Determination of patulin in apple juice by liquid chromatography

Instituto Adolfo Lutz - Laboratório I de Ribeirão Preto, Rua Minas, 877, CEP 14085-410, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.
Journal of AOAC International (Impact Factor: 1.12). 01/2006; 89(1):139-43.
Source: PubMed


A method was developed and validated in-house for the determination of patulin (PAT), a toxic mold metabolite, in apple juice. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate-hexane and analyzed by liquid chromatography equipped with a C18 column and diode array detector. The mobile phase used for the quantification was water-ethanol, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method showed a mean recovery of 84.8%, the relative standard deviation obtained in the precision study was <7.7%, the quantification and detection limits were 7 and 3 microg/L, respectively, and the linear range for PAT in apple juice was 2.6-650 microg/L. The ruggedness was evaluated by an intralaboratory experiment, in which 5 factors were studied, and only one was found to influence the observed results. The developed method is fast, practical, and simple; the solvents (except hexane) and reagents used were nontoxic. The results of the validation confirmed the efficiency of the method, which is sensitive enough to be used in studies required to quantify PAT in apple juice.

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Available from: Maria Helena Iha, Sep 08, 2014
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    • "Almost all isolates of P. expansum are patulin producers (Andersen et al., 2004). Patulin is toxic for animals, causing intestinal injuries, including epithelial cell degeneration, inflammation, ulceration, and hemorrhages; it has also been shown to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic and teratogenic (Mahfoud et al., 2002; Iha and Sabino, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of Pichia caribbica in controlling postharvest blue mold and natural decay development of apples and degrading the patulin produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated. The decay incidence of the blue mold of apples treated by P. caribbica was significantly reduced compared with the control samples, and the higher the concentration of P. caribbica, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. P. caribbica significantly controlled the natural decay development of apples following storage at 20°C for 35days or 4°C for 45days followed by 20°C for 15days. Germination of spores and growth of P. expansum were markedly inhibited by P. caribbica in in vitro testing. Rapid colonization of apple wounds by the yeast was observed in fruit stored at 20°C or 4°C. After incubation with P. caribbica at 20°C for 15days, patulin production by P. expansum in apples was significantly reduced compared with the control. In vitro testing indicated that P. caribbica can degrade patulin directly.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · International journal of food microbiology
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    • "Apple juice contaminated with PAT is hazardous for human health, not only due to the effects of PAT but also due to the toxicity produced when PAT is combined with other mycotoxins. Patulin is toxic for animals; it induces intestinal injuries, including epithelial cell degeneration, inflammation, ulceration, and haemorrhages ; it has also been shown to be mutagenic, carcinogenic immunotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic and teratogenic (Mahfoud et al., 2002; Iha and Sabino, 2006). Acute symptoms of Patulin consumption can include agitation , convulsions, edema, ulceration and vomiting (Speijers, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although, Patulin and Ochratoxin are produced by the same genera of molds, however, Patulin was the most extensively studied mycotoxins in apple juice and no reports have explored the presence of Ochratoxin A in the apple juice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the presence of Patulin and Ochratoxin A in apple juice in Saudi Arabian market of Jeddah. Potato dextrose agar(PDA) was used to detect fungal contamination. Patulin was determined using HPLC equipped with a UV detector set at 276 nm. Also, HPLC with fluorescence detector was set at 333 and 420 nm as excitation and emission wavelength, respectively,was used for Ochratoxin A separation. All samples of apple juice were free from fungi and yeasts. The Patulin (PAT) was detected in only one type out of 17 types (5.88%) with a concentration of 152.5 ppb, (305%) increased compared with the maximum permitted level (50 ppb). However the occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in apple juice samples was discovered in 5 types out of 17 types (29.41%). The concentration of OTA ranged from 100 to 200 ppb reaching 5–10-folds compared with the permissible limits (20 ppb).
    Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several fungal species of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, found on several fruit species and, remarkably, in apples and apple products. Patulin has a broad spectrum of toxicity, including carcinogenicity and teratogenicity in animals. Due to the stability of the molecule, considerable amounts of patulin still remain in apple products after processing. This paper reviews different analytical methods for patulin determination and methods to reduce levels of patulin in apple products as well. Index Terms: Micotoxins, analytical methods, apple PATULINA EM ALIMENTOS: ESTADO DA ARTE E TENDÊNCIAS ANALÍTICAS RESUMO-A patulina é uma micotoxina produzida por diversas espécies de fungos dos gêneros Penicillium e Aspergillus, encontrada em diversas espécies frutíferas e, notadamente, em maçãs e produtos derivados da maçã. A patulina tem um amplo espectro de toxicidade, incluindo carcinogenicidade e teratogenicidade em animais. Devido a sua estabilidade, níveis consideráveis de patulina permanecem nos produtos derivados da maçã, mesmo após as etapas do processamento. Este artigo revisa os diferentes métodos analíticos usados para a determinação de patulina e métodos empregados para reduzir os níveis de patulina nos produtos alimentícios. Termos para Indexação: Micotoxina, métodos analíticos, maçã.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura
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