To simulate or not to simulate: What is the question?

Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States
Annals of Surgery (Impact Factor: 8.33). 04/2006; 243(3):301-3. DOI: 10.1097/01.sla.0000200853.69108.6d
Source: PubMed

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    • "The bench model proposed in this study is integrated into a simulation that includes cognitive aspects, surgical abilities and communication skills (how to deal with bad news), as simulations in a recreated operation theatre permits teaching and/or assessment of both technical and nontechnical skills (pre-surgical, communication, management of the circumstances…) linked to the par-ticular surgical practice (19,22). This situation may well explain the GDPs’ high interest on the workshop, even those with clinical experience on the topic, who also perceived the workshop as useful for increasing their surgical skills; perhaps because simulation-based surgical training is reported to reduce clinical mistakes and learning curves (22,24). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe a new bench model for oral precancer/cancer biopsy training and to assess its effectiveness in terms of trainees’ perception. Study design: Cross-sectional, descriptive, performed on 424 general dental practitioners (GDP) who undertook biopsies on a pig tongue. The participants were assessed by direct observation for 2.5 hours using specific check-lists and by means of a self-applied questionnaire. Results: The workshop was perceived as “very interesting” even by those with previous surgical experience (Xi - Xj = 0.07; 95%CI= -0.20-0.09). Most GDPs considered themselves able to undertake oral biopsies on real patients after the workshop. Those who had previously received theoretical continuous education courses on oral biopsy scored higher values within the group (Xi - Xj = 0.20; 95%CI= 0.04-0.37). Conclusions: There is a need for including clinical abilities workshops when instructing on oral biopsy techniques. More studies are needed to validate the procedure and to address cognitive and communication skills. Key words:Models, animal, education, dental, continuing, biopsy, oral cancer, oral surgical procedures.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal
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    • "Simulations in a simulated operation theatre permit the evaluation of both technical and non-technical abilities (pre-operative, communication, control of the situation, etc.) related to a specific surgical technique (14). In addition, simulation-based surgical training has also proved to reduce clinical errors and learning curves (2,13). "
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    ABSTRACT: to describe a bench model (workshop of abilities) for sinus floor elevation (SFE) training that simulates the surgical environment and to assess its effectiveness in terms of trainees' perception. thirty-six randomly selected postgraduate students entered this cross-sectional pilot study and asked to fill in an anonymous, self-applied, 12-item questionnaire about a SFE workshop that included a study guide containing the workshop' s details, supervised practice on a simulated surgical environment, and assessment by means of specific check-lists. Thirtiy-six fresh sheep heads were prepared to allow access to the buccal vestible. Using the facial tuber, third premolar and a 3D-CT study as landmarks for trepanation, the sinus membrane was lifted, the space filled with ceramic material and closed with a resorbable membrane. The participants agreed on their ability to perform SFE in a simulated situation (median score= 4.5; range 2-5) and felt capable to teach the technique to other clinicians or to undertake the procedure for a patient under supervision of an expert surgeon (median= 4; range 1-5 ). There were no differences on their perceived ability to undertake the technique on a model or on a real patient under supervision of an expert surgeon (p=0.36). Clinical abilities workshops for SFE teaching are an essential educational tool but supervised clinical practice should always precede autonomous SFE on real patients. Simulation procedures (workshop of abilities) are perceived by the partakers as useful for the surgical practice. However, more studies are needed to validate the procedure and to address cognitive and communication skills, that are clearly integral parts of surgical performance.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal
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    • "The positive impact of simulation as a teaching methodology to improve skills acquisition has been well documented (Scott, 2006; Fox-Robichaud et al., 2007) allowing the opportunity to experience events that would not be reproducible in practice (Hogg et al., 2006). There is some anecdotal evidence regarding the transferability of knowledge learned during simulation to clinical practice however this aspect remains largely unsubstantiated (Dutta et al., 2006; Lamb, 2007; Decker et al., 2008; Murray et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research project ascertained student nurses' knowledge retention of safe transfusion practice following a standardised teaching and learning programme (produced by the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service, United Kingdom (UK)) within a School of Nursing in Scotland, UK. Several studies including the Serious Hazard of Transfusion (SHOT) annual reports demonstrated that there are risks to the patient in receiving blood components: receiving the wrong blood was the most common risk associated with blood transfusion (Ottewill, 2003; SHOT, 2007). This evaluative study used a questionnaire to assess the level of knowledge students (n=118) attained on the day of the session, 4-6 months and 11-12 months following the session. The study provided an insight into the effectiveness of a standardised teaching approach and highlighted areas for review in light of incorrect answers elicited. Despite all receiving the Standardised Programme, there was a wide range of initial overall scores achieved. The study demonstrated, within the small sample completing at all 3 time points, that there is clear degradation of knowledge during the study period. The influence of experience on knowledge retention appears to have a positive effect at 6 months but no appreciable effect at 12 months. These outcomes merit further, more robust and multi centre investigation to identify if there is replication of results.
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