Seasonal Variations in Concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Drinking Water and Reclaimed Wastewater in Southern California

Dynaflow, Inc., 10621-J Iron Bridge Road, Jessup, Maryland 20794, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2006; 40(3):687-95. DOI: 10.1021/es051380x
Source: PubMed


Southern California imports nearly all of its potable water from two sources: the Colorado River and the California State Water Project (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin). Sewage treatment plant effluent (STPE) heavily impacts both of these sources. A survey of raw and treated drinking water from four water filtration plants in San Diego County showed the occurrence of several polar organic "pharmaceuticals and personal care products" (PPCP). These included phthalate esters, sunscreens, clofibrate, clofribric acid, ibuprofen, triclosan, and DEET. Several of these were also found in the finished water, such as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzophenone, ibuprofen, and triclosan. Occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were highly seasonally dependent, and reached maximums when the flow of the San Joaquin River was low and the quantity of imported water was high. The maximum concentrations of the PPCPs measured in the raw water were correlated with low flow conditions in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that feeds the State Water Project. The PPCP concentrations in raw imported water in the summer months approached that of reclaimed nonpotable wastewater.

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    • "Recently, Gee et al. (2008) had also reported both estrogenic and androgenic effects of triclosan on human breast cancer cells. Hence, owing to its persistent and toxic nature, triclosan is reckoned as a great environmental threat even in low concentrations (Loraine and Pettigrove, 2006; Yazdankhah et al., 2006). Besides triclosan, anionic surfactants present in PPCPs have also been reported to demonstrate toxic effects on various aquatic organisms at concentrations as low as 2.5 mg L À1 (Petterson et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive usage of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and their discharge through domestic sewage have been recently recognized as a new generation environmental concern which deserves more scientific attention over the classical environmental pollutants. The major issues of this type of effluent addressed in this study were its colour, triclosan and anionic surfactant (SDS) content. Samples of cosmetic effluent were collected from different beauty treatment salons and spas in and around Kolkata, India and treated in bioreactors containing a bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge samples collected from a common effluent treatment plant. Members of the consortium were isolated and identified as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. and Comamonas sp. The biotreated effluent was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) involving indigenously prepared ceramic membranes in both side-stream and submerged mode. Analysis of the MBR treated effluent revealed 99.22%, 98.56% and 99.74% removal of colour, triclosan and surfactant respectively. Investigation of probable acute and chronic cyto-genotoxic potential of the untreated and treated effluents along with their possible participation in triggering oxidative stress was carried out with Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Comet formation recorded in both liver and gill cells and micronucleus count in peripheral erythrocytes of individuals exposed to untreated effluent increased with duration of exposure and was significantly higher than those treated with UF permeates which in turn neared control levels. Results of this study revealed successful application of the isolated bacterial consortium in MBR process for efficient detoxification of cosmetic effluent thereby conferring the same suitable for discharge and/or reuse.
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    • "In the United States, triclosan was one of the most frequently detected micropollutants, with detection frequency of 57.6% in 139 tested U.S. streams and rivers (Kolpin et al., 2002). In samples collected from four water filtration plants located in southern California, triclosan was detected at the total mean concentration of 56À49 ng L À1 in raw drinking water and finished drinking water (before chlorination) (Loraine and Pettigrove, 2006). Although triclosan was usually detected at low concentrations , chronic, low-level exposure for multiple generations may still cause ecosystem problems by interfering with species low on the food chain. "
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    ABSTRACT: The co-exposure to UV irradiation and free chlorine may occur in certain drinking water and wastewater treatment systems. This study investigated the effects of simultaneous low pressure ultraviolet (LPUV) irradiation and free chlorination on the formation of chloroform from triclosan which is a commonly used antibacterial agent. Different treatment systems (i.e., combined UV/chlorine, UV alone, and chlorine alone) were applied to examine the degradation of triclosan and formation of chloroform. The fate of representative intermediates, including chlorinated triclosan, dechlorinated triclosan intermediates and 2,4-dichlorophenol, were tracked to deduce the effect of combined UV/chlorine on the transformation of chloroform formation precursors. The relation between intermediates degradation and chloroform formation was investigated in depth by conducting stepwise experiments with UV and chlorine in different sequences. Results indicate that the combined UV/chlorine notably enhanced the chloroform formation from triclosan. From the reaction mechanism perspective the combined UV/chlorine, where the direct photolysis may play an important role, could accelerate the decay of intermediates and facilitate the generation of productive chloroform precursors. The radicals had modest influence on the degradation of triclosan and intermediates and partly hindered the formation of chloroform. These results emphasize the necessity of considering disinfection by-products formation in the application of combined UV/chlorine technology during water treatment.
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    • "BPA distribution in other sources has been shown to range between 10 À11 e10 À7 M in surface water and effluents and between 10 À10 e10 À9 M in drinking water (Michałowicz, 2014). TCL has been demonstrated to be concentrate in human serum at 10 À8 M (Allmyr et al., 2008), while was found in drinking water at 10 À10 M (Loraine and Pettigrove, 2006) and in surface water and effluents in a range between 10 À13 e10 À8 M (Bedoux et al., 2012). Hence, we decided to perform the experiments using different concentrations of EDCs from 10 À5 M, usually found in occupational exposure to EDCs (Xiao et al., 2009) to 10 À11 M. The concentration 10 À8 M and 10 À11 M were used to verify the low dose effects (Vandenberg et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, impaired fertility and endometrium related diseases are increased. Many evidences suggest that environmental pollution might be considered a risk factor for endometrial physiopathology. Among environmental pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act on endocrine system, causing hormonal imbalance which, in turn, leads to female and male reproductive dysfunctions. In this work, we studied the effects of triclosan (TCL) and bisphenol A (BPA), two widespread EDCs, on human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), derived from endometrial biopsies from woman not affected by endometriosis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and decidualization mechanisms were investigated. Treatments have been performed with both the EDCs separately or in presence and in absence of progesterone used as decidualization stimulus. Both TCL and BPA did not affect cell proliferation, but they arrested ESCs at G2/M phase of cell cycle enhancing cell migration. TCL and BPA also increased gene expression and protein levels of some decidualization markers, such as insulin growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and prolactin (PRL), amplifying the effect of progesterone alone. All together, our data strongly suggest that TCL and BPA might alter human endometrium physiology so affecting fertility and pregnancy outcome.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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