The effect of smoking on infertility treatment in women undergoing assisted reproduction cycles
Klinika Niepłodności i Endokrynologii Rozrodu Katedry Ginekologii i Połoznictwa Akademii Medycznej w Poznaniu. Przegla̧d lekarski
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of smoking on different parameters in woman treated by IVF-ICSI. The total number of MII stage oocytes retrieved, number of embryos, embryos quality and implantation rate were measured. 32 women undergoing IVF ICSI treatment were classified as smokers and 30 non-smokers on the basis of medical history. Smokers had decreased number of retrieved oocytes compared with non-smokers (p<0.05) and lower embryo score (p<0.05). There was no statistically significantly difference between quality of embryos in both groups. Women who smoked had also statistically significantly lower pregnancy rate per cycle (3% versus 38%) (p<0.000001). The knowledge gained from these results regarding the effects of female smoking on ART procedures may help to create guidelines for clinicians and providing a forceful impetus for women undergoing IVF-ICSI to stop smoking.
Available from: William L Ledger
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether any difference exists in success rate of clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) between women who actively smoke cigarettes at the time of treatment and those who do not.
An intensive computerized search was conducted on published literature from eight databases, using search terms related to smoking, assisted reproduction and outcome measures. Eligible studies compared outcomes of ART between cigarette smoking patients and a control group of non-smoking patients and reported on live birth rate per cycle, clinical pregnancy rate per cycle, ectopic pregnancy rate per pregnancy or spontaneous miscarriage rate per pregnancy, and 21 studies were included in the meta-analyses. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the data, and statistical heterogeneity was tested for using chi(2) and I(2) values. A systematic review examined the effect of smoking upon fertilization rates across 17 studies.
Smoking patients demonstrated significantly lower odds of live birth per cycle (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.99), significantly lower odds of clinical pregnancy per cycle (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43-0.73), significantly higher odds of spontaneous miscarriage (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.33-5.30) and significantly higher odds of ectopic pregnancy (OR 15.69, 95% CI 2.87-85.76). A systematic literature review revealed that fertilization rates were not significantly different between smoking and non-smoking groups in most studies.
This meta-analysis provides compelling evidence for a significant negative effect of cigarette smoking upon clinical outcomes of ART and should be presented to infertility patients who smoke cigarettes in order to optimize success rates.
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According to the World Health Organization, infertility is defined as the inability to conceive following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Cigarette smoking, alcohol and drugs are the main stimulants exerting a negative effect on the male and female reproductive organs.
The objective of the study was analysis of the effect of cigarette smoking by the women examined and their partners on the quality of embryos obtained in in vitro fertilization programmes.
Material and methods:
The study covered 54 women treated due to infertility. The database and statistical analyses were performed by means of computer software STATISTICA 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland).
The study showed that among 100% of the women examined, 24.07% smoked cigarettes. No statistically significant difference was observed between cigarette smoking by the women in the study (p=0.42), and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (p=0.52) and the total duration of smoking expressed in years (p=0.56). In addition, the study showed that 33.33% of respondents were exposed to passive nicotinism, while 66.67% were not exposed to passive smoking. In the group of women exposed to passive smoking, Class A embryos constituted 11.11%, Class B embryos - 83.38%, whereas Class C embryos - only 5.56%. A statistically significant relationship was noted between classes of embryos and exposure to passive nicotinism (p=0.03). Passive smoking results in the development of embryos of poorer quality. A significantly higher number of Class 2 embryos were produced from oocytes of women exposed to the effect of cigarette smoke, compared to Class 1. Among women at reproductive age, an active campaign should be carried out against nicotinism on behalf of their fertility and future maternity.
Available from: Soheila Yadollah-Damavandi
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of exposing to the cigarette smoke in childhood and adolescence with infertility and abortion in women. This case-control study evaluated 178 women who had been attended to at the Amir-al-Momenin Hospital in Tehran in 2012-2013. Seventy-eight women with chief complaint of abortion, infertility, and missed abortion and 100 healthy women were considered as case and control groups, respectively. The tool was a questionnaire with two parts. In the first part demographic information was gathered and in the second part the information regarding the history of passive smoking in childhood and adolescence period, abortion, and infertility was gathered. The mean age in case and control groups was 26.24 ± 3.1 and 27.3 ± 4.2 years, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.74 ± 1.38 Kg/m(2). Abortion rates among passive smoker and nonpassive smoker patients were statistically significant (P = 0.036). Based on findings of this study, the experience of being a passive smoker in childhood and adolescence in women will increase the risk of abortion and infertility in the future, which could be the reason to encourage the society to step back from smoking cigarettes.
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