stress, although they also had significantly higher baseline illness symptoms and stress scores. The Reiki blinding was successful - the groups did not differ statistically in their beliefs regarding group membership. The results are suggestive that the Reiki buffered the substantive decline in health in the course of the academic year seen in the No-Reiki group.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Brain research bulletin
  • Source
    • "Some examples include a study on the effect of TT on blood hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, in which it was found that after three session of TT in individuals with hemoglobin levels less than 12 g/dL, there was a significant increase in both parameters [25]. In a Reiki study, exposed bacteria showed improved growth over nonexposed bacteria [26]. These results were statistically significant for those Reiki healers in a healing context (providing Reiki to a human patient directly before an application of Reiki on the bacteria). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research on touch therapies is still in the early stages of development. Studies of Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, and Reiki are quite promising; however, at this point, they can only suggest that these healing modalities have efficacy in reducing anxiety; improving muscle relaxation; aiding in stress reduction, relaxation, and sense of well-being; promoting wound healing; and reducing pain. The multidimensional aspects of healing inherent in patient care continue to be expanded and facilitated by our understanding and application of energy therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Nursing Clinics of North America
  • Source
    • "Subtle energy theory is more controversial than one might think given the historical (Feinstein & Eden, 2008) and anecdotal basis (e.g., Brennan, 1988; Hocking, 2006), and empirical findings (e.g., Collinge, Wentworth, & Sabo, 2005; Nelson & Schwartz, 2005; Rubik, Brooks, & Schwartz, 2006; Schwartz et al., 2004; Schwartz, 2007; Tiller, 2006; Tiller et al., 2005; Tiller & Dibble, 2007; Tiller, Dibble, Nunley, & Shealy, 2004; Wardell & Weymouth, 2004), which ostensibly support the existence of subtle energy processes. Indeed, previous research has found significant results regarding the effect of subtle energy on physical systems (e.g., the level of microvascular damage in rats; Baldwin & Schwartz, 2006; MacKay et al., 2004; Rubik et al., 2006; Wardell & Weymouth, 2004). It is important to acknowledge, however, that a plethora of subtle energy studies (e.g., Canter, Brown, Greaves, & Ernst, 2006; Hall, Luu, Moore, & Yount, 2007; Taft, Moore, & Yount, 2005; Yount et al., 2004) have reported negative findings. "

    Full-text · Article ·
Show more