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Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between testosterone levels and vertical jumping performance in elite men and women athletes. The secondary objective was to verify whether testosterone levels and vertical jumping performance were different in men and women athletes and if those measurements were different between different athletic groups. Seventy (22 women and 48 men) elite athletes in track and field (sprinters), handball, volleyball, and soccer competing at national and international levels participated in the study. After 10 hours of fasting and 1 day of rest, blood samples were drawn from the antecubital vein for determining testosterone levels. Vertical jumping tests consisted of countermovement jumps conducted on a resistive platform connected to a digital timer. Resting testosterone levels in women were 9.5% of those of the men (respectively 0.62 +/- 0.06 ng.ml(-1) and 6.49 +/- 0.37 ng.ml(-1); p < 0.001). Countermovement jump performance was significantly different between women and men athletes, with women's jumping ability 86.3% of that of men (p < 0.001). A significant positive relationship was identified between testosterone levels and vertical jump performance when all data where considered (r = 0.61, p < 0.001, n = 70).

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... Although the role of androgens in female physiology has not been well established, several studies have indicated that T may induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength through genomic (long-term, transcriptional) mechanisms 22,23 . Additionally, T was shown to act quickly through non-genomic mechanisms (short-term, non-transcriptional) 24 . ...
... Combined, these effects would likely result in greater whole muscle power production and thus, sprinting ability. Consistent with this hypothesis and our data, Cardinale, Stone 22 identified a significant positive relationship between T levels and vertical jump performance both in male (r=0.62) and female (r=0.48) elite athletes involved in sprinting, volleyball, soccer and handball. ...
... It is possible that T might improve athletic performance in sprint events by decreasing reaction time, as T has been shown to regulate neuromuscular transmission 30 . It was, therefore, suggested that T plays an important role in explosive performance by influencing skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, phenotypization of fast-twitch muscle fibers, protein synthesis and aggressive behaviour 22 . Interestingly, in the mixed cohort of 18 female athletes (track and field, netball, cycling, swimming and bob skeleton), Cook, Crewther, Smith 31 revealed that salivary free T concentrations were significantly higher in elite athletes in comparison with non-elites, suggesting that T could influence the expression of behaviour (i.e. ...
... Although the role of androgens in female physiology has not been well established, several studies have indicated that T may induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength through genomic (long-term, transcriptional) mechanisms 22,23 . Additionally, T was shown to act quickly through non-genomic mechanisms (short-term, non-transcriptional) 24 . ...
... Combined, these effects would likely result in greater whole muscle power production and thus, sprinting ability. Consistent with this hypothesis and our data, Cardinale, Stone 22 identified a significant positive relationship between T levels and vertical jump performance both in male (r=0.62) and female (r=0.48) elite athletes involved in sprinting, volleyball, soccer and handball. ...
... It is possible that T might improve athletic performance in sprint events by decreasing reaction time, as T has been shown to regulate neuromuscular transmission 30 . It was, therefore, suggested that T plays an important role in explosive performance by influencing skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, phenotypization of fast-twitch muscle fibers, protein synthesis and aggressive behaviour 22 . Interestingly, in the mixed cohort of 18 female athletes (track and field, netball, cycling, swimming and bob skeleton), Cook, Crewther, Smith 31 revealed that salivary free T concentrations were significantly higher in elite athletes in comparison with non-elites, suggesting that T could influence the expression of behaviour (i.e. ...
Preprint
The aim of this study is to determine the interrelationship between the resting serum T levels (an inherited trait) of female athletes from different types of sporting events and their athletic success. The study involves 599 Russian international-level female athletes (95 highly elite, 190 elite, and 314 sub-elite) and 298 age-matched female controls. All subjects were age 16-35 years old and to the best of our knowledge have always tested negative for performance enhancing substances. The athlete cohort was stratified into four groups according to event duration, distance, and type of activity: 1) endurance athletes, 2) athletes with mixed activity, 3) speed/strength athletes, and 4) sprinters. Athletic success was measured by determining the level of achievement of each athlete. The mean (SD) T levels of athletes and controls were 1.65 (0.87) and 1.76 (0.6) nmol/L (P=0.057) with ranges of 0.08-5.80 and 0.38-2.83 nmol/L in athletes and controls, respectively. No significant differences in T levels were found between different groups of athletes. T levels were positively correlated (r=0.62, P<0.0001) with athletic success in sprinters (runners, cyclists, kayakers, speed skaters, swimmers). Moreover, none of the sub-elite sprinters had T > 1.9 nmol/L, while 50% of elite and highly elite sprinters had T > 1.9 nmol/L (95% CI: 2.562-862.34; OR=47.0; P<0.0001). We do not observe the benefits of having high T levels for success in other groups of athletes. Conversely, highly elite middle-distance (P=0.235) and mixed activity athletes (P=0.096) tended to have lower T levels than less successful athletes. Our data suggest that the measurement of the serum T levels significantly correlates with athletic success in sprinters but not other types of athletes and in the future may be useful in the prediction of sprinting ability.
... En fait, il est régulièrement avancé que cette séance viendrait compenser le déclin en testostérone imposé Certains exercices, en particulier ceux de musculation, reconnu pour augmenter les niveaux de testostérone (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2005), peuvent donc être pertinents pour compenser ce déclin. Rappelons que des concentrations élevées sont souvent associées à de meilleures performances neuromusculaires (Cardinale and Stone, 2006;Crewther et al., 2009) et à des états d'humeur propices à la performance comme l'esprit de compétition, la motivation, la persévérance, l'agressivité et la dominance (Henry, 1992;. ...
... Il a été spéculé que les bénéfices rapportés après ce type de séances pourraient être influencés par des variations hormonales, en particulier la testostérone (Cook and Crewther, 2012a;Cook et al., 2014a;Kilduff et al., 2013;Viru and Viru, 2005). C'est une hormone stéroïdienne anabolisante qui pourrait avoir une influence positive sur les performances neuromusculaires (Cardinale and Stone, 2006;Cook et al., 2014a;Kraemer and Ratamess, 2005;Viru and Viru, 2005). Ainsi, l'augmentation du niveau de testostérone avant la réalisation d'une performance physique, serait considérée comme un contexte favorable à la performance (Cook et al., 2014a). ...
... Il nous paraît intéressant de présenter cette variable pour compléter le suivi psychophysiologique même si l'intérêt de suivre cette enzyme dans le contexte des sports collectifs reste encore à démontrer.A l'inverse de ces deux marqueurs, la testostérone est reconnue comme une hormone propice à la performance. De hautes concentrations sont souvent associées à de meilleures performances neuromusculaires(Cardinale and Stone, 2006;Crewther et al., 2009). Des fortes corrélations ont d'ailleurs déjà été établies avec des performances en sprint(Crewther et al., 2012a) et en force(Cook and Crewther, 2012a) chez des athlètes entrainés. ...
... Permissive effects appear to be particularly important among advanced and elite athletes, as this may promote subtle adaptations [20]. Therefore, T and C can have substantial effects on psychological status, muscle physiology, strength, explosive strength, a function of the rate of force development (RFD), power, and markers of physiological development, performance and fatigue management [11,15,19,23]. Furthermore, resting T and C concentrations appear to be related to changes in resistance training volume and intensity [11,15,19]. ...
... Testosterone may have dual effects: long-term and short-term. Typically, the higher the resting T:C ratio, the greater the potential an athlete has to both develop strength and power (long-term effects) as well as acutely express strength-power characteristics (short-term effects) [11,19,20,23]. This ratio may reflect alterations in these variables more precisely than the concentrations of T or C alone [11,19,42,43]. ...
... As with the individual hormones, there is evidence that, among athletes, alterations in the volume of training can alter the T:C ratio, and that even minor alterations may be meaningful in terms of accumulative fatigue and performance [11,17,43]. The T:C ratio has been shown to be a viable marker of preparedness, thus altering the T:C ratio covaries with an athlete's preparedness [11,15,19,23]. Periods of prolonged high-volume training can result in negative effects on the neuroendocrine system and a decrease in the T:C ratio. ...
Article
Full-text available
Daily undulating periodization (DUP), using daily alterations in repetitions, has been advocated as a superior method of resistance training, while traditional forms of programming for periodization (Block) have been questioned. Nineteen Division I track and field athletes were assigned to either a 10-week Block or DUP training group. Year and event were controlled. Over the course of the study, there were four testing sessions, which were used to evaluate a variety of strength characteristics, including maximum isometric strength, rate of force development, and one repetition maximum (1RM). Although, performance trends favored the Block group for strength and rate of force development, no statistical differences were found between the two groups. However, different (p ≤ 0.05) estimated volumes of work (VL) and amounts of improvement per VL were found between groups. Based upon calculated training efficiency scores, these data indicate that a Block training model is more efficient in producing strength gains than a DUP model. Additionally, alterations in testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and the T:C ratio were measured. Although there were no statistically (p ≤ 0.05) different hormone alterations between groups, relationships between training variables and hormone concentrations including the T:C ratio, indicate that Block may be more efficacious in terms of fatigue management.
... Noteworthy, positive relationships reportedly exist between natural serum testosterone levels at rest, vertical jump height (Bosco et al., 1996;Cardinale and Stone, 2006), and sprinting performance (Bosco et al., 1996) in elite athletes of various sports, which suggest that athletes' performance capacities may be related to individual differences in basal testosterone levels. Thus, the magnitude of the effect of such single-dose testosterone injection may depend on the initial level of testosterone, causing a blunted biological effect in individuals with naturally high testosterone levels. ...
... Our findings contradict the significant positive relationships between natural serum testosterone levels and vertical jump height (Bosco et al., 1996;Cardinale and Stone, 2006) and sprinting performance (Bosco et al., 1996) in elite athletes. The discrepancy may be related to the inclusion of a mixed group of subjects in the present study in regards to training background and existing strength level, because resting salivary testosterone levels are found to predict performance outcomes only in individuals with high strength levels (Crewther et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Purpose: Limited data are available on the acute performance-enhancing effects of single-dose administration of testosterone in healthy humans. Studies of testosterone administrations to healthy humans are rare due to the difficult nature and necessity of close clinical monitoring. However, our unique physiological experimental facilities combined with close endocrinological collaboration have allowed us to safely complete such a study. We tested the hypothesis that an intramuscular injection of 250 mg mixed testosterone esters (TEs) enhances physical performance in strength and power exercises acutely, measured 24 h after injection. Additionally, we investigated whether the basal serum testosterone concentration influences the performance in countermovement jump (CMJ), 30-s all out cycle sprint, and one-arm isometric elbow flexion. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 19 eugonadal men received either a TE (n = 9, 23 ± 1 years, 183 ± 7 cm, 83 ± 10 kg) or a PLA (n = 10, 25 ± 2 years, 186 ± 6 cm, 82 ± 14 kg) injection. Hormonal levels and the performance in CMJ, 30-s all out cycle sprint, and one-arm isometric elbow flexion were measured before and 24 h after injection. Results: Firstly, an intramuscular injection of 250 mg mixed TEs did not enhance the vertical jump height in a CMJ test, peak power, mean power, and fatigue index in a 30-s all-out cycle sprint or rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction in a one-arm isometric elbow flexion 24 h post-injection. Secondly, baseline testosterone levels appeared not to influence performance in strength and power exercises to a large extent in healthy, recreationally active young men. Conclusion: A single intramuscular injection of 250 mg mixed TEs has no acute ergogenic effects on strength and power performance in recreationally active, young men. This novel information has implication for basic physiological understanding. Whether the same applies to an elite athlete population remains to be determined. If so, this would have implications for anti-doping efforts aiming to determine the most cost-efficient testing programs.
... Testosterone affects a variety of parameters that play crucial roles in the ability to perform efficiently during exercise, this involving, inter alia, the nervous and the musculoskeletal systems. As concerns the muscles, testosterone exerts a direct anabolic effect, inducing muscle growth and increasing muscle mass [6,7] via its direct stimulatory effect on muscle protein synthesis [8,9]. In addition, testosterone alters the cross-sectional area of both type I and II muscle fibers [10]. ...
... Data from animal studies suggest that testosterone may also have a strong influence on skeletal muscle contraction, known as excitation-contraction coupling, and on fast twitch muscle fibers. These effects of testosterone on muscle physiology result in an induction of explosive exercise performance [7,11], which, as a consequence, leads to high levels of muscle activity coupled with short duration of contraction time [8,12,13]. Of note, there is a well-documented link between muscle mass, muscle strength, and exercise performance, and, in particular, of the type involving explosive movements, including jumps, sprints, acceleration, deceleration, and rapid changes of direction, all of which are of vital importance for most athletic events, including soccer [14,15]. ...
Article
A constant topic reported in the lay press is the effect of sex hormones on athletic performance and their abuse by athletes in their effort to enhance their performance or to either boost or sidestep their hard, protracted, and demanding training regimens. However, an issue that it is almost never mentioned is that the athletic training itself affects the endogenous production of androgens and estrogens, while also being affected by them. Among sports, soccer is a particularly demanding activity, soccer players needing to possess high levels of endurance, strength, and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity, with the very great physiological, metabolic, physical, and psychological exertion required of the players being both influenced by sex steroids and, reciprocally, affecting sex steroid levels. This review focuses on the currently available knowledge regarding the complex relationship between athletic training and competition and sex steroid hormone adaptation to the demands of the exercise effort. In the first part of the review, we will examine the effects of endogenous testosterone, estrogen, and adrenal androgens on athletic performance both during training and in competition. In the second part, we will explore the reciprocal effects of exercise on the endogenous sex hormones while briefly discussing the recent data on anabolic androgenic steroid abuse.
... In 2006, Cardinale and Stone established the relationship between T levels and vertical jumping ability in a cohort of elite athletes, 22 women and 48 men [71]. Among female athletes, there were 12 sprinters and 10 volleyball players. ...
... Authors found a significant positive relationship between T levels and vertical jump performance. Furthermore, when the two group of female athletes were compared, T levels and vertical jumping ability resulted significantly higher in sprinters than in volleyball players [71]. These results indicate that T positively influences explosive performance and that different types of sports and/or training may have a different influence on hormonal levels. ...
Article
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Abstract This article is a review that addresses the following topics, divided by paragraphs. The first paragraph investigates the effects of physical activity on ovarian function, analyzing in particular the changes concerning the serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, thyroid hormones, leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y. The second paragraph analyzes the effects of doping on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Finally, the last paragraph analyzes the PCOS category, evaluating the effects of hyperandrogenism in relation to athletic performance.
... Estudos têm demonstrado que a concentração de TEST exerce papel fundamental para o desempenho de P de membros inferiores 8,9 . Cardinale e Stone 9 , por exemplo, reportaram correlação significante e positiva (r = 0,62) entre a concentração de TEST e a altura de salto com contra movimento em jogadores profissionais, do sexo masculino, de futebol, handebol e corredores de curta distância (sprinters). ...
... Além disso, o estudo considerando que a capacidade de se executar com proficiência ações relacionadas à produção de P é um aspecto fundamental no futebol 5 .Adicionalmente, quando considerado o subgrupo ACT, correlações significantes e positivas entre TEST e P (PPR e PMR) em M1 e M2 foram observadas. Esse resultado corrobora estudos anteriores, que mostram a existência de relação entre a concentração de TEST e o desempenho de P de membros inferiores8,9 . Cardinale e Stone 9 , por exemplo, reportaram correlação significante e positiva entre a concentração de TEST e a altura de salto de atletas de futebol, handebol e corredores de curta distância do sexo masculino. ...
Article
Full-text available
Papel da testosterona no desempenho de potência de jogadores profi ssionais de futebol em diferentes momentos da temporada competitiva Role of testosterone on power performance in professional soccer players at different periods of the competitive season ARRUDA AFS, SARGENTIM S, AOKI MS, MOREIRA A. RESUMO: Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: 1) verifi car a associação entre a testosterona (TEST) e o desempenho de potência de membros inferiores de jogadores profi ssionais de futebol durante uma temporada competitiva; e 2) verificar o efeito da alteração da concentração de TEST entre o início e o fi nal da temporada competitiva na variação da potência. No início (M1) e no fi nal (M2) de uma temporada competitiva de 8 semanas, 12 jogadores profi ssionais de futebol forneceram amostras de saliva e realizaram salto vertical com contramovimento com carga adicional de 30% da massa corporal. Foi observada manu-tenção da concentração de TEST e diminuição de potência para o grupo como um todo (p<0,05). Quando separados dois subgrupos de acordo com a resposta de TEST, o subgrupo com diminuição da concentração de TEST (DCT) teve redução no desempenho de potência. Já o subgrupo com aumento da concentração de TEST (ACT) manteve o desempenho de potência alcançado em M1. Também foi verifi cada correlação signifi cativa e positiva entre a concentração de TEST e o desempenho de potência em M1 e M2 (r = 0,68 e 0,87, respectivamente), assim como, entre a variação de TEST e a variação de potência de M1 para M2, tanto para a potência média (r = 0,75), quanto para a potência relativa (0,77), para o subgrupo ACT. A partir da separação do grupo de acordo com a alteração de TEST do M1 para M2, foi possível observar diferentes respostas de desempenho de potência. O subgrupo ACT manteve o nível de potência durante a temporada competitiva. Esses resultados sugerem que o aumento de TEST durante a temporada competitiva pode estar associado à manutenção de potência em jogadores profi ssionais de futebol. Palavras-chave: Esporte coletivo; Saliva; Treinamento esportivo; Monitoramento; Salto vertical. ABSTRACT: The main aims of the present study were: 1) to examine the influence of testosterone (TEST) on lower limbs power performance during a competitive season in professional soccer players; and 2) to observe the effect of TEST change on power response. At the beginning (M1) and the end (M2) of an 8-week competitive season, 12 professional soccer players provided saliva samples and performed countermovement jumps with a 30% of their body mass load. It was observed no significant change in TEST, and a decrement in power performance, for the whole group (p<0.05). However, when the group was divided into subgroups, the subgroup that showed a decrement in TEST concentration (DTC) from M1 to M2 presented a decrease in power performance; conversely, the subgroup that presented an increment in TEST concentration (ITC) was able to maintain the previous level of power. A significant and positive correlation between TEST concentration and power for both M1 and M2 (r = 0.68 and 0.87), as well as between TEST variation and power change from M1 to M2 (r = 0.75 for mean power, and 0.77 for relative mean power was only observed for the ITC subgroup. Different responses were observed in lower limbs power performance according to TEST concentration change from M1 to M2. The ITC subgroup maintained power performance during the competitive season. These results suggest that an increase in TEST during the competitive season may improve the likelihood of maintaining power performance in professional soccer players.
... Estudos têm demonstrado que a concentração de TEST exerce papel fundamental para o desempenho de P de membros inferiores 8,9 . Cardinale e Stone 9 , por exemplo, reportaram correlação significante e positiva (r = 0,62) entre a concentração de TEST e a altura de salto com contra movimento em jogadores profissionais, do sexo masculino, de futebol, handebol e corredores de curta distância (sprinters). ...
... Além disso, o estudo considerando que a capacidade de se executar com proficiência ações relacionadas à produção de P é um aspecto fundamental no futebol 5 .Adicionalmente, quando considerado o subgrupo ACT, correlações significantes e positivas entre TEST e P (PPR e PMR) em M1 e M2 foram observadas. Esse resultado corrobora estudos anteriores, que mostram a existência de relação entre a concentração de TEST e o desempenho de P de membros inferiores8,9 . Cardinale e Stone 9 , por exemplo, reportaram correlação significante e positiva entre a concentração de TEST e a altura de salto de atletas de futebol, handebol e corredores de curta distância do sexo masculino. ...
Article
Full-text available
Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: 1) verificar a associação entre a testosterona (T) e o desempenho de potência (P) de membros inferiores de jogadores profissionais de futebol durante uma temporada competitiva; e 2) verificar o efeito da alteração da concentração de T entre o início e o final da temporada competitiva na variação de P. No início (M1) e no final (M2) de uma temporada competitiva de 8 semanas, 12 jogadores profissionais de futebol forneceram amostras de saliva e realizaram salto vertical com contramovimento com carga adicional de 30% do peso corporal. Foi observada manutenção da concentração de T e diminuição de P para o grupo como um todo (p
... The first IAAF regulation stated 81 that for athletes to be eligible to complete in female events, the athlete must be legally recognised as a female 82 and, unless she has complete androgen insensitivity, maintain serum testosterone less than 10 nmol/L. That 83 IAAF eligibility rule was challenged by an athlete to the Court for Arbitration in Sports (CAS) which ruled in 2015 84 that, although an eligibility criterion was justified, the scientific grounds for the original IAAF rule was 85 considered insufficient, notably in the extent of the competitive advantage enjoyed by hyperandrogenic 86 athletes who had circulating testosterone greater than 10 nmo/L. The CAS suspended the hyperandrogenism 87 eligibility rule pending receipt of such evidence. ...
... These findings are supported by studies of non-athletic women showing that muscle mass is increased in 510 proportion to circulating testosterone in women with mildly elevated testosterone levels due to PCOS (84, 511 85), a condition which is more prevalent among elite female athletes who exhibit these features (26, 36, 38), 512 often undiagnosed (37), but which may provide an ergogenic advantage (38), consistent with the graded 513 effects of circulating testosterone on explosive performance in men and women (86). ...
Article
Full-text available
Elite athletic competitions have separate male and female events due to men’s physical advantages in strength, speed and endurance so that a protected female category with objective entry criteria is required. Prior to puberty, there is no sex difference in circulating testosterone concentrations or athletic performance but from puberty onwards sex difference in athletic performance emerges as circulating testosterone concentrations rise in men because testes produce 30 times more testosterone than before puberty with circulating testosterone exceeding 15-fold those of women at any age. There is a wide sex difference in circulating testosterone concentrations and reproducible dose-response relationship between circulating testosterone and muscle mass and strength as well as circulating hemoglobin in both men and women. These dichotomies largely accounts for the sex differences in muscle mass and strength and circulating hemoglobin levels resulting in at least an 8-12% ergogenic advantage in men. Suppression of elevated circulating testosterone of hyperandrogenic athletes results in negative effects on performance, which are reversed when suppression ceases. Based on the non-overlapping, bimodal distribution of circulating testosterone concentration (measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and making allowance for women with mild hyperandrogenism including that of polycystic ovarian syndrome, who are over-represented in elite athletics, the appropriate eligibility criterion for female athletic events should be a circulating testosterone of less than 5.0 nmol/L. This would include all women other than those with untreated hyperandrogenic disorders of sexual development (DSD), testosterone-treated female-to-male (F2M) transgender, noncompliant male-to-female (M2F) transgender or androgen doping.
... Nevertheless, based on the existing literature, it is possible that testosterone administration induces acute performance-enhancing effects, which may provide testosterone dopers with an acute competitive edge if administering testosterone right before or during a competition. Because resting testosterone levels are positively related to vertical jump height 40,41 and sprinting performance, 41 the biological effects of such single-dose administration may depend on the initial serum testosterone level, causing a blunted biological effect in individuals with naturally high testosterone levels. Studies evaluating these questions are of high relevance both for a 13 physiological understanding of testosterone and for anti-doping authorities aiming to determine the most cost-efficient testing programs. ...
... No correlations were observed (Paper III). This contradicts the observed positive relationships between serum testosterone and vertical jump height 40,41 and sprinting performance 41 in elite athletes of various sports. It must be noted that we included a mixed group of untrained and moderately trained individuals (Paper III). ...
Thesis
Testosterone esters and clenbuterol are among the most frequently used doping substances in elite and recreational sports. Direct detection in urine and blood samples is hampered by the costs of collection, transportation and analysis, and the rapid hydrolysis of testosterone esters in blood. Indirect detection of testosterone by the ‘Athlete Biological Passport’ (ABP) steroidal module is limited by both the associated costs and confounding factors. Therefore, the present thesis aimed to improve the time- and cost-efficiency in doping analysis by evaluating 1) the applicability of dried blood spots (DBS) as a complementary sample matrix and 2) whether the hematological module of the ABP can be used to indicate doping of testosterone and thereby increase detection, given the erythropoietic effect of testosterone, and 3) by determining the most cost-efficient anti-doping testing program based on detection windows and performance-enhancing effects. In Paper I-III, DBS, urine and blood samples from men receiving two intramuscular injections of Sustanon® 250 (n = 9) or placebo (n = 10) in a randomized, placebo-controlled design were analyzed for direct and indirect detection of testosterone esters and assessment of serum levels of reproductive hormones. In Paper III, the performances in countermovement jump, 30-s all out cycle sprint and one-arm isometric elbow flexion were measured before and 24 h after the first Sustanon® injection. In Paper IV, DBS and urine samples from 6 healthy men receiving a single oral dose of 80 µg clenbuterol were collected and analyzed for detection of clenbuterol. Paper II and IV demonstrated that the DBS assays allow for detection up to 14 days after an intramuscular injection of 250 mg Sustanon®, and for at least 3 days after an oral ingestion of 80 µg clenbuterol, with 100% specificity. Further, preliminary data suggest that DBS-sampling is well accepted by athletes. Additionally, Paper IV showed that clenbuterol can be detected for at least 10 days in urine after ingestion of 80 µg of drug. Paper I demonstrated that some hematological biomarkers are affected by testosterone administration, and that the largest changes occur 3-10 days after an injection. Paper III showed that a single injection of testosterone esters do not enhance human performance acutely in a countermovement jump test, a one-arm isometric elbow flexion test nor a 30-sec cycle sprint test. In conclusion, the DBS analyses of testosterone esters and clenbuterol appear to have sufficient specificity and sensitivity to be implemented in routine doping control in elite and recreational sports. Given the longer detection windows for clenbuterol in urine, urine is expected to remain as the preferred sample matrix for clenbuterol analysis. However, the implementation of DBS sampling could improve time- and costefficiency while reducing intrusiveness, and thereby allow for higher frequency of testing, or testing of a large number of athletes in a short time, with the aim of increasing detection and deterrence. Further, changes in markers in the hematological module could be indicative of testosterone doping, and should be considered an additional tool for targeted follow-up sample collection and confirmatory analysis. Moreover, since testosterone did not have any acute performance-enhancing effects in power/strength exercises, athletes are likely not to have an advantage if administering a single dose of testosterone esters immediately before or during a competition in power/strength sports. ISBN 978-87-7209-334-5
... The fundamental frequency of the voice is dependent upon the thickness and size of the vocal folds that are positively correlated with the level of testosterone 30,31,32 . In the other side, Cardinale & Stone (2006) have identified a significant positive relationship between testosterone levels and vertical jump performance (r = 0.61, p < 0.001, n = 70) 33 . ...
... The fundamental frequency of the voice is dependent upon the thickness and size of the vocal folds that are positively correlated with the level of testosterone 30,31,32 . In the other side, Cardinale & Stone (2006) have identified a significant positive relationship between testosterone levels and vertical jump performance (r = 0.61, p < 0.001, n = 70) 33 . ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Since the human being functions as a multidimensional system with highly adaptable automatic features and with strong correlations among the subsystems, the scientists have been encouraged to explore the predictive possibilities of one human characteristic/ability according to different morpho-functional characteristics/abilities. The goal of this study was to explore the biological relations between morpho-functional variables and the voice-acoustic parameters, and the possibility to predict the explosive power of the lower extremities based on the registered voice acoustic parameters. METHODS: Seven morpho-functional variables and six voice-acoustic parameters were measured on 37 male athletes aged 15-29 years. The statistical analysis was accomplished through the SPSS-program version-20 and Statistica-12. The obtained data were analyzed through Canonical Analyses, Regressive Analyses, and t-test for Paired Samples. RESULTS: Canonical analysis has enabled the extraction of one significant canonical root (P=0.043), which explains 73.7% of the shared variance. The results of the regression analysis indicate that the system of voice-acoustic parameters significantly predicts 34.7% of total variance of the criterion variable Margarita-Kalamen test. CONCLUSIONS: The final results of this study confirm very close biological relations between morpho-functional and voice-acoustic parameters. Additionally, according to these results, it might be suggested that based on the voice-acoustic parameters: MeanF0 and MinF0, may be predicted the athlete’s explosive power of the lower extremities.
... Although the role of androgens in female physiology has not been well established, several studies have indicated that T may induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength through genomic (long-term, transcriptional) mechanisms 22,23 . Additionally, T was shown to act quickly through non-genomic mechanisms (short-term, non-transcriptional) 24 . ...
... It is possible that T might improve athletic performance in sprint events by decreasing reaction time, as T has been shown to regulate neuromuscular transmission 30 . It was, therefore, suggested that T plays an important role in explosive performance by influencing skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, phenotypization of fast-twitch muscle fibers, protein synthesis and aggressive behaviour 22 . Interestingly, in the mixed cohort of 18 female athletes (track and field, netball, cycling, swimming and bob skeleton), Cook, Crewther, Smith 31 revealed that salivary free T concentrations were significantly higher in elite athletes in comparison with non-elites, suggesting that T could influence the expression of behaviour (i.e. ...
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The aim of this study is to determine the interrelationship between the resting serum testosterone (T) levels (an inherited trait) of female athletes from different types of sporting events and their athletic success. The study involves 599 Russian international-level female athletes (95 highly elite, 190 elite, and 314 sub-elite) and 298 age-matched female controls. All subjects were age 16-35 years old and to the best of our knowledge have always tested negative for performance enhancing substances. The athlete cohort was stratified into four groups according to event duration, distance, and type of activity: 1) endurance athletes, 2) athletes with mixed activity, 3) speed/strength athletes, and 4) sprinters. Athletic success was measured by determining the level of achievement of each athlete. The mean (SD) T levels of athletes and controls were 1.65 (0.87) and 1.76 (0.6) nmol/L (P=0.057) with ranges of 0.08-5.80 and 0.38-2.83 nmol/L in athletes and controls, respectively. No significant differences in T levels were found between different groups of athletes. T levels were positively correlated (r=0.62, P<0.0001) with athletic success in sprinters (runners, cyclists, kayakers, speed skaters, swimmers). Moreover, none of the sub-elite sprinters had T > 1.9 nmol/L, while 50% of elite and highly elite sprinters had T > 1.9 nmol/L (95% CI: 2.562-862.34; OR=47.0; P<0.0001). We do not observe the benefits of having high T levels for success in other groups of athletes. Conversely, highly elite middle-distance (P=0.235) and mixed activity athletes (P=0.096) tended to have lower T levels than less successful athletes. Our data suggest that the measurement of the serum T levels significantly correlates with athletic success in sprinters but not other types of athletes and in the future may be useful in the prediction of sprinting ability.
... En étudiant les résultats lors d'un protocole cross-over, Beaven et al. (2008a) montrent que les gains les plus importants sont observés après 3 semaines d'entraînement correspondant au protocole induisant initialement la plus grande réponse de [T]. Par ailleurs, le niveau de [T]sg/sal semble être représentatif du niveau de disponibilité et de performance neuromusculaires ( Figure 28), particulièrement lorsque celle-ci est associée à une concentration élevée en catécholamines telles que l'adrénaline et la noradrénaline (Crewther et al., 2009 ;Cardinale & Stone, 2006). De plus, Maso et al., (2004) montrent que [T]sal est corrélée (r = 0.53 ; p < 0.01) à la perception subjective de la fatigue, évaluée chez des rugbymen à partir du questionnaire de surentraînement de la SFMS. ...
... Relation entre la concentration sanguine de testostérone et les performances neuromusculaires au countermovement jump (CMJ) chez les hommes (n = 48 ; r = 0.62; p < 0.001) et chez les femmes (n = 22; r = 0.48; p < 0.01), d'aprèsCardinale & Stone, (2006).Gaviglio et al., (2014) montrent une relation significative entre une mesure de [T]sal réalisée en milieu de semaine et la performance collective lors du match de la même semaine. Pour ces auteurs, [T]sal et le ratio [T]/[C] semblent être des indicateurs pertinents de la capacité de performance chez des rugbymen. ...
Thesis
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L’objectif de ce travail de thèse était (i) de quantifier la charge de travail (CT) et son évolution au cours de la saison, et (ii) d’étudier ses effets sur la performance, les qualités physiques, le risque de blessures, les caractéristiques psychologiques et biochimiques de rugbymen à XV professionnels. En premier lieu, nous nous sommes intéressés à la quantification de la demande métabolique lors de matchs officiels de hautniveaux (étude 1). Les principaux résultats de cette étude montrent que l’approche de la puissance métabolique constitue une alternative à l’approche traditionnelle pour quantifier les efforts de course de haute intensité. En second lieu, une étude préliminaire (étude 2) a permis d’étudier les évolutions de CT (GPS & RPE), des qualités physiques et des caractéristiques biochimiques, tout au long d’une saison chez des joueurs arrières. Un deuxième protocole expérimental (études 3 & 4) a permis de compléter les résultats de l’étude 2, en analysant notamment l’influence de CT sur l’évolution des caractéristiques psychologiques, du taux de blessures et de la performance en match. Les études 2, 3 et 4 montrent que CT est significativement (p < 0.05) plus élevée pendant la première partie de la saison (pré-saison et début du championnat). Ces études montrent également que la CT compétitive et le nombre d’impacts sévères (>8G) sont les principaux paramètres de CT influençant les réponses physiologiques des joueurs. Ces paramètres influencent les caractéristiques psychologiques, les marqueurs des dommages musculaires (CK) et le nombre de duels gagnés en compétition. Ces études montrent aussi qu’un volume d’entraînement élevé associé à une faible intensité d’entraînement influencent négativement les performances neuromusculaires (Tests DJ et CMJ). Enfin, l’addition d’entraînements avec contacts et l’accumulation de CT compétitive peut favoriser l’apparition d’un état de fatigue avancée (surcharge non-fonctionnelle), illustrée par une diminution significative (p < 0.05) des ratios T/C et IGF-1/C.
... The explosive power of the lower limbs is essential in many sports, and the SLJ test is a simple, quick, and effective method for measuring it. Cardinale and Stone (5) found that high levels of free testosterone may be related to increased explosive power, suggesting that the increased power may be attributable to high testosterone levels inducing skeletal muscle remodeling (e.g., phenotypization of fast muscle fibers) and neuromuscular function (e.g., muscle excitation-contraction coupling) (5). In the current study, boys with a low 2D:4D ratio demonstrated higher explosive power performance. ...
... This may be because they were prenatally primed by testosterone (a low 2D:4D ratio), they might have metabolized less testosterone into estradiol, and the testosterone might have acted more directly on androgen receptors (40). However, we did not find the 2D:4D ratio to be correlated with explosive power in women, possibly because, in women, instead of testosterone, other androgens (e.g., androstenedione) might play a critical role in the development of explosive power (5,26). ...
Article
A recent study reported that lower limb explosive power had no correlation with the 2D:4D ratio. However, many studies hypothesized that a lower 2D:4D ratio (reflecting a relative higher testosterone exposure) predicts higher physical fitness. The aim of this study is to replicate the study of explosive power and the 2D:4D ratio in a sample of Taiwanese children. A total of 541 Taiwanese prepubertal children (257 girls and 284 boys aged 9-10 years) participated in this study. This study analyzed the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and explosive power. Explosive power of the lower limbs was assessed using the standing long jump (SLJ) test. The lengths of the second and fourth fingers of the right hand were measured to calculate the 2D:4D ratio. The SLJ length was correlated with the 2D:4D ratios (r = - 0.144, p = 0.015) in boys. After controlling for age and the BMI, this correlation remained significant (r = - 0.134, p = 0.024). For girls, 2D:4D ratios were not significantly correlated with SLJ scores. These results indicate the SLJ distance was negatively correlated with the 2D:4D ratio in boys, but not in girls. These findings might suggest PT exposure is negatively correlated with the explosive power in males, but not in females.
... While our results cannot provide direct evidence for what other factors besides body mass change could be contributing, potential contributors are the effects of testosterone on force production and adaptations to resistance training. Specifically, higher testosterone concentrations may be related to superior performance in squatting, sprinting, and jumping [27,28]. In addition, individuals with higher testosterone concentrations may exhibit a greater magnitude of adaptation to resistance training [29][30][31]. ...
... While improvement from one age group to the next may be inferred to be largely due to muscle mass change based on this observation, it is not clear whether a development trend in both totals would appear similarly to the one observed in this study if youth weightlifters were tracked longitudinally. As already discussed, hormonal changes, particularly changes in androgen concentrations, can positively influence muscle force production independent of muscle mass changes [27,28]. Thus, caution should be exercised when evaluating the value of the efficacy of technical practice and physical fitness training from an age group to the next (i.e., it is still possible for technical practice and physical fitness training to make a substantial contribution to an increase in weightlifting total from an age group to the next). ...
Article
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This study was designed to provide an overview of weightlifting performance as a function of age group and sex and evaluate the potential of countermovement jump height (CMJH) as a tool to gauge performance potential. Data from 130 youth athletes (female, n = 65 & male, n = 65) were used to examine progression of performance (Total and Sinclair total) and the relationship between CMJH and Sinclair total while considering interactions between CMJH and age and/or sex. ANOVAs with post hoc analyses revealed that both totals had a statistical first-order polynomial interaction effect between age group and sex and the difference between age groups of 12-13 and 14-15 years old was statistically greater for male than female. A linear model, developed to examine the relationship, revealed that CMJH and CMJH x sex x age rejected the null hypothesis. Our primary findings are that male youth weightlifters have a higher rate of performance progression, possibly owing to puberty, and CMJH may be a better gauging tool for older male youth weightlifters.
... Additionally, increased T/C ratio [9], and elevated FT prior to resistance training has been a strong indicator of resistance training performance [10]. In elite volleyball players, Cardinale and Stone [11] demonstrated increased TT prior to training to be positively related with vertical jump [11]. However, to our knowledge, the existing research has not examined the relationship between both psychological well-being via validated assessment scales and stress hormone levels on acute neuromuscular performance in elite female volleyballers. ...
... Additionally, increased T/C ratio [9], and elevated FT prior to resistance training has been a strong indicator of resistance training performance [10]. In elite volleyball players, Cardinale and Stone [11] demonstrated increased TT prior to training to be positively related with vertical jump [11]. However, to our knowledge, the existing research has not examined the relationship between both psychological well-being via validated assessment scales and stress hormone levels on acute neuromuscular performance in elite female volleyballers. ...
... When post-only values were assessed, a heat-induced small likely increase [19.3% (8.0, 31.7)] in testosterone emerged for the female athletes only. As testosterone is associated with aggression, the greater force produced in the iMTP following HOT may be explained by elevated post-exercise testosterone concentration and its effect on increasing vigour (Cardinale and Stone 2006). In addition, testosterone has been shown to correlate (r = 0.61) with lower-body power (Cardinale and Stone 2006). ...
... As testosterone is associated with aggression, the greater force produced in the iMTP following HOT may be explained by elevated post-exercise testosterone concentration and its effect on increasing vigour (Cardinale and Stone 2006). In addition, testosterone has been shown to correlate (r = 0.61) with lower-body power (Cardinale and Stone 2006). In comparison, our data revealed a moderate correlation (r = 0.54) between posttraining testosterone concentration and CMJ peak power in HOT vs. CON in males only. ...
Article
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Purpose: To determine the effects of heated resistance exercise on thermal strain, neuromuscular function and hormonal responses in power athletes. Methods: Sixteen (n = 8 female; 8 male) highly trained power athletes completed a combined strength and power resistance exercise session in hot (HOT ~30 °C) and temperate (CON ~20 °C) conditions. Human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol and testosterone concentrations in plasma, peak power (counter-movement jump, CMJ) and peak force (isometric mid-thigh pull) were measured before and after each training session; thermoregulatory responses were monitored during training. Results: Skin temperature, thermal sensation and thermal discomfort were higher in HOT compared with CON. Sweat rate was higher in HOT for males only. Compared with CON, HOT had trivial effects on core temperature and heart rate. During HOT, there was a possible increase in upper-body power (medicine ball throw) in females [3.4% (90% CL -1.5, 8.6)] and males [(3.3% (-0.1, 6.9)], while lower-body power (vertical jump) was enhanced in males only [3.2% (-0.4, 6.9)]. Following HOT, CMJ peak power [4.4% (2.5; 6.3)] and strength [8.2% (3.1, 13.6)] were enhanced in female athletes, compared with CON, while effects in males were unclear. Plasma hGH concentration increased in females [83% (18; 183)] and males [107% (-21; 444)] in HOT compared with CON, whereas differential changes occurred for cortisol and testosterone. Conclusion: Heated resistance exercise enhanced power and increased plasma hGH concentration in female and males power athletes. Further research is required to assess the ergogenic potential of resistance exercise in the heat.
... sprinters vs. volleyball players). 21 The performance statistics of the Non-OC and OC groups were similar across all field hockey matches, as reported elsewhere when comparing measures of anaerobic power, 22,23 muscle power 24 and strength. 18,23,24 Therefore, it's reasonable to suggest that a decline in endogenous T arising from OC use might have little or no impact on discrete or complex measures of physical performance. ...
... On an individual level (population averaged), sal-T was found to be positively related to the number of PA achieved during match play. Correlational and cross-sectional data confirm a positive link between women's T and physical performance during testing, 21 training 25 and competition, 1,3,6 but this work adds to the literature by monitoring subjects repeatedly across team-sport competition played at the highest level of sport, where ecologically-valid evi- dence is still lacking. ...
... Consequently, testosterone supplementations are banned from most international sport organizations due to athletic benefits. 7 Long term physiological effects of testosterone in elite athlete populations include boosting muscle mass and reducing body fat, 16 enhancing explosive performance and skeletal muscle growth 17 and expression of force and power. 18 Androgens, such as testosterone have specified roles in the brain to increase aggression COPYRIGHT© EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA This document is protected by international copyright laws. ...
Article
Background: While physical activity has been shown to affect psychological as well as physiological stress responses, less research has explored the effects of acute stress on athletic performance. The current study hence aimed to investigate the effect of an Acute Psychological Stress (APS) provocation on performance and plasma lactate concentration during a following 200m swim race among male elite swimmers. Furthermore, associations between physiological stress responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone), and outcome measures (speed and lactate) were explored. Methods: Twenty-three elite male swimmers participated in an experimental counterbalanced within-group repeated measures design consisting of an APS provocation followed by a 200m race and, on a separate day, a control race without prior stress exposure. Salivary cortisol and testosterone were collected prior to each race. Race time was recorded, and serum lactate were collected immediately following, and five min after completed race. Results: Race speed was significantly slower (1.53 (95% CI: 0.08-2.79) seconds) following the APS provocation than under control conditions. Pre-race cortisol levels were positively associated with lactate response when preceding stress exposure was present (rho =.483 immediately, and rho=.429 five minutes post race, p's<0.05). Under control conditions however, both increased testosterone (rho= -657, p=0.001) and cortisol (rho= -.491, p=0.020) levels were associated with faster race times. Conclusions: The results indicated a negative impact of APS exposure on athletic performance. Further, potential beneficial effects on performance from physiological stress responses (as reflected by salivary cortisol and testosterone) may be diminished during performance following an APS provocation, compared with a regular non-provoked performance situation.
... 1 Likewise, females participating in speed-based sports (eg, sprinting) have presented much higher blood T concentrations than individuals from other (eg, volleyball) sporting disciplines. 3 The mechanisms underlying this T variance and its influence on performance are not entirely clear; however, some have hypothesized that T supports motivated behaviors, such as aggressiveness, risk taking, and self-efficacy. [4][5][6] Others have linked higher sal-T to increased voluntary training-load choice among female athletes, 7 as a proxy for motivational drive. ...
Article
This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43% on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... sprinters vs. volleyball players). 21 The performance statistics of the Non-OC and OC groups were similar across all field hockey matches, as reported elsewhere when comparing measures of anaerobic power, muscle power and strength. 18,[22][23][24] Therefore, it's reasonable to suggest that a decline in endogenous T arising from OC use might have little or no impact on discrete or complex measures of physical performance. ...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary testosterone (sal-T) concentrations and performance-related statistics in international field hockey matches. Design: A cohort observational study with repeated measures. Methods: Twenty-three elite female athletes were monitored across four international field hockey matches over a nine-day period. Salivary T was assessed 45min before each match and several match performance statistics were collated; load (i.e. ratings of perceived exertion×playing time), video-derived positive actions (PA) and negative actions (NA), plus coach and player ratings of performance. The sal-T and match performance profiles of OC (n=7) and Non-OC (n=16) players were compared and predictive relationships tested. Results: Pre-match sal-T concentrations were 35% higher in the Non-OC than the OC group (p=0.001), representing a large effect size (ES) difference of 0.96. The OC and Non-OC groups did not differ on any performance statistic (p≥0.348) with ES differences from -0.22 to 0.11. Salivary T was positively related to the number of PA during match play (p=0.017). Additional linkage between sal-T and NA emerged, but with opposing slopes (p=0.008) in the OC (B=-1.783, p=0.030) and Non-OC (B=0.692, p=0.127) groups. Conclusions: OC usage by elite women athletes was accompanied by lower sal-T concentrations, but the performance outputs of the OC and Non-OC groups were similar. This suggests that the T differences had no impact on match performance. On an individual (population-averaged) level, sal-T was associated with PA and NA during these matches, though the response curves predicting NA differed for OC and Non-OC athletes.
... One study showed positive correlations between serum testosterone (T) and explosive performance in women athletes. 3 However, another study in four women Olympic weightlifters found no correlation between pre-workout T levels and performance tests. 4 On the other hand, women athletes with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were shown to have the highest performance values compared with non-PCOS athletes. ...
Article
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Background Androgens have anabolic effects that may contribute to enhanced physical performance and a decreased risk of injury in athletes. The role of endogenous androgens for athletic performance in female athletes is not yet fully elucidated. Objective To examine the profile of serum androgens in relation to body composition and physical performance in female Olympic athletes and compared to sedentary controls. Design Cross-sectional study, recruitment 2011–2015. Setting The Women's Health Research Unit, Karolinska University Hospital. Participants 106 female Swedish Olympic athletes (summer and winter sports) and 117 controls (maximum 2 hours training per week, no prior participation in elite-level sports). Assessment Participants were examined at one occasion at rest and in a fasting state for blood sampling. Serum androgen levels were established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Body composition was evaluated by DXA. Physical performance tests (Squat jump (SJ), Counter Movement Jump (CMJ)) were made at the Sports Institute, Bosön, as part of the “Physical Profile” offered by the Swedish Olympic Committee. Main Outcome Measurements The profile of serum androgens, body composition, physical performance. Results Female Olympic athletes demonstrated significantly higher androgen levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstandiol (5-ADIOL), lower levels of estrone, and a more anabolic body composition compared to controls. Athletes in power sports had significantly higher bone mineral density compared to endurance and technical athletes, whereas endurance athletes had the highest values of lean mass. Serum levels of DHEA and 5-ADIOL correlated positively to lean mass in female athletes (R=0.25–0.33). Furthermore, DHEA, 5-ADIOL and dihydrotestosterone correlated positively to CMJ and SJ in the athletes (R=0.27–0.39). Conclusions We suggest that endogenous androgens contribute to a more anabolic body composition and increased physical performance in female athletes. Furthermore, the anabolic effect on body composition could play a role for the risk of injury.
... These higher levels of testosterone would enable increased interactions between the hormone and intra-cellular receptors thereby enhancing the physiological effects of the hormone. 13 Testosterone enhances neuromuscular performance capacity 5,11,13,14 and stimulates aggressiveness and motivation to win. 15,16 Therefore, an increase in testosterone levels prior to physical activity, also called "hormonal priming", is considered to facilitate neuromuscular performance. ...
Article
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Purpose: Preconditioning strategies are considered as opportunities to optimize performance on competition day. While investigations conducted in rugby players on the effects of a morning preconditioning session already exist, additional work is warranted. The aim of this study was to monitor changes in physical and psychophysiological indicators among international Rugby-7s players following a priming exercise. Methods: In a randomized crossover-design, fourteen under-18 international Rugby-7s players completed, at 8:00am, a preconditioning session consisting of a warm-up followed by small-sided games, accelerations and 2 x 50-m maximal sprints (Experimental) or no pre-loading session (Control). Following a 2-hour break, the players performed a set of six 30-m sprints and a Rugby-7s match. Recovery-stress state and salivary stress-markers levels were assessed before the preloading session (Pre), immediately after (Post-1), before the testing session (Post-2) and after (Post-3). Results: Experimental-Control differences in performance across a repeated sprint test consisting of six 30-m sprints were very likely trivial (+0.2 ±0.7%, 3/97/1%). During the match, the total distance covered and the frequency of decelerations were possibly lower (small) in Experimental compared to Control. Differences observed in the other parameters were unclear or possibly trivial. At Post-2, the perceived recovery-stress state was improved (small difference) in Experimental compared with Control. No difference in salivary cortisol response was observed while the preconditioning session induced a higher stimulation of salivary testosterone and alpha-amylase. Conclusions: The players' ability to repeat sprints and physical activity in match-play did not improve but their psychophysiological state was positively affected after the present pre-conditioning session.
... No result including fT has been published on this matter so far; the only available source is the article by Cardinale and Stone who also reported, on a small number of subjects, higher T concentrations in male sprinters when compared with handball and soccer players. 21 The observed low T concentration in male throwers is an unexpected result. This trend is observed in all throwing events: mean T concentrations were 14.1 nmol/L, 12.6 nmol/L, 11.2 nmol/L, and 14.5 nmol/L in discus, hammer throw, shot put, and javelin, respectively. ...
Article
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Objective To describe and characterise serum androgen levels and to study their possible influence on athletic performance in male and female elite athletes. Methods 2127 observations of competition best performances and mass spectrometry-measured serum androgen concentrations, obtained during the 2011 and 2013 International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships, were analysed in male and female elite track and field athletes. To test the influence of serum androgen levels on performance, male and female athletes were classified in tertiles according to their free testosterone (fT) concentration and the best competition results achieved in the highest and lowest fT tertiles were then compared. Results The type of athletic event did not influence fT concentration among elite women, whereas male sprinters showed higher values for fT than male athletes in other events. Men involved in all throwing events showed significantly (p<0.05) lower testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin than men in other events. When compared with the lowest female fT tertile, women with the highest fT tertile performed significantly (p<0.05) better in 400 m, 400 m hurdles, 800 m, hammer throw, and pole vault with margins of 2.73%, 2.78%, 1.78%, 4.53%, and 2.94%, respectively. Such a pattern was not found in any of the male athletic events. Conclusion Female athletes with high fT levels have a significant competitive advantage over those with low fT in 400 m, 400 m hurdles, 800 m, hammer throw, and pole vault.
... In addition, previously successful young athletes are more likely to gain the opportunity to train in better conditions and with the best coaches. Another determining factor in successful youth athletes is the level of testosterone, which significantly correlates with strength and the concentration of testosterone depends on the degree of biological maturation (Cardinale and Stone, 2006). According to Handelsman (2017) prior to puberty, there is no sex difference in circulating testosterone concentrations or athletic performance, while circulating testosterone concentrations in men increase rapidly post-puberty when the testes begin to produce more testosterone (30 times) than pre-puberty. ...
Article
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Background Contemporary research has shown that only a small proportion of high achieving young athletes continue to become successful senior athletes. However, there is a lack of empirical literature tracking the success of senior male and female athletes who were considered high achieving as a youth. Hypothesis Athletes of both sexes who are successful in youth categories (U18 and U20) are more likely to be successful senior athletes. Conclusion Data from 67,600 athletes were collated from the tilastopaja.org platform. The inclusion criteria for both genders were determined by top-100 ranking in the U18 and U20 age groups and progression to the top-100 as a senior athlete. Only 23.5% of successful track and field athletes (ranked in top-100) at U18 became a successful senior athlete, while 35.4% were from the U20 group. Girls ranked in the top-100 U18 and U20 categories are significantly more likely to be ranked in the top-100 as a senior when compared to boys. Although, being ranked in the top-50 at U18 and U20 significantly increases the probability of becoming a successful senior athlete when compared with less successful athletes at these age groups ( p < 0.001). Notably, the majority (68.5%) of the most successful senior athletes were not ranked in the top-100 when in the U18 or U20 age groups. Only a small group of track and field athletes that are successful at U18 and U20 become successful at senior level. The most successful track and field youth athletes are significantly more likely to succeed as a senior athlete than their less successful peers, while girls are more likely to be successful than boys.
... During resistance exercises and sports competitions, T action seems to be essential for mobilizing competitive performance capacity (26). Previous studies have highlighted T increase as a result of high-intensity physical activities (39)(40)(41). Sports competitions between men, particularly those involving bodily contact, are equivalent to challenging situations, such as aggressive and sexual encounters (42,43). A rise in T is expected in anticipation of the competitive event, and/or throughout the competition. ...
Article
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Background: This study evaluated endocrine responsiveness (ER) to physical stress (contact vs. non-contact nature of play) during team handball matches, according to the playing positions, thereby contextualizing the contact nature of the handball match. Methods: The participants were ten male team handball players (24.1 ± 3.17 years, 188.2 ± 6.42 cm, 94.6 ± 9.6 kg) divided into two groups: contact playing positions (CPP) and non-contact playing positions (NCPP). To evaluate the ER, the salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and alpha-amylase (AA) concentrations were assessed before the game, during the halftime break, and after the match. Moreover, playing time (PT) and the number of contacts (NC) were counted post-match by video analysis. To determine possible differences between PT and the NC in the first and second halves of the match, a paired-sample t-test was used. The differences among ER-measures were calculated by the magnitude-based Cohen's effect size. Possible associations between NC and ER were analysed by comparing CPP and NCPP in C, T, and AA. Results: The CPP group performed significantly more physical contacts, while there was no difference in playing time between the groups. A stronger C response was evidenced in players with a longer playing time. During the game, the C response was directly determined by physical contact, with CPP players showing a stronger C response than NCPP players. Conclusions: This study provided evidence of the importance of contact actions during matches and training sessions, as a parameter of calculating training loads and preparing strategies for recovery and injury prevention. Further studies examining larger samples are warranted.
... In the sports science and medicine literature, it is fairly well-known the effect of testosterone on physical performance of both male and female athletes [2,6]. Scientific studies suggested that the higher level of testosterone on the body can lead to increase athletic performance in various sports disciplines such as; team handball, soccer, skiing, rugby [6,[9][10][11][12]. Some researcher who investigated athletes' digit ratio found a relationship between digit ratio and athletic performance, but others not found [13,14]. ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between the digit ratios and freestyle swimming performance of adolescent well-trained swimmers. Material and Methods: Twenty-two well-trained male swimmers who had at least 3 years of swim training experience were recruited as participants. The participants’ mean age was 14.1±1.5 years, body height was 164.5±11.3 cm, and body mass was 54.4±11.2 kg. Participants’ body height, mass, index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) lengths were measured and digit ratio (2D:4D) and body mass index of participants was calculated. To determine the swimming performance of participants, the short (50m and 100m) and middle (200m and 400m) distance freestyle time-trial swimming tests were performed on participants. The association between the 2D:4D ratio and the swimming performance were determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. Our findings indicated that there were strong negative correlations (r > .50) between the mean of BMI and swimming times of adolescent swimmers. ( p > .05 ). However, result of this study revealed no relationship between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and swimming performance in adolescent swimmers. ( p > .05 ). Conclusion. As a result, it may be stated that the 2D:4D ratio of swimmers is not a major parameter in predicting swimming performance for adolescent swimmers.
... Increased testosterone levels significantly improve athletic performance in male (Bahrke & Yesalis, 2004) but there is very poor evidence on the effects of testosterone in women. Furthermore, the issue is highly controversial because there are several rulings in professional sport, although not many investigations have shown connections between testosterone concentrations and strength and muscle mass in female athletes (Bermon & Garnier, 2017;Bermon et al., 2018;Cardinale & Stone, 2006;Eklund et al., 2017). Above all, there is indirect evidence that testosterone in female athletes improves athletic performance. ...
Article
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There is very little about the impact that sports training has on female football referees. Therefore, we determined the effects of a 40-week physical preparation, including a full football season, on plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations and physical performance in female football referees. Plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assayed together with fitness tests at the beginning of the training period (T0, in September), after 8 weeks from T0 (T1), at the mid of the season (T2, 24 weeks after T0), and at the end of the season (T3, in June, 40 weeks after T0). Plasma cortisol increased during the first period and up to T2 (from 15.4 ± 4.7 to 28.5 ± 3.9 µg/dl; p < 0.001), and then decreased at the end of the season (T3: 16.0 ± 2.4 µg/dl). Plasma testosterone concentration in T0 was 14.2±0.37 µg/dl and increased in T1 (57.1 ± 3.7 µg/dl) and T2 (47 ± 3.7 µg/dl) and then decreased in T3 (33.5 ± 2.8 µg/dl). Resting testosterone levels in women were very low (14,2 ± 0.37 µg/dl) (Figure 3c). Testosterone increased in T1 (57.1 ± 3.7 µg/dl) and T2 (47 ± 3.7 µg/dl) whilst, at the end of the season, its concentration decreased (33.5 ± 2.8 µg/dl) (Figure 3c). Significant improvements were observed in all physical performances during the observed period (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Finally, testosterone and cortisol concentrations significantly (p < 0.0001 for both) correlated with maximal oxygen consumption. In T1, testosterone concentration was also significantly correlated with running speed test (p < 0.001). In conclusion, training induces endocrine changes in order to maintain body homeostasis in women referees. It is important that coaches and sports scientists regularly observe changes in endocrine function induced by training and matches in female referees, because they can help maximize referees' performance and limit cases of overtraining.
... Absolute electromechanical delay times, contraction times, RFD, and power output are typically lower in female compared with male athletes. 40,55,113,131 Some of these differences may be accounted for by androgen differences 19 and, as adolescence is reached (puberty), by menstrual cycle factors. These sex-linked characteristics can be related to differences in performance and injury rate between men and women. ...
Article
The involvement of youth in the sport of weightlifting and the use of weightlifting methods as part of training for youth sport performance appears to be increasing. Weightlifting for children and adolescents has been criticized in some circles and is a controversial aspect of resistance training for young people. Although injuries can occur during weightlifting and related activities, the incidence and rate of injury appear to be relatively low and severe injury is uncommon. A number of performance, physical, and physiological variables, such as body composition, strength, and power, are improved by weightlifting training in children, adolescents, and young athletes. Manipulating program variables, when appropriate, can have a substantial and profound influence on the psychological, physiological, physical, and performance aspects of weightlifters. An understanding of the sport, scientific training principles, and musculoskeletal growth development is necessary to properly construct a reasonable and appropriate training program. A scientific background aids in providing an evidenced basis and sound rationale in selecting appropriate methods and directing adaptations toward more specific goals and enables the coach to make choices about training and competition that might not otherwise be possible. If weightlifting training and competition are age group appropriate and are properly supervised, the sport can be substantially safe and efficacious.
... Las mujeres poseen, además, niveles más bajos de testosterona en comparación con los hombres, hormona implicada en el desarrollo muscular (Cardinale  Stone, 2006). Estas diferencias anatómico-fisiológicas determinan que este sexo, a pesar de su nivel de entrenamiento, remonte desventajas respecto a los hombres en cuanto a actividades de fuerza y capacidad aeróbica y anaeróbica. ...
Article
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La dosificación correcta del entrenamiento en condiciones de altitud es una exigencia imprescindible, pues en tales circunstancias se originan modificaciones fisiológicas en el organismo de los atletas y se produce un descenso del consumo de oxígeno y del rendimiento aeróbico. La pertinencia del control psicológico en el deporte de alto rendimiento a partir de métodos directos e indirectos ha sido suficientemente justificada. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en la caracterización del comportamiento de la Frecuencia Crítica de Fusión Ocular (FCFO) y las Dimensiones del Perfil de Polaridad (PDP), antes y después de unidades de entrenamiento en condiciones de altitud, en un grupo de 10 deportistas del equipo de la preselección nacional de atletismo de Cuba. Luego del estudio se comprobó que el puntaje en la dimensión estado físico del PDP posterior a la unidad de entrenamiento, disminuyó significativamente y la FCFO aumentó después de esta. Por su parte, las atletas del sexo femenino presentaron un puntaje inferior en el estado físico del PDP posterior a la unidad de entrenamiento, con respecto al obtenido por los hombres en similar medición.
... The high-volume training typically observed in the accumulation block generally decreases T/C ratio as indicative of accumulated fatigue and training stress, whereas the decreased volume load observed in the transmutation and realization phases can result in pattern rebound and augments the T/C ratio, promoting preparedness [11,13,25,34]. This rebound effect has been associated with a greater ability to generate maximal forces, and explosive strength (rate of force development) [13,[33][34][35][36]. Additionally, the T/C ratio may have an effect on the development of hypertrophy and tissue repair, which play a role in strength development. ...
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The ability to produce force rapidly has the potential to directly influence sprinting performance through changes in stride length and stride frequency. This ability is commonly referred to as the rate of force development (RFD). For this reason, many elite sprinters follow a combined program consisting of resistance training and sprint training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength, endocrine and body composition adaptations that occur during distinct phases of a block periodized training cycle in a 400 m Olympic level sprinter. The athlete is an elite level 400 m male sprinter (age 31 years, body mass: 74 kg, years of training: 15 and Personal Best (PB): 45.65 s). This athlete completed four distinct training phases of a block periodized training program (16 weeks) with five testing sessions consisting of testosterone:cortisol (T/C) profiles, body composition, vertical jump, and maximum strength testing. Large fluctuations in T/C were found following high volume training and the taper. Minor changes in body mass were observed with an abrupt decrease following the taper which coincided with a small increase in fat mass percentage. Jump height (5.7%), concentric impulse (9.4%), eccentric impulse (3.4%) and power ratio (18.7%) all increased substantially from T1 to T5. Relative strength increased 6.04% from T1 to T5. Lastly, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of a competitive taper in increasing physiological markers for performance as well as dynamic performance variables. Block periodization training was effective in raising the physical capabilities of an Olympic level 400 m runner which have been shown to directly transfer to sprinting performance.
... Jump performance differences between sexes were previously reported in volleyball players during SJ [19], CMJ [19], and VSJ [6]. The reasons may include biological and power differences [20,21], the ability to benefit from stretch-shortening-cycles [19,22], and technicalcoordinative variations [6]. These sex differences support sex-specific assessment of jump performances. ...
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Full-Text Open Access: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/11/3/1105/htm <<<>>> Abstract: In performance testing, it is well-established that general jump types like squat and countermovement jumps have great reliability, but the relationship with volleyball spike jumps is unclear. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between general and spike jumps and to provide improved models for predicting spike jump height by general jump performance. Thirty female and male elite volleyball players performed general and spike jumps in a randomized order. Two AMTI force plates (2000 Hz) and 13 Vicon MX cameras (250 Hz) captured kinematic and kinetic data. Correlation and stepwise-forward regression analyses were conducted at p < 0.05. Simple regression models with general jump height as the only predictor for spike jumps revealed 0.52 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.76 for all general jumps in both sexes (p < 0.05). Alternative models including rate of force development and impulse improved predictions during squat jumps from R2 = 0.76 to R2 = 0.92 (p < 0.05) in females and from R2 = 0.61 to R2 = 0.71 (p < 0.05) in males, and during countermovement jumps with arm swing from R2 = 0.52 to R2 = 0.78 (p < 0.01) in males. The findings include improved prediction models for spike jump height based on general jump performance. The derived formulas can be applied in general jump testing to improve the assessment of sport-specific spike jump performance.
... For instance, circulating testosterone has been associated with muscle mass and strength (Finkelstein et al., 2013), as well as track and field performance (Cardinale & Stone, 2006). Research has found that high circulating testosterone levels have been associated with status-seeking behaviors (Dreher et al., 2016;Eisenegger et al., 2011;Mazur & Booth, 1998). ...
Article
In line with recent research suggesting that testosterone may only be related to decisions under specific conditions, we show that testosterone is associated with conspicuous consumption only when intrasexual competition is high. In three studies, we provide empirical evidence that prenatal and circulating testosterone are only related to conspicuous consumption when intrasexual competition is high. These findings are in line with recent literature that posits that testosterone is only related to particular decisions or behavior when status is at stake. In Study 1, we find that masculinized digit ratios (an indicator of high prenatal testosterone exposure) are only related to greater conspicuous consumption preferences for men that score high on an intrasexual competitiveness trait measure. In Study 2, we find that masculin-ized digit ratios are associated with greater conspicuous consumption preferences, but only among men who are primed with an intrasexual competition recall task. Finally, the purpose of Study 3 was to test if similar effects held when measuring circulating testosterone. We show that baseline levels of circulating testosterone are associated with greater conspicuous consumption preferences, but only after men are primed with intrasexual competition. Overall, we identify intrasexual competition as a crucial precondition for relationships between testosterone (prenatal and circulating) and conspicuous consumption to emerge. We argue that men with masculin-ized digit ratios and men with high circulating testosterone may be more likely to choose conspicuous products as a status-signaling strategy in the mating market if they are inherently intrasexually competitive or when they encounter an intrasexually competitive situation.
... There are several possible underlying mechanisms for the association between the 2D:4D ratio and athletic performance. We and others have previously demonstrated associations between adult serum androgen levels and muscle mass and strength in female athletes (30,43,44). However, we found no correlations between serum androgen levels and the 2D:4D ratio. ...
Article
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Background: The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D ratio) is suggested to be a negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. Little is known about the role of the 2D:4D ratio in relation to serum and urinary androgens for physical performance in female athletes. We aimed to compare the 2D:4D ratio in female Olympic athletes with sedentary controls, and to investigate the 2D:4D ratio in relation to serum and urinary androgens and physical performance in the athletes. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 Swedish female Olympic athletes participating in power, endurance and technical sports and 117 sedentary controls. The 2D:4D ratio was calculated using direct digit measurements. Serum androgens and urinary androgen metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The athletes performed standardized physical performance tests and body composition was established by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The 2D:4D ratio was significantly lower in the athletes compared with controls although serum testosterone levels were comparable between groups and within normal reference values. The 2D:4D ratio correlated negatively with urinary levels of testosterone glucuronide and 5α- and 5βAdiol-17G, whereas there were no correlations to serum androgen levels. Furthermore, the 2D:4D ratio correlated negatively with strength tests and positively with 3,000-meter running in the athletes. Conclusion: Female Olympic athletes had a lower 2D:4D ratio, possibly reflecting a higher prenatal androgen exposure, than sedentary controls. Furthermore, the 2D:4D ratio was related to urinary levels of androgen metabolites and physical performance in the athletes but not to serum androgen levels. It is suggested that the 2D:4D ratio could reflect androgen metabolism and may be of importance for sporting success in female athletes.
... One earlier report including female athletes (n=22) demonstrated that serum levels of testosterone at rest were positively correlated with explosive performance (the vertical jump test) (57). A much larger study involved more than a thousand elite female participants in the ...
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Emerging evidence indicates that testosterone, which can increase muscle mass and strength, stimulate erythropoiesis, and promote competitive behaviour, enhances the physical performance of women. Indeed, levels of testosterone within the normal female range are related to muscle mass and athletic performance in female athletes. Furthermore, among these athletes the prevalence of hyperandrogenic conditions, including both polycystic ovary syndrome and rare Differences/Disorders of Sex Development (DSD), which may greatly increase testosterone production, are elevated. Thus, if the androgen receptors of an individual with XY DSD are functional, her muscle mass will develop like that of a man. These findings have led to the proposal that essential hyperandrogenism is beneficial for athletic performance and plays a role in the choice by women to compete in athletic activities. Moreover, a recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated a significant increase in the lean mass and aerobic performance by young exercising women when their testosterone levels were enhanced moderately. Circulating testosterone is considered the strongest factor to explain the male advantage in sport performance, ranging between 10-20 percent. It appears to be unfair to allow female athletes with endogenous testosterone levels in the male range (i.e., 10-20 times higher than normal) to compete against those with normal female androgen levels. In 2012, this consideration led international organisations to establish eligibility regulations for the female classification in order to ensure fair and meaningful competition, but the regulations are controversial and have been challenged in court.
... 10 Few studies of female athletes have demonstrated associations between endogenous androgens levels, muscle mass and muscle strength. [11][12][13][14] Furthermore, mild hyperandrogenism, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, is overrepresented among elite female athletes. 15 ...
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Objective To investigate the effects of a moderate increase in serum testosterone on physical performance in young, physically active, healthy women. Methods A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial was conducted between May 2017 and June 2018 (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03210558 ). 48 healthy, physically active women aged 18–35 years were randomised to 10 weeks of treatment with 10 mg of testosterone cream daily or placebo (1:1). All participants completed the study. The primary outcome measure was aerobic performance measured by running time to exhaustion (TTE). Secondary outcomes were anaerobic performance (Wingate test) and muscle strength (squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and knee extension peak torque). Hormone levels were analysed and body composition assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Serum levels of testosterone increased from 0.9 (0.4) nmol/L to 4.3 (2.8) nmol/L in the testosterone supplemented group. TTE increased significantly by 21.17 s (8.5%) in the testosterone group compared with the placebo group (mean difference 15.5 s; P=0.045). Wingate average power, which increased by 15.2 W in the testosterone group compared with 3.2 W in the placebo group, was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.084). There were no significant changes in CMJ, SJ and knee extension. Mean change from baseline in total lean mass was 923 g for the testosterone group and 135 g for the placebo group (P=0.040). Mean change in lean mass in the lower limbs was 398 g and 91 g, respectively (P=0.041). Conclusion The study supports a causal effect of testosterone in the increase in aerobic running time as well as lean mass in young, physically active women.
... Evidence in the literature demonstrates the differences of jump performances according to testosterone levels between men and women. For example, a significant positive relationship was found between testosterone level and ver-tical jump performance in the study of Cardinale and Stone [33]. ...
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Abstract BACKGROUND: The circadian rhythm (CR) is a 24-hour cyclic period that influences a wide array of physiological systems and performance sports. However, its specific effect on drop jump (DJ) scores have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of circadian rhythm on DJ performances. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy university students (men, n = 16, age: 23.47±2.9 years; fewomen, n = 17, age: 22.25 ±2.27 years) participated in this study. Subjects were tested twice, over two separate days, once in the morning and once in the evening. Subjects started from a drop height of 20 cm and continued until the height where the reactive strength index (RSI) started to decrease. This height was recorded as the optimal drop height (ODH). Ground contact time (GCT) and jump height were also recorded. RESULTS: The ODH values were similar between testing sessions for both genders (p > 0.05). A significant increase in jump height during the evening session was observed in men (p = 0.005, d = 0.80). The RSI values increased significantly in men (p = 0.006, _2 = 0.77) while GCT was similar in both genders (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In men, the optimal time of day for DJ explosive training is the evening. Women may benefit from this type of training both during morning and evening sessions. Keywords: Circadian rhythm, drop jump, reactive strength index, optimal drop height, jump height, ground contact time
... One study showed positive correlations between serum testosterone (T) and explosive performance in women athletes. 3 However, another study in four women Olympic weightlifters found no correlation between pre-workout T levels and performance tests. 4 On the other hand, women athletes with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were shown to have the highest performance values compared with non-PCOS athletes. ...
Article
Background The role of endogenous androgens for body composition and physical performance in women athletes is still not elucidated. Aim To examine the serum androgen profile in relation to body composition and physical performance in women Olympic athletes and to compare endocrine variables and body composition to controls. Study design Cross-sectional study, conducted between 2011 and 2015 at the Women’s Health Research Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm. Methods Swedish women Olympic athletes (n=106) and age-matched and body mass index-matched sedentary controls (n=117) were included in the study. Blood sampling was performed in a rested, fasting state for the measurement of serum androgens and their metabolites by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (controls n=100, athletes n=65). The athletes performed standardised performance tests (n=59) (squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ). Results The athletes demonstrated significantly higher levels of the precursor androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (5-DIOL) and the metabolite etiocholanolone glucuronide (Etio-G), significantly lower levels of estrone (p<0.05, respectively), higher bone mineral density (p<0.001) and more lean mass (p<0.001) compared with controls. Serum levels of DHEA, 5-DIOL and Etio-G correlated positively to lean mass variables and physical performance in the athletes. DHEA and lean mass legs explained 66% of the variance in SJ, whereas lean mass explained 52% of the variance in CMJ. Conclusions The present data suggest that endogenous androgens are associated with a more anabolic body composition and enhanced performance in women athletes. These results are of importance for the current discussion regarding hyperandrogenism in women athletes.
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BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the interrelationship between the resting serum testosterone (T) levels of female athletes from different types of sporting events and their athletic success. METHODS: The study involved 599 Russian international-level female athletes (95 highly elite, 190 elite, and 314 sub-elite; age: 16-35 years) and 298 age-matched female controls. The athlete cohort was stratified into four groups according to event duration, distance, and type of activity: 1) endurance athletes, 2) athletes with mixed activity, 3) speed/strength athletes, and 4) sprinters. Athletic success was measured by determining the level of achievement of each athlete. RESULTS: The mean (SD) T levels of athletes and controls were 1.65 (0.87) and 1.76 (0.6) nmol/L (P=0.057 for difference between groups) with ranges of 0.08-5.82 and 0.38-2.83 nmol/L in athletes and controls, respectively. T levels were positively associated with athletic success in sprinters (P=0.0002 adjusted for age) only. Moreover, none of the sub-elite sprinters had T>1.9 nmol/L, while 50% of elite and highly elite sprinters had T>1.9 nmol/L (OR=47.0; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the measurement of the serum T levels significantly correlates with athletic success in sprinters but not other types of athletes and in the future may be useful in the prediction of sprinting ability.
Chapter
The effectiveness of physical training depends on the training load and on the individual ability to tolerate it, and an imbalance between the two may lead to under- or overtraining. Therefore, many efforts have been made to find objective parameters to quantify the balance between training load and the athlete’s tolerance.
Chapter
The effectiveness of exercise training depends on the training load and on the individual ability to tolerate it, and an imbalance between the two may lead to under- or overtraining. Therefore, efforts have been made to find objective parameters to quantify the balance between training load and the athlete’s tolerance. One of the unique features of exercise is that it leads to a simultaneous increase in antagonistic circulating mediators. On the one hand, exercise stimulates anabolic components such as testosterone, growth hormone (GH), and IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I). On the other hand, exercise elevates catabolic hormones like cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). The very fine balance between the anabolic and inflammatory/catabolic response to exercise will determine the effectiveness of training and the health consequences of exercise. In this chapter, we review the changes in the anabolic–catabolic hormonal balance and circulating inflammatory cytokines both in single exercise bouts, following prolonged training, and in relation to a competitive match, and we demonstrate how these changes may be used by athletes and their coaching staff to gauge the training intensity focusing on basketball.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between daily fluctuations in hormonal and performance markers in weightlifters. Nine male collegiate weightlifters gave daily pre-practice salivary samples for one week and were tested daily for standing broad jump distance; first jump (BJ1) and best jump (BJB) were recorded. Volume-load was heavy on Monday (47%), light on Tuesday (13%), and medium-heavy on Wednesday (40%). To determine if variables differed by day, RM ANOVAs were used with partial-eta squared effect sizes (η2 p) to calculate meaningful changes. RM ANOVA models suggest daily differences occurred for T (F=4.027, p=.024, η2 p =.402), T/C (F=11.735, p=.019, η2 p =.898), and BJ1 (F=6.229, p=.004, η2 p =.509), but not for C (F=1.623, p=.219, η2 p =.213) nor BJB (F=1.088, p=.379, η2 p =.154). Daily fluctuations in BJ1 shared a moderate inverse relationship with daily fluctuations in C (r = -0.42), whereas BJB revealed no association with hormonal markers. T, T/C, and BJ1 appeared to be meaningfully affected by the previous day’s training stress in collegiate weightlifters, suggesting that BJ1 may be indicative of hormonal status and that a one-day reduction in VL may enhance acute athlete readiness.
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This study aimed to characterize temporal aspects and verify the acute effect of a beach volleyball game on testosterone, cortisol, and T: C ratio of young athletes. Also, to verify whether the hormonal responses were different between blockers and defenders. Sixteen male athletes of national-level participated (age 17±2.44 years). Each athlete played a game with official rules, being filmed for subsequent analysis. Saliva was used to measure testosterone and cortisol levels and calculate testosterone/cortisol ratio (T: C ratio) using ELISA method. The concentration of these hormones was compared over time (beginning, end of first set, and end of the match) and between functions. Usually, the total match duration was 30min and 49s (± 0.01s), with rallies of 6 seconds (± 01s) and time between rallies of 20 seconds (± 02s). Cortisol showed a linear trend, increasing over time, and T: C ratio showed a quadratic trend, decreasing at the end of the first set and reestablishing at the end of the match. Blockers T: C ratio of pre-post match had a trivial but negative effect (d= −0.198). Approximately 30 minutes of beach volleyball affects the concentration of testosterone, cortisol, and T: C ratio. Besides, blockers seem slightly more physically demanding.
Article
Background Endocrine profiles have been measured on blood samples obtained immediately post-competition from 693 elite athletes from 15 Olympic Sports competing at National or International level; four were subsequently excluded leaving 689 for the current analysis. Methods Body composition was measured by bioimpedance in a sub-set of 234 (146 men and 88 women) and from these data a regression model was constructed that enabled ‘estimated’ lean body mass and fat mass to be calculated on all athletes. One way ANOVA was used to assess the differences in body composition and endocrine profiles between the sports and binary logistical regression to ascertain the characteristic of a given sport compared to the others. ResultsThe results confirmed many suppositions such as basketball players being tall, weightlifters short and cross-country skiers light. The hormone profiles were more surprising with remarkably low testosterone and free T3 (tri-iodothyronine) in male powerlifters and high oestradiol, SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) and prolactin in male track and field athletes. Low testosterone concentrations were seen 25.4% of male elite competitors in 12 of the 15 sports and high testosterone concentrations in 4.8% of female elite athletes in 3 of the 8 sports tested. Interpretation of the results is more difficult; some of the differences between sports are at least partially due to differences in age of the athletes but the apparent differences between sports remain significant after adjusting for age. The prevalence of ‘hyperandrogenism’ (as defined by the IAAF (International Association of Athletics Federations) and IOC (International Olympic Committee)) amongst this cohort of 231 elite female athletes was the highest so far recorded and the very high prevalence of ‘hypoandrogenism’ in elite male athletes a new finding. Conclusions It is unclear whether the differences in hormone profiles between sports is a reason why they become elite athletes in that sport or is a consequence of the arduous processes involved. For components of body composition we know that most have a major genetic component and this may well be true for endocrine profiles.
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The physical exercise is one stressor agent responsible by endocrine system response. Quantify this response allow us to measure the type of exercise about intensity and volume. The aim this study was to identify the response of testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) on the application of a specific test for Judo. A sample of 9 male judokas, 24.1 ± 3.1 years of age, 180 ± 8.4 cm in height and 73.3 ± 8.3 Kg in weight participated in this study. Biochemical analyses in saliva were performed to measure the concentrations of t and c in four times, S1 (rest 24 hours before the test); S2 before the test, S3 after test and S4 (24 hours after the test). Significant increases were produced in S1 and S2 to S3. In relation to the concentration of t, there were significant increases in the following moments of evaluation: S1T-S3T (p=0.002); S2T-S3T (p=0.001) and a significant decrease in S3T-S4T (p=0.004). The level of concentration of cortisol presents an increase at the same moments S1C-S3C (p=0.015); S2C-S3C (p=0.046) and a decrease in S3C-S4C (p=0.005). In conclusion, the developed test stimulates a great hormonal response to t and c levels. The test can be characterized as a short and intense activity that might be used as a tool to measure the state of force resistant specifically in Judo athletes.
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In recent years, increasing numbers of women have participated in extremely long races. In adult males, there is a clear association between physiological levels of endogenous sex hormones and physical performance. However, the influence of plasmatic sex hormones and the effects of different types of hormonal contraception (HC) on the modulation of physical performance in adult females remain to be fully clarified. Eighteen female ultra-endurance athletes were recruited to participate in the study. Different variables were studied, including hematological parameters, body mass index, and body composition. Strength measurements were obtained using the squat-jump and hand-grip test. A repeated-measures analysis demonstrated significant differences in hemato-logical values of CK and LDH pre-race as compared to immediately post-race and after 24/48 h. Furthermore, statistical differences were found in squat-jump and hand-grip test results after the ultramarathon. Testosterone, estradiol, and the testosterone/estrogen ratio were significantly correlated with muscle fatigue and were found to be indirect markers of muscle damage. A multivariate analysis demonstrated the protective role of testosterone against muscle damage and severe fatigue. Fluctuations in endogenous testosterone levels were correlated with greater fatigability and muscle damage after the competition. Adjusting the menstrual cycle with HC would not provide any further benefit to the athlete's competitive capacity.
Article
Essential hyperandrogenism seems to be overrepresented in female elite athletes. This applies to mild forms such as polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as rare differences/disorders of sex development (DSD). The reason is likely a selection bias since there is increasing evidence that androgens are beneficial for athletic performance by potent anabolic effects on muscle mass and bone mass, and stimulation of erythropoiesis. XY DSD may cause a greatly increased production of testosterone in the male range, that is, 10 to 20 times higher than the normal female range. The established regulations concerning the eligibility of female athletes with severe hyperandrogenism to compete in the female classification remain controversial. The most common cause of menstrual disorders in female athletes, however, is probably an acquired functional hypothalamic disturbance due to energy deficiency in relation to energy expenditure, which could lead to low bone mineral density and increased risk of injury. This condition is particularly common in endurance and esthetic sports, where a lean body composition is considered an advantage for physical performance. It is important to carefully evaluate endocrine disturbances and menstrual disorders in athletes since the management should be specific according to the underlying cause.
Article
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stark inter-gender differences in vertical jump performance exist. Performance-based correlates to the vertical jump are not well understood in women. METHODS: Women (n= 129) did countermovement vertical jumps as their data were collected concurrently by a Vertec and force plate; the latter provided performance-based correlates to their jumps. Multivariate regression examined the ability of the performance-based variable to serve as correlates of vertical jump height and power variances. RESULTS: Performance-based variables predicted moderate (r2= 0.28) and large (r2= 0.74) amounts of vertical jump height and power variance respectively. Per criterion measure, peak force did not have the highest univariate correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Peak force, typically the strongest correlate to vertical jump performance in men, was not as strong a predictor of the variance in women. Instead women rely on a variety of kinetic and temporal variables to maximize their vertical jump height and power values.
Chapter
Androgens are considered beneficial for athletic performance by potent anabolic effects on muscle mass and bone tissue. Testosterone also increases the formation of new blood cells and circulating hemoglobin, which will enhance oxygen uptake. Furthermore, androgens may exert behavioral and psychological effects of importance for athletic performance including increased mental drive and competitiveness. Studies in men have shown dose–dependent relationship between circulating testosterone with muscle mass and strength, as well as circulating hemoglobin. Experimental evidence in women is much more limited. However, recent studies in nonathletic and athletic women have demonstrated associations between endogenous testosterone levels, muscle mass, and muscle strength. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that women with mild hyperandrogenism like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are overrepresented in elite athletes. PCOS, which has a genetic component, is associated with an anabolic body composition, and this syndrome may therefore confer an advantage for physical performance and could play a role in the recruitment of women to competitive sport activities. The prevalence of severe hyperandrogenism, such as disorders of sex development (DSD), is also increased among female athletes. DSD may cause a greatly increased production of testosterone in the male range. These results support a significant role of endogenous androgens for athletic performance in women.
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Leg extensor muscle characteristics, running speed and serum testosterone were studied in sixteen males and twelve female sprinters. The rise of center of gravity was measured during squat jumps executed without (SJ) and with extra loads (SJbm), counter movement jump (CMJ) and continuous jumping (CJ) for 5 s. Nine females and nine males performed also half-squat exercises with extra loads ranging from 50% to 200% of the subject's body mass (bm). Average mechanical power (P), force (F) and velocity (v) were calculated and measured during half-squat exercises using the Ergopower®. Total serum testosterone (TT) was determined in venous blood. In women, 60 m dash, SJ, CMJ and CJ performances were significantly lower (P<0.001) than men. Gender differences were not found in F during half-squat exercises and in SJbm. Women demonstrated significantly higher ratios CMJ:SJ and CJ:SJ than men. With loads 50-100 % of bm men demonstrated greater v and P than women. It was suggested that high testosterone level in men might be a factor ensured superiority in explosive power and speed, but not in muscle strength adjusted to body mass.
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In spite of the widespread abuse of androgenic steroids by athletes and recreational body-builders, the effects of these agents on athletic performance and physical function remain poorly understood. Experimentally induced androgen deficiency is associated with a loss of fat-free mass; conversely, physiologic testosterone replacement of healthy, androgen-deficient men increases fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis. Testosterone supplementation of HIV-infected men with low testosterone levels and of older men with normally low testosterone concentrations also increases muscle mass. However, we do not know whether physiologic testosterone replacement can improve physical function and health-related quality of life, and reduce the risk of falls and disability in older men or those with chronic illness. Testosterone increases maximal voluntary strength in a dose-dependent manner and thus might improve performance in power-lifting events. However, testosterone has not been shown to improve performance in endurance events. The mechanisms by which testosterone increases muscle mass are not known, but probably involve alterations in the expression of multiple muscle growth regulators.
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Administration of replacement doses of testosterone to healthy hypogonadal men and supraphysiological doses to eugonadal men increases muscle size. To determine whether testosterone-induced increase in muscle size is due to muscle fiber hypertrophy, 61 healthy men, 18-35 yr of age, received monthly injections of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion and weekly injections of 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg testosterone enanthate (TE) for 20 wk. Thigh muscle volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 39 men before and after 20 wk of combined treatment with GnRH agonist and testosterone. Administration of GnRH agonist plus TE resulted in mean nadir testosterone concentrations of 234, 289, 695, 1,344, and 2,435 ng/dl at the 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively. Graded doses of testosterone administration were associated with testosterone dose and concentration-dependent increase in muscle volume measured by MRI (changes in vastus lateralis volume, -4, +7, +15, +32, and +48 ml at 25-, 50-, 125-, 300-, and 600-mg doses, respectively). Changes in cross-sectional areas of both type I and II fibers were dependent on testosterone dose and significantly correlated with total (r = 0.35, and 0.44, P < 0.0001 for type I and II fibers, respectively) and free (r = 0.34 and 0.35, P < 0.005) testosterone concentrations during treatment. The men receiving 300 and 600 mg of TE weekly experienced significant increases from baseline in areas of type I (baseline vs. 20 wk, 3,176 +/- 186 vs. 4,201 +/- 252 microm(2), P < 0.05 at 300-mg dose, and 3,347 +/- 253 vs. 4,984 +/- 374 microm(2), P = 0.006 at 600-mg dose) muscle fibers; the men in the 600-mg group also had significant increments in cross-sectional area of type II (4,060 +/- 401 vs. 5,526 +/- 544 microm(2), P = 0.03) fibers. The relative proportions of type I and type II fibers did not change significantly after treatment in any group. The myonuclear number per fiber increased significantly in men receiving the 300- and 600-mg doses of TE and was significantly correlated with testosterone concentration and muscle fiber cross-sectional area. In conclusion, the increases in muscle volume in healthy eugonadal men treated with graded doses of testosterone are associated with concentration-dependent increases in cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear number. We conclude that the testosterone induced increase in muscle volume is due to muscle fiber hypertrophy.
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The primary aim of this study was to determine reliability and factorial validity of squat (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests. The secondary aim was to compare 3 popular methods for the estimation of vertical jumping height. Physical education students (n = 93) performed 7 explosive power tests: 5 different vertical jumps (Sargent jump, Abalakow's jump with arm swing and without arm swing, SJ, and CMJ) and 2 horizontal jumps (standing long jump and standing triple jump). The greatest reliability among all jumping tests (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97 and 0.98) had SJ and CMJ. The reliability alpha coefficients for other jumps were also high and varied between 0.93 and 0.96. Within-subject variation (CV) in jumping tests ranged between 2.4 and 4.6%, the values being lowest in both horizontal jumps and CMJ. Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of only 1 significant principal component, which explained 66.43% of the variance of all 7 jumping tests. Since all jumping tests had high correlation coefficients with the principal component (r = 0.76-0.87), it was interpreted as the explosive power factor. The CMJ test showed the highest relationship with the explosive power factor (r = 0.87), that is, the greatest factorial validity. Other jumping tests had lower but relatively homogeneous correlation with the explosive power factor extracted. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that CMJ and SJ, measured by means of contact mat and digital timer, are the most reliable and valid field tests for the estimation of explosive power of the lower limbs in physically active men.
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In spite of the widespread abuse of androgenic steroids by athletes and recreational body-builders, the effects of these agents on athletic performance and physical function remain poorly understood. Experimentally induced androgen deficiency is associated with a loss of fat-free mass; conversely, physiologic testosterone replacement of healthy, androgen-deficient men increases fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis. Testosterone supplementation of HIV-infected men with low testosterone levels and of older men with normally low testosterone concentrations also increases muscle mass. However, we do not know whether physiologic testosterone replacement can improve physical function and health-related quality of life, and reduce the risk of falls and disability in older men or those with chronic illness. Testosterone increases maximal voluntary strength in a dose-dependent manner and thus might improve performance in power-lifting events. However, testosterone has not been shown to improve performance in endurance events. The mechanisms by which testosterone increases muscle mass are not known, but probably involve alterations in the expression of multiple muscle growth regulators.
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The foot muscle, flexor digitorum brevis, is innervated by motoneurons in the retrodorsolateral nucleus of the lumbar spinal cord in rats. We found this muscle to be sexually dimorphic, but insensitive to the anabolic or catabolic effects of androgen manipulation in adulthood: the flexor digitorum brevis was larger in adult male rats than in females, with no decrease in mass after castration in males nor any increase in size after androgen treatment of ovariectomized females. The cross-sectional area of motoneurons innervating this muscle was also sexually dimorphic, i.e., the motoneurons were larger in males. In contrast to the absence of an androgen effect on target muscle size, however, cross-sectional area of motoneurons decreased in adult males as a result of castration, and increased in adult females after androgen treatment. The dissociation of androgen effects on muscle mass and motoneuron size suggests possibility of steroid effects upon motoneurons independent of effects upon target musculature.
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In non-human animals, the relationship between testosterone and aggression is well established. In humans, the relationship is more controversial. To clarify the relationship, Archer conducted three meta-analyses and found a weak, positive relationship between testosterone and aggression. Unfortunately, each of the analyses included only five to six studies. The aim of the present study was to re-examine the relationship between testosterone and aggression with a larger sample of studies. The present analyses are based on 45 independent studies (N=9760) with 54 independent effect sizes. Only studies that reported a p-value or effect size were included in the analyses and the sample may underestimate the proportion of non-significant findings in the population. Correlations ranged from −0.28 to 0.71. The mean weighted correlation (r=0.14) corroborates Archer's finding of a weak positive relationship.
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--To study the changes in body composition produced by large doses of testosterone and reversal of changes when the drug is discontinued. --Weekly injections of testosterone enanthate were given to young adult male volunteers for 12 weeks. Repeated assays of lean body mass (LBM) by potassium 40 counting were made during this period and at intervals during the ensuing 5 to 6 months. --Subjects who were living on their own, who were known to be free of significant disease, and who volunteered as controls for a study of patients with neuromuscular disease. Assays were done in the Clinical Research Center. --Changes in body weight, LBM, and (by subtraction) body fat. --Testosterone treatment produced a progressive increase in LBM and a progressive decrease in body fat. Body composition reverted slowly toward normal when the injections were stopped; thus, the effects of testosterone lingered for some time. The magnitude of the observed changes in LBM was in keeping with the change in urinary creatinine excretion reported for these same subjects. --Testosterone is a powerful anabolic agent that also serves to reduce body fat content.
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We have studied the effect of a pharmacological dose of testosterone enanthate (3 mg.kg-1.wk-1 for 12 wk) on muscle mass and total-body potassium and on whole-body and muscle protein synthesis in normal male subjects. Muscle mass estimated by creatinine excretion increased in all nine subjects (20% mean increase, P less than 0.02); total body potassium mass estimated by 40K counting increased in all subjects (12% mean increase, P less than 0.0001). In four subjects, a primed continuous infusion protocol with L-[1-13C]leucine was used to determine whole-body leucine flux and oxidation. Whole-body protein synthesis was estimated from nonoxidative flux. Muscle protein synthesis rate was determined by measuring [13C]leucine incorporation into muscle samples obtained by needle biopsy. Testosterone increased muscle protein synthesis in all subjects (27% mean increase, P less than 0.05). Leucine oxidation decreased slightly (17% mean decrease, P less than 0.01), but whole-body protein synthesis did not change significantly. Muscle morphometry showed no significant increase in muscle fiber diameter. These studies suggest that testosterone increases muscle mass by increasing muscle protein synthesis.
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An animal's plasma testosterone is related to its dominance rank and the frequency of aggressive behaviour exhibited in a social group.
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The "levator ani" muscle of male rats provides a neuromuscular system in which both the muscle and its motoneurons have high levels of androgen receptors. Two weeks of castration caused a 48% loss of acetylcholine receptors in this muscle. One week of testosterone propionate injections initiated on week after castration increased receptor number by 27% over untreated castrate levels. These changes paralleled changes in muscle protein content. In contrast, castration and testosterone treatments of castrates had no effect on total. Triton X-100-extractable acetylcholinesterase activity. This system may provide a useful model of synaptic plasticity.
The relationships of muscle structure to the potentiation of myoelectrical activity and to the use of prestretching in five lower limb muscles were studied in different vertical jumping conditions. The subjects for the study were six male students, divided according to the muscle fiber distribution in m. vastus lateralis into "fast" and "slow" groups. The subjects performed vertical jumps (1) from a static squatting position (DJ) from five different heights. Myoelectrical (EMG) activity was recorded from mm. gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius in each jumping condition and integrated (IEMG) for the eccentric and concentric phases of contact. EMG activity showed potentiation during the eccentric phase of movement when compared to the concentric phase. The "fast" and "slow" groups did not differ significantly in this respect, whereas in DJ conditions the relative (% from SJ) height of rise of the center of gravity was greater in the "slow" than in the "fast" group. The result indicated that the utilization of elastic energy during jumping was possible better in subjects having a high percentage of slow twitch muscle fibres in their vastus lateralis muscles.
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The paper by Bhasin et al.1 in this issue of the Journal shows that a dose of testosterone enanthate (600 mg weekly for 10 weeks) that produces supraphysiologic serum concentrations of testosterone in men increases muscle size and strength and that the effects of exercise are additive to those of testosterone. Even though athletes have suggested for years that androgens increase muscle mass, there are two main reasons why it has taken until 1996 for this fact to be demonstrated in a clinical trial. First, most earlier studies did not control for the independent effects of testosterone and exercise. Bhasin . . .
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The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of a relationship between performance capacities and blood levels of testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Thirty-two professional soccer players volunteered for the study. Morning levels of hormones were plotted against results of maximal vertical jump with a preparatory counter-movement (CMJ), 30 m running, and Cooper's 12-min running test. The serum T was positively related to both CMJ and average running speed (r=0.43 and r=0.47, respectively). Serum levels of C and T were in negative correlation (r= -0.40 and r= -0.49, respectively) with the results of Cooper's test. It was concluded that athletes with better explosive strength and sprint running performances have a higher basal level of testosterone. The results suggest a relationship between testosterone production and development of fast twitch muscle fibres in athletes.
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Testosterone administration (T) increases lean body mass and muscle protein synthesis. We investigated the effects of short-term T on leg muscle protein kinetics and transport of selected amino acids by use of a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis (FSR) and breakdown (FBR) rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Seven healthy men were studied before and 5 days after intramuscular injection of 200 mg of testosterone enanthate. Protein synthesis increased twofold after injection (P < 0.05), whereas protein breakdown was unchanged. FSR and FBR calculations were in accordance, because FSR increased twofold (P < 0.05) without a concomitant change in FBR. Net balance between synthesis and breakdown became more positive with both methodologies (P < 0.05) and was not different from zero. T injection increased arteriovenous essential and nonessential nitrogen balance across the leg (P < 0.05) in the fasted state, without increasing amino acid transport. Thus T administration leads to an increased net protein synthesis and reutilization of intracellular amino acids in skeletal muscle.
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Ovarian hormones-estrogens, androgens, and progesterone-produce a myriad of effects in the nervous system. The effects of androgens in the brain are mediated through androgen-specific receptors and by the aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. Alterations in the circulating levels of androgens play an important role in psychologic and sexual changes that occur after menopause. The effects of short-term estrogen therapy in improving psychologic symptoms, maintaining vaginal lubrication, decreasing vaginal atrophy, and increasing pelvic blood flow in postmenopausal women are well documented. However, some patients require more than estrogen alone to improve psychologic dysfunction, decreased sexual desire, or other sexual problems associated with menopause. Results from clinical studies show that hormone replacement therapy with estrogen plus androgens provides greater improvement in psychologic (eg, lack of concentration, depression, and fatigue) and sexual (eg, decreased libido and inability to have an orgasm) symptoms than does estrogen alone in naturally and surgically menopausal women.
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Our understanding of the organizational and activational effects of human gonadal hormones on behavior has depended on the study of endocrine disorders. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that begins in puberty and is characterized by chronically augmented free testosterone (FT) levels. The purposes of this study were 1) to compare negative mood states of women with PCOS to those of women with normal hormonal levels and 2) to examine the relationship between negative moods and androgens. Twenty-seven women with PCOS were case-matched to 27 normal menstruating women on body mass index since being overweight is a common symptom of PCOS and could affect mood states. Serum levels of FT, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, and progesterone were determined. Self-reported depression, anger, anxiety, and aggression were analyzed between groups, and individual scores were compared across groups to hormone values. Depression was significantly increased in the PCOS group and remained so after considering the variance related to physical symptomatology and other mood states. Furthermore, a curvilinear relationship between FT and negative affect across groups was suggested: the most elevated negative mood-scale scores were associated with FT values just beyond the upper limits of normal, while lower negative mood levels corresponded to both normal and extremely high values of FT. These results are consistent with a model of activational influences of testosterone on adult female behavior. Implications are discussed for future research and for treatment of PCOS and other menstrual-cycle mood disorders.
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The primary aim of this study was to determine reliability and factorial validity of squat (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests. The secondary aim was to compare 3 popular methods for the estimation of vertical jumping height. Physical education students (n = 93) performed 7 explosive power tests: 5 different vertical jumps (Sargent jump, Abalakow's jump with arm swing and without arm swing, SJ, and CMJ) and 2 horizontal jumps (standing long jump and standing triple jump). The greatest reliability among all jumping tests (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97 and 0.98) had SJ and CMJ. The reliability alpha coefficients for other jumps were also high and varied between 0.93 and 0.96. Within-subject variation (CV) in jumping tests ranged between 2.4 and 4.6%, the values being lowest in both horizontal jumps and CMJ. Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of only 1 significant principal component, which explained 66.43% of the variance of all 7 jumping tests. Since all jumping tests had high correlation coefficients with the principal component (r = 0.76-0.87), it was interpreted as the explosive power factor. The CMJ test showed the highest relationship with the explosive power factor (r = 0.87), that is, the greatest factorial validity. Other jumping tests had lower but relatively homogeneous correlation with the explosive power factor extracted. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that CMJ and SJ, measured by means of contact mat and digital timer, are the most reliable and valid field tests for the estimation of explosive power of the lower limbs in physically active men.
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Androgens are defined as the steroids having a binding affinity of the androgen receptor. In the reproduction age a daily production of testosterone is equally divided between the ovaries and adrenal and local tissue conversion of androstenedione and DHEA. After menopause the 80% of testosterone is produced in ovaries, but majority of precursors for peripheral conversion is adrenal origin. Androgen receptors are present throughout in the body; over 200 cellular actions of androgens have been described. Androgenic action is determined by quantitative level of the androgen present in the circulation, its degree of binding to proteins, the degree of interconversion to other androgens and estrogens, and the biological potency and androgen receptor binding affinity of the androgen. The most common clinical symptoms of androgen deficiency are the reduction of sex motivation, sex fantasy, sex enjoyment, sex arousal, vaginal vasocongestion, but also reduction of pubic hair, bone mass, muscle mass, worsening of quality of life (mood, affect, energy), more frequent vasomotors symptoms, insomnia, depression, headache. All these signs and symptoms can be multifactorial. Most common conditions associated with hypoandrogenism in women are hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities, lack or insufficiency of ovaries, adrenal insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy, exogenous estrogen administration. Besides the clinical picture the free testosterone measuring is important for diagnosis. The method of choice of this measure is equilibrium dialysis assay. Despite of clinical importance of androgen insufficiency in women, none of methods of androgen substitution is approved by FDA.