Association of Depression and Anxiety Disorders With Weight Change in a Prospective Community-Based Study of Children Followed Up Into Adulthood
To investigate childhood to adulthood weight change associated with anxiety and depression.
The Children in the Community Study. A prospective longitudinal investigation.
Albany and Saratoga Counties, New York.
Eight hundred twenty individuals (403 females and 417 males) assessed at 4 time points: in 1983 when they were 9 to 18 years old (n = 776), in 1985 to 1986 when they were 11 to 22 years old (n = 775), in 1991 to 1994 when they were 17 to 28 years old (n = 776), and in 2001 to 2003 when they were 28 to 40 years old (n = 661).
Anxiety disorders and depression assessed by structured diagnostic interview.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index z score (BMIz), a measure of weight status; and association of anxiety and depression with BMIz level and annual change.
In females, anxiety disorders were associated with higher weight status, a BMIz of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.25) units higher compared with females without anxiety disorders. Female depression was associated with a gain in BMIz of 0.09 units/y (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.15 units/y), modified by the age when depression was first observed, such that early depression onset was associated with a higher subsequent BMIz than depression onset at older ages. In males, childhood depression was associated with a lower BMIz (-0.46; 95% confidence interval, -0.93 to 0.02 units lower at the age of 9 years), but BMIz trajectories for males with or without depression converged in adulthood; male anxiety disorders were not substantively associated with weight status.
Anxiety disorders and depression were associated with a higher BMIz in females, whereas these disorders in males were not associated with a higher BMIz. These results, if causal and confirmed in other prospective studies, support treating female anxiety and depression as part of comprehensive obesity prevention efforts.
Available from: Tanya Meade
- "While risk factors and lifestyle choices such as alcohol consumption may not have an immediate effect, they can be associated with negative long-term consequences[3,4]. Psychological/mental health problems, which may emerge during this developmental stage, can often contribute to, or co-exist with physical health concerns, and persist into adulthood i.e.[6,7]. These psychological and physical health problems, or vulnerabilities, can form an indivisible comorbidity, which can lead to poorer quality of life in adulthood compared to those that may not have concurrent health concerns. "
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Adolescence is a significant developmental stage marked by physical, psychological and social changes. While adolescents are generally perceived to be healthy, this stage of development is also associated with an emergence of risk factors that may have long-term consequences for their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to assess health related quality of life (HRQoL), and possible gender and age differences, in a sample of secondary school-aged adolescents over a three-year time period.
Australian adolescents (n = 403, aged 12–15 at baseline) across six New South Wales high schools completed the KIDSCREEN-27 Questionnaire at three time points. The KIDSCREEN-27 measures five HRQoL domains (physical wellbeing, psychological wellbeing, autonomy and parents relations, social support and peers, and school environment). Mixed-between-within-subjects ANOVA analyses were employed to examine HRQoL over time and across age and gender.
HRQoL rates were comparable to the European-based KIDSCREEN norms with the exception of psychological wellbeing, which was considerably lower in this study’s sample.
Over time, for the total sample, there were significant changes on only one of the five dimensions (social support and peers). However, gender differences were found to be significant across three dimensions (physical wellbeing, psychological wellbeing, and autonomy and parents relations), with females reporting lower scores than males (i.e. lower HRQoL). Females’ scores also declined over the three time points across two of the five HRQoL dimensions (social support and peers, and school environment), indicating reductions in HRQoL over time. Age differences were found across all but one dimension (autonomy and parents relations).
Although statistically significant, the changes in HRQoL may not be clinically significant, as the effect sizes were small and therefore those changes would not be readily noticeable. Those changes, however, suggest that, while HRQoL is predominantly stable over time, fluctuations and declines, such as those found for females, may be early indicators of physical and psychological vulnerabilities. If such vulnerabilities are detected timely; they may be addressed with preventative measures or appropriate interventions.
- "Early difficulties with weight and internalizing symptoms pose significant risk for later adulthood problems (e.g., Anderson et al., 2006). Prior research on children has documented longitudinal links between "
Available from: Marie-Claude Geoffroy
- "ould in - crease the risk of depression . Additionally , we found strong evidence for a reverse association whereby de - pression triggered weight reduction and underweight in males but not in females . Consistent with our findings , others have reported that males with child - hood onset of depression had lower BMI than males without depression ( Anderson et al . 2006 ) . Our results showing that depressed males , but not depressed females , are likely to become underweight suggests that symptoms of depression are expressed differently in males and females . Although reciprocal associations between underweight and depression were not explained by SEP , health factors relating to both under - weight a"
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An unhealthy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with depression but the direction of association is uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the co-morbidity and direction of association between BMI and depressive symptoms at several ages, from childhood to mid-adulthood.
The data were from 18,558 individuals born in 1 week in March 1958, in England, Scotland and Wales, with follow-up at ages 7, 11, 16, 23, 33, 42, 45 and 50 years. Depression (scores>or=90th percentile) was identified from child/adolescent (teacher questionnaires) and adult (self-complete questionnaires and clinical interview) measures. BMI (kg/m2) measured in child/adolescence and adulthood was classified as underweight, normal, overweight or obese.
In cross-sectional analyses, obesity and underweight (not overweight) from 11 to 45 years were associated respectively with 1.3-2.1 and 1.5-2.3 times the risk of depression compared with normal weight. Using the time-lagged generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach, we tested (a) whether underweight or obesity at prior ages (7 to 45 years) predicted subsequent risk of depression (11 to 50 years), adjusting for baseline depression; and (b) whether depression at prior ages (7 to 42 years) predicted subsequent risk of underweight or obesity (11 to 45 years), adjusting for baseline BMI. In longitudinal analyses, underweight predicted subsequent depression in both sexes [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.40] and depression predicted subsequent underweight in males only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.23). Obesity predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in females only (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.56), but depression did not predict obesity.
Clinicians should consider screening routinely for depression patients with unhealthy BMI, namely underweight and obesity, and vice versa.
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