The impact of generalized anxiety disorder and stressful life events on risk for major depressive episodes
Virginia Institute for Psychiatry and Behavioral Genetics and Department of Psychiatry, Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0126, USA. Psychological Medicine
(Impact Factor: 5.94).
07/2006; 36(6):789-95. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291706007367
Both generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and stressful life events (SLEs) are established risk factors for major depressive disorder, but no studies exist that examine the interrelationship of their impact on depressive onsets. In this study, we sought to analyze the joint effects of prior history of GAD and recent SLEs on risk for major depressive episodes, comparing these in men and women.
In a population-based sample of 8068 adult twins, Cox proportional hazard models were used to predict onsets of major depression from reported prior GAD and last-year SLEs rated on long-term contextual threat.
For all levels of threat, prior GAD increases risk for depression, with a monotonic relationship between threat level and risk. While females without prior GAD consistently show higher depressive risk than males, this is no longer the case in subjects with prior GAD who have experienced SLEs. Rather, males appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of both prior GAD and SLEs.
The effects of prior GAD and SLEs jointly increase the risk of depression in both sexes, but disproportionately so in males.
Available from: Wannes Ribbens
- "116 Although literature on media use in detention remains scarce, ample studies have investigated 117 media selection as a means to cope with extreme emotions and stress factors outside of prison. 118 Research has indicated that media can be used to combat negative feelings such as loneliness (Sum 119 et al., 2008), anxiety (Nabi et al., 2006) or stress (Hettema et al., 2006). Media consumption has also 120 been identified as a strategy to cope with problems such as low self-esteem (Ehrenberg et al., 2008), 121 depression (Kim and Sundar, 2012), mental illness (Tokunaga and Rains, 2010) and drug abuse 122 (Brechting and Giancola, 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: While the functions of digital games in terms of stress relief, mood management and gratifications have frequently been discussed and investigated, little is known about how these functions are distributed along different game genres and along diverse populations. In this article, a qualitative study with 17 long-term sentenced male inmates is presented that explores the uses and gratifications associated with digital game play, and links these to the pains arising from detention. The results indicate that the distinct characteristics of digital games provide inmates with an additional tool to manage time, interact with fellow inmates, escape the prison walls, experience aesthetic emotions and regain the feeling of being in control of a situation.
Available from: Edward C Suarez
- "In one longitudinal study, the increased risk of depression in young men with insomnia was shown to persist up to a 30-year period follow-up period (Chang et al., 1997). Although it is well-recognized that women are at twice the risk for depression than men, this is not the case when gender comparisons are made among those with generalized anxiety disorder where the risk of depression is significantly greater in men (Hettema et al., 2006). In one longitudinal study of adolescents, history of anxiety increased the risk of depression for boys but not for girls (Gallerani et al., 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: We examined whether the ratio of cortisol (CORT) to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an index that captures the integrity of homeostatic regulation between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory processes, is associated with vulnerability to depression in a gender specific manner and whether glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity plays a role in these associations. Fasting blood samples were collected between 0845 and 0915 and assayed for CORT, hsCRP, and leukocyte count in 213 healthy, medication-free men and women. The NEO-Personality Inventory was used to assess neuroticism, extraversion and anxiety. We used the Hamilton Depression Interview to assess depressive symptoms, the Buss-Perry anger subscale to measure anger, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to evaluate subjective sleep quality and its components. Log-transformed CORT/CRP values were analyzed using multiple regression with Holms' adjusted p-values and age, body mass index (BMI), and race as covariates. GR sensitivity was estimated using the log-transformed ratio of neutrophils (N)-to-monocytes (M). The log-transformed ratio of CORT/CRP did not differ between men and women but was significantly and negatively associated with age and BMI. Severity of depressive symptoms, extraversion, anxiety, and sleep quality were associated with the CORT/CRP ratio in a gender-specific manner. For women, decreasing CORT/CRP ratios, suggestive of an insufficient release of CORT coupled with a heightened inflammatory state, were associated with increasing severity of depressive symptoms, decreasing quality of sleep, increasing frequency of sleep disturbance, and decreasing extraversion. For men, increasing frequency of daytime disturbance and levels of anxiety were associated with increasing CORT/CRP ratio, suggestive of an enhanced release of CORT relative to attenuated levels of hsCRP. For both genders, increasing anger was associated with decreasing CORT/CRP ratios. Although results suggested GR downregulation in women but not men, such differences did not mediate the observed associations. With the use of the CORT/CRP ratio, we showed that vulnerability factors for depression are associated with a loss of normal regulatory controls resulting in gender-specific patterns of neuro-immune dysregulation. That GR downregulation did not influence these associations suggests that the loss of regulatory controls in at risk individuals is primarily at the level of the hormone. Beyond the individual contribution of each component of the CORT/CRP ratio, disruption of normal neuroimmune regulatory feedback provides a plausible biological framework useful in understanding biobehavioral vulnerabilities to depression in a gender specific manner. The CORT/CRP ratio may be a viable biomarker not only for delineating risk for MDD but also progression and treatment responses among patients with MDD; possibilities that are testable in future studies.
Available from: William Kremen
- "More attention has been given to the study of genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms and measures reflecting negative emotionality. In men, genetic correlations between measures of depressive symptoms and neuroticism range from 0.37 to 0.99 depending on whether patient or non-patient samples are used, and the type of instrument (Fanous et al. 2007; Hettema et al. 2006; Kendler et al. 1987a, b; Middeldorp et al. 2005). In general, it appears that a non-specific ''genetic-distress'' factor explains the shared covariance between depression and anxiety in a normal population. "
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ABSTRACT: Adult romantic attachment styles reflect ways of relating in close relationships and are associated with depression and negative emotionality. We estimated the extent to which dimensions of romantic attachment and negative emotionality share genetic or environmental risk factors in 1,237 middle-aged men in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). A common genetic factor largely explained the covariance between attachment-related anxiety, attachment-related avoidance, depressive symptoms, and two measures of negative emotionality: Stress-Reaction (anxiety), and Alienation. Multivariate results supported genetic and environmental differences in attachment. Attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance were each influenced by additional genetic factors not shared with other measures; the genetic correlation between the attachment measure-specific genetic factors was 0.41, indicating some, but not complete overlap of genetic factors. Genetically informative longitudinal studies on attachment relationship dimensions can help to illuminate the role of relationship-based risk factors in healthy aging.
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