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Effect of Self-Foot Reflexology massage on Depression, Stress Responses and Immune Functions of Middle Aged Women

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Abstract

This study was aimed to identify the effects of a self-foot reflexology massage on depression, stress responses and functions of the immune system of middle-aged women. This study was a one group pretest-posttest experimental design and the data was collected from August 1st, 2004 to May 31st, 2005. The subjects consisted of 46 middle-aged women (40 - 64 years) who were recruited from the Community Health Center in Busan city. Subjects were not treated for 4 weeks, subsequently they were trained in self foot reflexology massage for 2 weeks, and then they did their own daily for 6 weeks (2 days at the research center, 5 days at home). The outcome variables were measured 4 times, at baseline, pre training, after training, and after the intervention. The collected data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA by the SPSS/WIN program. There was a statistically significant difference in depression, perceived stress, systolic blood pressure, natural-killer cells and Ig G. However, there was not a statistically significant difference in diastolic blood pressure, pulse or serum cortisol. These results suggest that a self-foot reflexology massage could be utilized as an effective nursing intervention to reduce depression and stress responses, and to strengthen immune systems in middle-aged women.

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... , periferal dolaşıma olumlu etkisinin olduğu, periferal nöropatiyi engellediği20 , ayak yorgunluğunu azalttığı, kalp atım hızını düzenlediği21 , immün sistemi güçlendirdiği[22][23][24] , KB'nı düşürdüğü23,24 , depresyonu azalttığı23,25 , fiziksel ve psikolojik fonksiyonları geliştirdiği26,27 saptanmıştır.Hipertansiyon hastalarının genellikle zaman içinde günlük yaşam aktiviteleri etkilenmekte ve bu durum günlük yaşam aktivitelerinde kısıtlamalara neden olmaktadır. Ayrıca hipertansif birey kronik bir hastalığa sahip olma psikolojisi yaşamakta ve yaşam tarzında değişiklik yapmakta zorlanmaktadır.Tüm bu değişiklikler nedeniyle de bireyin yaşam kalitesi olumsuz etkilenmektedir.28 ...
... , periferal dolaşıma olumlu etkisinin olduğu, periferal nöropatiyi engellediği20 , ayak yorgunluğunu azalttığı, kalp atım hızını düzenlediği21 , immün sistemi güçlendirdiği[22][23][24] , KB'nı düşürdüğü23,24 , depresyonu azalttığı23,25 , fiziksel ve psikolojik fonksiyonları geliştirdiği26,27 saptanmıştır.Hipertansiyon hastalarının genellikle zaman içinde günlük yaşam aktiviteleri etkilenmekte ve bu durum günlük yaşam aktivitelerinde kısıtlamalara neden olmaktadır. Ayrıca hipertansif birey kronik bir hastalığa sahip olma psikolojisi yaşamakta ve yaşam tarzında değişiklik yapmakta zorlanmaktadır.Tüm bu değişiklikler nedeniyle de bireyin yaşam kalitesi olumsuz etkilenmektedir.28 ...
... , periferal dolaşıma olumlu etkisinin olduğu, periferal nöropatiyi engellediği20 , ayak yorgunluğunu azalttığı, kalp atım hızını düzenlediği21 , immün sistemi güçlendirdiği[22][23][24] , KB'nı düşürdüğü23,24 , depresyonu azalttığı23,25 , fiziksel ve psikolojik fonksiyonları geliştirdiği26,27 saptanmıştır.Hipertansiyon hastalarının genellikle zaman içinde günlük yaşam aktiviteleri etkilenmekte ve bu durum günlük yaşam aktivitelerinde kısıtlamalara neden olmaktadır. Ayrıca hipertansif birey kronik bir hastalığa sahip olma psikolojisi yaşamakta ve yaşam tarzında değişiklik yapmakta zorlanmaktadır.Tüm bu değişiklikler nedeniyle de bireyin yaşam kalitesi olumsuz etkilenmektedir.28 ...
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zet Amaç: Hipertansiyon tedavisinde, ilaç tedavisine ek olarak veya tek başına nonfarmakolojik önlemlerin de önemli bir yeri vardır. Bu önlemler birçok defa ilaç tedavisi gerekliliğini ortadan kaldırabilmekte veya kullanılan ilaç dozunu azaltmaya yardımcı olabilmektedir. Hastalıkların tedavisinde kullanılan nonfarmokolojik yöntemlerden birisi refleksolojidir. Bu araştırma hipertansiyonlu hastalara uygulanan ayak refleksolojinin kan basıncı, kolesterol düzeyleri ve yaşam kalitesine etkisini belirlemek amacıyla kendinden kontrollü klinik çalışma olarak yapıldı. Yöntem: Kendinden kontrollü klinik çalışmanın örneklemini 219 esansiyel hipertansiyon tanısı olan hasta oluşturmuş, hastalar önce müdahale öncesi dönemde izlenmiş sonra müdahale uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada veriler; anket formu, kan basıncı ve kolesterol düzeyleri kayıt formu, kısa form-36 (SF-36) yaşam kalitesi ölçeği kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Elde edilen verilerin değerlendirilmesinde, gruplar arası farklılığı test etmek için Friedman ve Wilcoxon İşaretli Sıra testleri kullanılmıştır. Friedman testi karşılaştırmalarında p<0,01, Wilcoxon İşaretli Sıra testi karşılaştırmalarında p<0.05 anlamlı olarak kabul edilmiştir. Bulgular: Müdahale sonrası sistolik kan basıncının, birinci seansta 145.63 mmHg iken altıncı seans sonrası 137,57 mmHg'ye, diastolik kan basıncının birinci seansta 89.17 mmHg iken altıncı seans sonrası 78.92 mmHg'ye düştüğü, müdahale öncesine göre müdahale sonrası LDL, total kolesterol, trigliserid ortancalarının düştüğü, HDL değeri ortancasının yükseldiği ve müdahale sonrası tüm yaşam kalitesi alanları puan ortancalarının yükseldiği tespit edilmiştir. Gruplar arasındaki bu fark yaşam kalitesinin sosyal fonksiyon alanı dışındaki tüm alanlarında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulunmuştur (p<0.05).
... There are some studies examining effect of reflexology in various fields, such as depression [9][10][11], stress [11,12], anxiety [13,14], fatigue [15] and sleep quality [15,16] However, in search of the databases, we found no study examining effect of reflexology on breast milk supply. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether foot reflexology could affect the volume of breast milk produced by mothers with premature infants. ...
... There are some studies examining effect of reflexology in various fields, such as depression [9][10][11], stress [11,12], anxiety [13,14], fatigue [15] and sleep quality [15,16] However, in search of the databases, we found no study examining effect of reflexology on breast milk supply. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether foot reflexology could affect the volume of breast milk produced by mothers with premature infants. ...
... In this study, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of depression, anxiety and stress. While according to previous studies, reflexology could reduce depression [11], anxiety [13,14], and stress [11,12] in individuals. Considering the reduction of anxiety and stress in both groups compared with the baseline in our study (a statistically significant difference in stress in the both groups and in anxiety only in the intervention group), the no significant difference between the groups can be due to the effect of general massage for soles of the feet for the first 5 min applied for the both groups and the almost similar effect of the both methods of foot pressure applied to the both groups (of course, at different points) on these outcomes. ...
Article
Introduction Limited evidence suggests some beneficial effects of reflexology on breast milk supply. This study aimed to determine effect of foot reflexology on breast milk volume of mothers with premature infants. Methods Nursing mothers who had not initiated breastfeeding and had premature infants aged 7–54 days and gestational age of 28–34 weeks, were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, foot massage was done once daily for seven days, 10 min for each foot including general massage of foot soles for the first 5 min. For the second 5 min, massage was for breast, pituitary and solar plexus related areas in the intervention and for unrelated areas in the control group. Results One out of 37 mothers in each group received the massage only on the first day. Outcomes were assessed in all mothers on days 1, 4 and 7 following intervention. In the intervention group compared with control group, there was greater increase in milk volume expressed following massage on the 7th day [median (Q1, Q3) 7 mL (4.5, 10) vs. 1 (−1, 2), P < 0.001], and in daily milk volume on 4th [14 (3.5, 55) vs. 3 (−3, 25), P = 0.020] and 7th day [38 (9, 107.5) vs. 5 (−3, 16), P < 0.001]. No statistically significant differences were found on the other time-points (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results show positive effect of foot reflexology on increasing breast milk of premature infants’ mothers. Therefore, this preliminary study suggests that foot reflexology could be utilized by breastfeeding mothers, particularly considering its simplicity, high acceptance and no reported side effects.
... Six studies were selected, including 3 NRTs 5,17,18 and three before-and-after studies. [19][20][21] We did not find any RCTs of self-administered foot reflexology for laypersons. ...
... In addition, perceived stress following self-administered foot reflexology was improved significantly before the intervention (P < 0.001) in one before-and-after study. 21 Two NRTs reported serum cortisol levels (an objective outcome for stress) for 119 participants (60 in the self-administered foot massage group and 59 in the control group) (Fig. 3b). There were no significant differences between groups (SMD −0.25, 95% CI, −0.65 to 0.16, P = 0.23). ...
... An instructor and 3 assistants gave directions and conducted a foot massage program (once a week, for 4 weeks) to improve compliance and confirm the acquisition. Lee (2006) Depression: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) tool: 20 items, 4-item scale, total score range 0-60, score over 16 indicates depression. ...
Article
Objectives: Self-administered foot reflexology is unrestricted by time and space, economical, and practical because it is easy to learn and apply. This study estimated the effectiveness of self-foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: The participants were healthy persons not diagnosed with a specific disease. The intervention was foot reflexology administered by participants, not by practitioners or healthcare providers. The comparative studies either between groups or within group comparison were included. Our search utilized core databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL). We also searched Chinese (CNKI), Japanese (J-STAGE), and Korean databases (KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS). The search was used MeSH terminology and key words (foot reflexology, foot massage, and self). Results: Analysis of three non-randomized trials and three before-and-after studies showed that self-administered foot reflexology resulted in significant improvement in subjective outcomes such as perceived stress, fatigue, and depression. However, there was no significant improvement in objective outcomes such as cortisol levels, blood pressure, and pulse rate. We did not find any randomized controlled trial. Conclusions: This study presents the effectiveness of self-administered foot reflexology for healthy persons' psychological and physiological symptoms. While objective outcomes showed limited results, significant improvements were found in subjective outcomes. However, owing to the small number of studies and methodological flaws, there was insufficient evidence supporting the use of self-performed foot reflexology. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in healthy people.
... IJNMR 2011; 16(1): [8][9][10][11][12] urgery is one of the most stressful incidents which may occur in everybody's life. When human life is threatened, whether it is a real or a pseudo threat, stress would occur. ...
... 9,10 Reflexotherapy, as a comprehensive approach and a nursing intervention (a nursing science which supports traditional cares) can be used in the current medical treatments. 11,12 So far, many studies have investigated reflexotherapy as a noninvasive nursing intervention in its various aspects such as: the impact of reflexotherapy on hypotension without any known reasons, reducing triglyceride and blood sugar, improving nausea and vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reducing depression and improving immune system function, improving pain and anxiety of the cancer patients and decrease the fatigue in pregnant women. [11][12][13][14][15] However, in a pilot (small) study conducted on the anxiety of patients before and after the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, this method had a significant effect on the physiological parameters of the patients. ...
... 11,12 So far, many studies have investigated reflexotherapy as a noninvasive nursing intervention in its various aspects such as: the impact of reflexotherapy on hypotension without any known reasons, reducing triglyceride and blood sugar, improving nausea and vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reducing depression and improving immune system function, improving pain and anxiety of the cancer patients and decrease the fatigue in pregnant women. [11][12][13][14][15] However, in a pilot (small) study conducted on the anxiety of patients before and after the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, this method had a significant effect on the physiological parameters of the patients. 4 Based on recent observations and studies which indicated high level of anxiety in patients before the surgery and its subsequent effects on vital signs of the patients and considering different results of the studies on effectiveness of the reflexotherapy on these signs and also considering that reflexotherapy is a non-invasive and non-pharmacological nursing intervention, the researcher decided to conduct a study in order to investigate and compare the effect of reflexotherapy on vital signs of the patients before CABG surgery. ...
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Medical operation is an anxious factor that causes physiological reactions in body which consequently increases respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. The aim of this study is assessing the effect of reflexotherapy on vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass surgery in Shahid Chamran hospital of Isfahan. Fifty volunteer patients candidated for coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled in this clinical trial. They were divided in two (control and treatment) groups. Vital signs were measured pre and post 30 minutes reflexotherapy in treatment group. Vital signs were also measured in patients in control group at the same condition of the treatment group, but reflexotherapy was not performed. The mean differences of vital signs was not significant in control and treatment groups at the baseline. But post reflexotherapy intervention, systolic and diastolic blood pressure lowered significantly in the treatment group in comparison with control group (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for other vital sign. The findings of the study shows that reflexotherapy is a safe, effective, cheep nursing intervention in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure of patients before coronary artery bypass surgery.
... There are reflex points in the hands and feet that correspond to all areas, organs, and systems in the body. Using this method, the self-treatment mechanism of the body is activated, and physiological relief is enhanced [13,17,18]. ...
... In their study, Asltoghiria and Ghodsi found that reflexology was effective in decreasing sleep disorders in the menopausal period [28]. Lee's two studies show that reflexology has effects on tiredness, physiological parameters, depression and stress experienced in the menopausal period [17,36]. A number of studies also indicate that reflexology is effective in decreasing menopause symptoms, stress and tiredness [37,38]. ...
... 9,10 Reflexotherapy, as a comprehensive approach and a nursing intervention -a nursing science which supports traditional cares-can be used in the current medical treatments. 11,12 So far, many studies have investigated the reflexotherapy as a noninvasive nursing intervention in its various aspects such as: the impact of reflexotherapy on hypotension without any known reasons, reducing triglyceride and blood sugar, improving nausea and vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reducing depression and improving immune system function, improving pain and anxiety of the cancer patients and decrease the fatigue in pregnant women. [11][12][13][14][15] However, in a pilot (small) study conducted on the anxiety of patients before and after the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, the reflexotherapy had a significant effect on the physiological parameters of the patients. ...
... 11,12 So far, many studies have investigated the reflexotherapy as a noninvasive nursing intervention in its various aspects such as: the impact of reflexotherapy on hypotension without any known reasons, reducing triglyceride and blood sugar, improving nausea and vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reducing depression and improving immune system function, improving pain and anxiety of the cancer patients and decrease the fatigue in pregnant women. [11][12][13][14][15] However, in a pilot (small) study conducted on the anxiety of patients before and after the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, the reflexotherapy had a significant effect on the physiological parameters of the patients. 4 Based on the observations and studied research in recent decades which indicated the high level of anxiety of patients before the surgery and subsequent effects on vital signs of the patients and considering different results of the studies on effectiveness of the reflexotherapy on these signs and also considering that reflexotherapy is a non-invasive and nonpharmacological nursing intervention, the researcher determined to conduct a study aimed to investigate and compare the effect of reflexotherapy on some of the vital signs before the CABG surgery in two groups of intervention and control groups. ...
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The operation is a anxious factor that causes physiological reactions in body, and consequently increase respiratory, pulse and blood pressure physiological responses. The aim of this study is assessing the effect of reflexotherapy on some of physiological indicators of patients before coronary artery bypass surgery in shahid chamrnn hospital of Isfahan. This study is a clinical trial. Fifty volunteer patients for coronary artery bypass surgery divided in control and treatment groups. vital sign were measured pre and post 30 minutes reflexotherapy in treatment group also for patients in control group vital sign were measured pre and post 30 minutes as same as conditions with treatment group but reflexotherapy was not performed in control group. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods of chi square, paired t test, independent t test with spss soft ware was applied for data analysis. The mean differences of vital sign at baseline in control and treatment groups not significant, but post reflexotherapy intervention systolic and diastolic blood pressure lowered significantly in the treatment group in comparison with control group (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for other vital sign. The findings of the study show that reflexotherapy is a safe, effective, cheep nursing intervention in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure of patients before coronary artery bypass surgery.
... Reflexology is an adjunctive non-drug therapy that can improve mental and emotional health and improve life quality [56]. The benefits of foot reflexology may be associated with changes in the autonomic nervous system [57]. ...
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Sexual problems of hemodialysis patients are one of the most significant factors affecting their quality of life and families. On the other hand, an essential part of the quality of life is the quality of sexual life and sexual dysfunction that will affect people's perception of the quality of sexual life. Reflexology massage is one of the complementary and alternative therapies combined with conventional medical treatments to reduce disease and treat its complications. This study aimed to determine the effect of foot reflexology on hemo-dialysis patients' quality of sexual life. This was a parallel randomized sham-controlled trial which conducted in hemodialysis center of Imam Reza (AS) Hospital in Sirjan, Iran. Forty-seven patients under hemodialysis were divided into two groups of foot reflexology (n = 24) and sham (n = 23) using block randomization method. The intervention group received foot reflexology treatment during dialysis for 4 weeks, 3 times a week, 30 min each time (15 min per foot). In the sham group, non-specific foot massage was conducted without squeezing the standard points of reflexology with the same conditions and duration as the intervention group. Quality of sexual life was assessed using female sexual quality of life questionnaire (SQOL-F) and male sexual quality of life questionnaire (SQOL-M) before the intervention, immediately, and one month after the intervention. The results showed that the quality of sexual life of participants in the reflexology group immediately after the intervention (69.74) was significantly higher than before (47.73) and one month after the intervention (52.27). There was no significant difference in the average quality of sexual life of participants in the sham group at different times (before intervention 46.67, immediately after intervention 45.66, and 1 month after intervention 48.18). Immediately after the reflexology intervention, the quality of sexual life was significantly higher than in the sham group (p < 0.001). This study highlights the potential benefit from reflexology in improving the quality of sexual life in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Trial registration IRCT20200712048085N1. Registered 15 July 2020, https:// en. irct. ir/ trial/ 49604
... Reflexology promotes relaxation in blood circulation and eliminates the waste of tissue metabolism from the site. These effects cause changes in heart rate and variations in baroreceptor reflexes (105)(106)(107)(108). Reflexology specifically increases blood pressure. ...
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Aim: this study was conducted to review the related articles and draw a final conclusion regarding the application of reflexology for delivery (labor and cesarean section) pain management in woman all over the world. Methodology: In this systematic review, relevant articles were searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and Scopus databases from the year 2000 to 2018. All the human clinical trials that examined the effects of reflexology methods on delivery pain (labor or Cesarean section) were included and others excluded from the study. Results: All the 18 included original articles (with 1391 patients) reported that reflexology significantly reduces the pain of delivery, confirming its decreasing effect on labor, Cesarean section, and post-delivery pain. Results of all articles showed that, if true reflexology is performed on the right location of the body and at the appropriate time, the pain of delivery can be significantly decreased Conclusion: Reflexology is an appropriate pain relief and prophylaxis for any kind of pain, especially delivery and post-delivery pain. It is a safe remedy with no adverse effects reported so far.
... Foot reflexology is a systemic practice in which a practitioner applies some pressure to any pressure points on the feet to stimulate the body and provide health benefits to different parts of the body. Foot reflexology is commonly practiced as a complementary therapy and is one of the nonpharmacological therapies to alleviate our mental, emotional, and spiritual health, while improving the quality of our life [1]. ...
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review, meta-analysis, and metaregression to determine the current best available evidence of the efficacy and safety of foot reflexology for adult depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, ClinicalKey, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library) were searched till August, 10, 2020, and the validity of the eligible studies was critically appraised. Randomized controlled trials comparing foot reflexology groups with control groups for adult depression, anxiety, and sleep quality were included. Twenty-six eligible studies were included to assess the effect of foot reflexology intervention on the reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving quality of sleep, respectively, as the primary outcome. Results: Twenty-six randomized controlled trials involving 2,366 participants met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses showed that foot reflexology intervention significantly improved adult depression (Hedges' g = -0.921; 95% CI: -1.246 to -0.595; P < 0.001), anxiety (Hedges' g = -1.237; 95% CI -1.682 to -0.791; P < 0.001), and sleep quality (Hedges' g = -1.665; 95% CI -2.361 to -0.970; P < 0.001). Metaregression reveals that an increase in total foot reflexology time (P = 0.002) and duration (P = 0.01) can significantly improve sleep quality. Conclusions: Foot reflexology may provide additional nonpharmacotherapy intervention for adults suffering from depression, anxiety, or sleep disturbance. However, high quality and rigorous design RCTs in specific population, along with an increase in participants, and a long-term follow-up are recommended in the future.
... (27) Lee's investigations have similarly shown that the foot massage reduces stress and anxiety effectively and may decrease the depression in patients; these may considered the foot massage's positive side effect. (28) These results endorse our hypothesis that left sole massage has soothing impacts on pain. ...
... www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_health/ HSQ 20.pdf (accessed Jan 24,2005): 7-18. Only verified references against the original documents should be cited. ...
... [25] Lee reported a significant reduction in stress after 6 weeks of reflexology. [26] Also, McVicara et al. concluded that reflexology may positively affect the treatment of State anxiety. They found that the effects of reflexology may have beneficial outcomes for patients. ...
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Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms, yet there is not a conclusive cure for this disease. Complementary medicine is a current treatment which seems is effective in relieving symptoms of patients with MS. Therefore, this study is aimed to determine and compare the effects of reflexology and relaxation on anxiety, stress, and depression in women with MS. Subjects and Methods This study is a randomized clinical trial that is done on 75 women with MS referred to MS Clinic of Kashani Hospital. After simple non random sampling, participants were randomly assigned by minimization method to three groups: reflexology, relaxation and control (25 patients in each group). In the experimental groups were performed reflexology and relaxation interventions within 4 weeks, twice a week for 40 min and the control group were received only routine treatment as directed by a doctor. Data were collected through depression anxiety and stress scale questionnaire, before, immediately after and 2 months after interventions in all three groups. Chi-square, Kruskal–Wallis, repeated measures analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference post hoc test via SPSS version 18 were used to analyze the data (P < 0.05) was considered as significant level. Results The results showed a significant reduction in the severity of anxiety, stress and depression during the different times in the reflexology and relaxation groups as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The results showed that reflexology and relaxation in relieving anxiety, stress and depression are effective in women with MS. Hence, these two methods, as effective techniques, can be recommended.
... 19 Ref le xo lo ji nin ge nel fay da la rı, stres, ank si ye te, genel ger gin li ğin azal tıl ma sı ve im mun sis te min güç len diril me si ne yö ne lik tir. 20 El ve ayak lar, be de ni din len dir mek, ger gin lik/stre si azalt mak ve ho me os ta sis den ge si ni oluş tur mak için önem li araç la dır ve uy gu la ma için ko lay bir yol dur. Bu yol dan ki şi nin ken di si ni fi ziksel, duy gu sal ve ruh sal ba kım dan iyi his set me si ni sağ lar ve ki şi ye do ğal den ge si ni ka zan dı rır. ...
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As chiropractic manipulation, massage therapy and reflexology treatments are important therapy modalities for antiaging which is under the umbrella of manipulative and body-based practices. Manipulative and body-based practices improve the quality of life of elders and help to have beter health. In conclusion, as perspective of antiaging the manipulative and body-based practices have seen positive effects on psychological and fonctional health of elders also have positive effects on felling beautiful.
... 19 Ref le xolo ji nin ge nel fay da la rı, stres, ank si ye te, ge nel ger gin liğin azal tıl ma sı ve im mun sis te min güç len di ril me si ne yö ne lik tir. 20 El ve ayak lar, be de ni din len dir mek, ger ginlik/stre si azalt mak ve ho me os ta sis den ge si ni oluş tur mak için önem li araç la dır ve uy gu la ma için ko lay bir yol dur. Bu yol dan ki şi nin ken di si ni fi zik sel, duy gu sal ve ruh sal ba kım dan iyi his set me si ni sağ lar ve ki şi ye do ğal den gesi ni ka zan dı rır. ...
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Oriental Medicine (OM) have been known and practiced since old civilizations, particular in the Asian Countries. In this review, the philosophical, cultural, and historical aspects are discussed, and the many types of OM practices are mentioned. The pattern of OM practice mainly includes the use of herbs, dietary therapy, exercise, massage as body based therapies and acupuncture. OM include wide range of body based applications included Shiatsu, Thai massage, Ayurvedic massage and Reflexology. OM is a wide subject and is practiced throughout Midle/East Asia by millions of people. OM applications are healing systems and beliefs that have evolved over time in different cultures and parts of the world. It treats the individual and reflects the unique experience of that disease. It also treats the vital energy and encourages the body, mind, and spirit to return to a harmoniously balanced state of well-being.
... Although McVicar et al., showed that reflexology considerably decreases state anxiety, but it didn't change trait anxiety (14). Lee in a study found that considerable difference presents in before and after reflexology in terms of reduction of depression and stress (22). The mechanism of reflexology function is not recognized well. ...
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Reflexology is a technique used widely as one of non-pharmacological pain management techniques. The present study aimed to review and determine the effect of foot reflexology on anxiety, pain and outcomes of the labor in primigravida women. This clinical trial study was conducted on 80 primigravida mothers who were divided randomly into an intervention group (Foot reflexology applied for 40 min, n=40) and control group (n=40). The pain intensity was scored immediately after the end of intervention and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the intervention in both groups, based on McGill Questionnaire for Pain Rating Index (PRI). Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was completed before and after intervention in both groups. Duration of labor phases, the type of labor and Apgar scores of the infant at the first and fifth minute were recorded in both groups. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods (t-test and chi-square test) were applied in analyzing data. Application of reflexology technique decreased pain intensity (at 30, 60 and 120 min after intervention) and duration of labor as well as anxiety level significantly (P<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of the frequency distribution of the type of labor and Apgar score (P<0.001). Results of this study show that reflexology reduces labor pain intensity, duration of labor, anxiety, frequency distribution of natural delivery and increases Apgar scores. Using this non-invasive technique, obstetricians can achieve, to some extent, to one of the most important goals of midwifery as pain relief and reducing anxiety during labor and encourage the mothers to have a vaginal delivery. © 2015 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.
... 즉, 하지부 종과 하지통증은 간호사들에게 발생하는 가장 흔한 직무관련 건강 문제로 보고되고 있다 (Kim, 1997 (Kim, 2006 (Kim, 2006;Oh, Kwun, & Suh, 1998), 간 호사는 타 직업군에 비해 하지부종이나 통증 및 하지정맥류 같 은 질환의 발생이 더 많았다고 보고된 바 있다 (Lee, 2007 (Kwon, 2003 (Sung, 2005 (Harmer, 1991). 또한, 최근 발반사 마사지는 피로, 하지부종, 스트레스의 감소와 하지의 혈액순환 증진, 수면상태, 면역기능, 기분상승의 효과가 있다는 것이 밝혀 졌다 (Kim, 2005;Ko & Park, 2007;Lee, 2002;Lee, Y. M., 2006;Min, 2002 과다하게 축적된 상태이다 (Choi & Kim, 1997 ...
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Reflexology in Pregnancy and Childbirth is a definitive text on the safe and appropriate use of reflex zone therapy in pregnancy, labour and the puerperium, focusing on evidence-based practice, professional accountability and application of a comprehensive knowledge of the therapy related to reproductive physiology. Denise Tiran, an experienced midwife, reflex zone therapist, university lecturer and Director of Expectancy - the Expectant Parents' Complementary Therapies Consultancy - has an international reputation in the field of maternity complementary therapies, has researched and written extensively on reflexology, and has treated nearly 5000 pregnant women with structural reflex zone therapy. KEY FEATURES Case histories to ease application of theory to practice Charts, tables and diagrams are used throughout for ease of learning Includes a section on conception, infertility and sub-fertility Covers legalities and ethical issues.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an integrated management program on climacteric symptoms and depression in middle-aged women. Methods: A nonequivalent control-group design was used. The subjects consisted of 65 middle-aged women with climacteric symptoms. The experimental group (n=33) participated in the program for six 60-min sessions. To measure the climacteric symptoms and depression level of the subjects, two self-reporting questionnaires were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 17.0 program. Results: The women in the experimental group reported the average score of 13.80 in climacteric symptoms, 14.38 in depression. The hypothesis that the climacteric symptoms of experimental group would be reduced more than that of the control group was supported (t=3.92, p
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination program of meridian massage and foot reflexology on stress and natural killer (NK) cell activity in adults. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental research usingone-group-pretest-posttest design. The subjects of the study were 42 adults in T city. Stress level was assessed with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and serum cortisol level. The data were analyzed by SPSS/WIN 17.0 program with descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The period of this study was from January 4 to July 11 of 2008. The program was performed three days per week, two hours per session. Results: The degrees of perceived stress were significantly different while objective stress levels were partially different between pre-and post-program. The NK cell activity did not show a significant difference between before and after the program. Conclusion: This study suggests that combination of meridian massage and foot reflexology may be an optional nursing intervention to reduce subjective and objective stress in adults.
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Regarding to increasing of life expectancy, women spend about one-third of their lives in menopausal stage. Many women are interested to use complementary and alternative medicines for relief from their menopausal complications. Reflexology is One of the complementary and alternative medicines .The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Reflexology on hot flash in menopausal women. This randomized controlled trial study was carried out on 100 retired menopausal women ranging from 45 to 60 in 2011. They were randomly divided in two groups as case and control. Data collection tools were questionnaire. Questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index. In case group reflexology was preformed for 15 minutes, daily through 21 days while there was no intervention in the control group. There was no significant difference in demographic and the menopausal complications between two groups before intervention in case group. The results showed a significant reduction sleep disorder after intervention (p < 0.001).Reflexology is effective in improving of sleep disorder and therefore midwives can learn it and teach it to menopausal women.
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Complementary therapies are widely used by people with diabetes for the condition itself, for diabetes-related complications or for non-diabetes related problems. The aim of this review is to summarise the current research evidence on complementary therapies in the management of diabetes and resulting complications. The review draws primarily on systematic reviews conducted as part of the CAMEOL project (www.rccm.org.uk/cameol), included in the Cochrane Library or on the National Library for Health Complementary and Alternative Medicine Specialist Library (www.library.nhs.uk/cam). Searches were also carried out for studies published subsequently or on other therapies to provide an indication of overall research activity. Systematic reviews were found or conducted on a range of herbs, dietary supplements, massage, acupuncture, homoeopathy, hypnotherapy, meditation, reflexology and yoga. Individual studies were located on several other therapies. Studies addressed metabolic control, general well-being and complications. Herbs and dietary supplements continue to be the main focus of research activity. Acupuncture trials are also numerous but almost exclusively conducted in China using traditional approaches. For most other therapies, research evidence is limited by extent or quality. Overall, limited data from well-designed randomised controlled trials are available and results are difficult to translate into clinical practice. Based on promising findings, several herbs, dietary supplements, exercise or body-based therapies and acupuncture require further investigation. For most therapies, well-designed robust studies replicating small preliminary studies are required to support those involved in diabetes care in providing evidence-based advice on the safe and effective use of complementary therapies. Copyright
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Purpose: This study was done to examine the effects of aroma self-foot reflexology massage on stress and immune responses and fatigue in middle-aged women in rural areas. Methods: The study was a nonequivalent control group pre-post test design. The participants were 52 middle-aged women from rural areas of which 26 were assigned to the experimental group and 26 to the control group. Data were collected from July to September, 2011 and analyzed using SPSS Win 17.0 version program. The intervention was conducted 3 times a week for six weeks. Results: There were significant differences in reported perceived stress, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and fatigue between the two groups. However, the issue of salivary cortisol and immune response were not significant. Conclusion: Aroma self-foot reflexology massage can be utilized as an effective intervention for perceived stress, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and fatigue in middle-aged woman in rural areas.
Reflexology has been shown to reduce anxiety and stress in various populations. The mechanism by which this occurs may be in modulating autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; however; there is limited evidence available in the area. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using an experimental model to determine the physiological effect of reflexology on stress. A feasibility study to assess an experimental study design to compare the effect of reflexology and control interventions on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) following mental stress tests. The Health and Rehabilitation Science Research Institute at the University ofUlster, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Twenty-six healthy volunteers. Mental stress was induced before and after intervention. Participants in the reflexology group received 20 minutes of reflexology, and the control group received 20 minutes of relaxation with a therapist holding each participant's feet. The outcome measures, HR and BP, were measured throughout mental stress testing intervention, and a second period of mental stress testing following intervention. The study design was considered feasible. There were significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (22%; P = .03) and in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (26%; P = .01) during mental stress following reflexology compared to the stress period prior to intervention. In contrast, there was a 10% reduction in SBP (P = .03) but a 5% increase in DBP (P = .67) during the period of mental stress following the control intervention compared to results obtained during mental stress prior to this intervention. However, there were no significant differences between reflexology and control groups. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting an experimental study on the effect ofreflexology in stress using BP as the primary outcome measure. Results from such a study would address the lack of high-quality evidence for the physiological effects of reflexology.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of self-foot reflexology on stress (perceived stress, urine cortisol level, and serum cortisol level), fatigue, skin temperature and immune response in female undergraduate students. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-post test design. Participants were 60 university students: 30 in the experiment group and 30 in the control group. The period of this study was from April to June 2010. The program was performed for 1 hr a session, three times a week for 6 weeks. The data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program. The results showed that self-foot reflexology was effective in reducing perceived stress and fatigue, and raised skin temperature in female undergraduate students. But cortisol levels and immune response were not statistically significant different. The results of this study indicate that self-foot reflexology is an effective nursing intervention in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and, in improving skin temperature. Therefore, it is recommended that this be used in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention for in female undergraduate students.
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The purpose of the study was to identify the prevalence, risk factors and clinical meanings of geriatric foot problems and to suggest implications for the future. One hundred eighty nine elderly aged 60 and over from institution as well as community were investigated for their foot conditions by means of a questionnaire including general characteristics, self care capacity, risk factors, foot problem checklist, X-ray, podoscopy and foot scan. Descriptive statistics and X(2)-test was performed as appropriate utilizing SPSS version 14. Less than .05 of p-value was adopted as statistical significance level. All subjects had at least one kind of foot problem and the most prevalent ones were nail problems, foot deformities in order. Prevalence of foot pain and edema was relatively low. Foot problem in elderly is prevalent and geriatric foot is expected to emerge as one of the most important problems in the geriatric field. Therefore strategies to deal with geriatric foot should be developed and practiced for better quality of life in later life.
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This study was to examine the effects of self-foot reflexology on stress, fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 59 premenopausal, middle-aged women in their 40s and 60s living in G city: 30 in the experiment group and 29 in the control group. Data were collected from May to August 2008. Self-foot reflexology was performed three times a week for 6 weeks for 40 min at each session. The results showed that self-foot reflexology was effective in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and helped blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. Self-foot reflexology may be an effective nursing intervention in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and in improving blood circulation.
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