Fluid calories and energy balance: The good, the bad, and the uncertain

Purdue University, Foods & Nutrition, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United States.
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.98). 09/2006; 89(1):66-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.01.023
Source: PubMed


Energy-yielding fluids are a large and growing proportion of daily energy intake. The specific form and nutrient composition of fluids may hold divergent implications for energy balance. Ethanol elicits a weak compensatory dietary response, resulting in positive energy balance. However, its impact on body weight is unclear, possibly due to metabolic inefficiencies. In contrast, the weak dietary compensation for clear beverages containing other energy sources is associated with weight gain. How these beverages elude satiety mechanisms has not been studied. Soups hold higher satiating value, at least in part, due to cognitive factors. Nutrient dense beverages have been used successfully in meal replacement regimens for weight management, but due to their relatively weak satiety value, are widely consumed for weight gain and as nutrient supplements. A better understanding of the role of fluid calories in the diet is needed to improve dietary guidelines.

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    • "In fact, childhood obesity is a multi-faceted problem involving various factors. Those factors that contribute to childhood obesity are associated with children's poor eating preference and choice for energy-dense foods (Ludwig et al., 1999;Rolls, 2000;Mattes, 2006), distribution and availability of such foods (Fried and Nestle, 2002), low price, appealing packaging and taste, large portion size of the food products (Maziak et al., 2008), children's lack of physical activity (Trost et al., 2001), their increasing sedentary lifestyles associated with television viewing (Gortmaker et al., 1996), computer use (Mendoza et al., 2007) and video game playing (Vandewater et al., 2004) and so on. In this regard, a set of proposed regulations on cracking down food advertising for low-nutrition food might not be enough to prevent and manage childhood obesity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Television food advertisements targeted at children were content analyzed. Data were collected on four major children's cable television channels in the United States aired during the hours of 3 p.m. to 7 p.m. over the period of August 23 to September 5, 2012. Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion, the study identified a variety of persuasive appeals with central and peripheral cues in the child-targeted food commercials. Further, it investigated how the central and peripheral cues in the appeals were differently associated with low-nutrition and general-nutrition food commercials. Overall, the findings showed that general-nutrition food commercials employed persuasive appeals with central cues more frequently than low-nutrition food commercials. Theoretical, practical, and regulatory implications are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · International IJC
    • "In children, the influence of an energy-containing beverage on intake during a meal or snack has not been examined. Studies evaluating the impact of different energy-and non-energycontaining beverages on food intake during meals have been conducted in adults, with adults showing increased energy meal intake with meals containing energy-containing beverages (DellaValle, Roe, & Rolls, 2005; DiMeglio & Mattes, 2000; Flood, Roe, & Rolls, 2006; Mattes, 2006; Panahi, El Khoury, Luhovyy, Goff, & Anderson, 2013; Rolls, Kim, & Fedoroff, 1990). For example, Panahi and colleagues (Panahi et al., 2013) randomized participants into one of five conditions in which an ad libitum pizza meal was provided along with one of five beverages (water, 1% milk, cola, orange juice, or diet cola), which were also provided in unlimited amounts. "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p < 0.05) beverage type and size interaction for amount of beverage consumed, with the 12 oz. juice condition consuming the greatest amount of beverage (226.6 ± 116.4 g), and for energy consumed from food, with the 12 oz. water condition consuming more than the 12 oz. juice condition (117.7 ± 69.1 kcal vs. 88.5 ± 64.1 kcal). A main effect of beverage type was found on overall snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p < 0.001). Providing preschool-aged children with a larger size of beverage at a snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "Several studies have shown that liquid calories do not adequately elicit dietary compensation or the suppression of other foods or calories, due to the low satiety value of beverages, as compared with semisolid or solid food items [8] [9] [10]. As the popularity of SD consumption increased in the latter 20 th century, SD serving sizes grew by 46% from 1977-2001 [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Soft drinks, fruit juice and milk are the most common caloric-beverages consumed by adolescents and teens. We report the ten-year trends in the percentage of daily calories consumed in the form of caloric-beverages from a broad sample of fifth-grade students in the United States. This is a major area of concern related to dietary quality and body weight amongst children. The study was conducted from 2001-2011 through the Healthy Hearts for Kids (HH4K) online instructional program. A total of 17,559 students from 1,048 schools in 49 US states participated. Results reveal there were no changes across the ten-year period in reported fruit juice and milk consumption in the past week. There was a significant downward trend in soft drink consumption in the ten-year period. Juice consumption was positively correlated with soft drink and milk consumption in the past week. Soft drink consumption was positively correlated with milk consumption. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks tomorrow was significantly related to soft drink consumption in the last week and to expected soft drink consumption a year from now. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks in a day one year from now was not related to reported soft drink consumption in the last week. The intent to drink two or more soft drinks tomorrow was not correlated with juice consumption in the past week or with milk consumption in the past week. In conclusion, soft drink consumption declined, but there were no changes in consumption of milk and fruit juice. Soft drinks did not appear to displace either milk or fruit juice. These participants appear to be aware that soft drinks are a less healthy choice.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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