Article

Seasonal Variations in Concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Drinking Water and Reclaimed Wastewater in Southern California

Dynaflow, Inc., 10621-J Iron Bridge Road, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2006; 40(3):687-95. DOI: 10.1021/es051380x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Southern California imports nearly all of its potable water from two sources: the Colorado River and the California State Water Project (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin). Sewage treatment plant effluent (STPE) heavily impacts both of these sources. A survey of raw and treated drinking water from four water filtration plants in San Diego County showed the occurrence of several polar organic "pharmaceuticals and personal care products" (PPCP). These included phthalate esters, sunscreens, clofibrate, clofribric acid, ibuprofen, triclosan, and DEET. Several of these were also found in the finished water, such as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzophenone, ibuprofen, and triclosan. Occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were highly seasonally dependent, and reached maximums when the flow of the San Joaquin River was low and the quantity of imported water was high. The maximum concentrations of the PPCPs measured in the raw water were correlated with low flow conditions in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that feeds the State Water Project. The PPCP concentrations in raw imported water in the summer months approached that of reclaimed nonpotable wastewater.

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    • "Recently, Gee et al. (2008) had also reported both estrogenic and androgenic effects of triclosan on human breast cancer cells. Hence, owing to its persistent and toxic nature, triclosan is reckoned as a great environmental threat even in low concentrations (Loraine and Pettigrove, 2006; Yazdankhah et al., 2006). Besides triclosan, anionic surfactants present in PPCPs have also been reported to demonstrate toxic effects on various aquatic organisms at concentrations as low as 2.5 mg L À1 (Petterson et al., 2000). "
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