Article

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Intake on Severe Constipation in Pregnant Women

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Abstract

Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are mainly composed of two or three xylose units with beta-1,4 linkages. They are obtained by hemicellulose hydrolysis, which is relatively abundant in the cell walls of grains. XOS increases the number of intestinal Bifidobacterium in humans, and maintains the fecal water content within the normal range. To examine the effect of XOS intake on severe constipation in pregnancy, which is predominant in the third trimester, thirty constipated pregnant women were treated with 4.2 g XOS daily for 4 wk. During the study, the clinical efficacy was assessed using a daily diary. The subjects indicated the number of stools and the clinical symptom scores. Twenty-nine subjects completed the study. The mean number of stools was 1.1 +/- 0.4 in the pre-treatment week, and increased in weeks 1-4 of XOS administration to 5.3 +/- 2.1, 5.9 +/- 2.5, 6.2 +/- 2.2 and 6.7 +/- 1.9, respectively. At the end of the study, 27 subjects could defecate spontaneously. The occurrence of very loose or very hard stools decreased and the stool consistency normalized. The stool color changed from dark to yellowish brown. No side effects were observed. XOS intake was highly effective for the reduction of severe constipation in pregnant women without adverse effects.

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... Xilooligossacarídeos e suas propriedades tecnológicas A utilização de XOS como ingredientes para alimentos funcionais é fundamentada nos seus benefícios para a saúde, incluindo sua estabilidade em longa faixa de pH e temperatura, metabolismo seletivo para as Bifidobactérias, aumento da produção de ácidos graxos voláteis e redução de lesões de úlcera de estômago (PARAJÓ et al., 2004). Para aplicação em ingredientes de alimentos, a xilobiose (grau de polimerização=2) é também considerada como um XO$, sendo que, até mesmo para outros conceitos de " oligo " , é associada a compostos de alto grau de polimerização (TATEYAMA et al., 2005). O grau de doçura da xilobiose é equivalente a 30% em relação à sacarose, sendo que a doçura dos outros XOS é moderada, não possuindo eles efeito residual. ...
... Estes compostos não foram hidrolisados pela saliva, pancreatina e pelo suco gástrico, fatores estes que sugerem a utilização dos XOS por bactérias intestinais (OKAZAKI et al., 1991). Estudos realizados com mulheres sofrendo de severos problemas de constipação mostraram que a dieta com XOS reduziu sensivelmente esta constipação, sem apresentar efeitos adversos (TATEYAMA et al., 2005). A digestibilidade dos XOS no trato gastrintestinal e seus efeitos na absorção de ácidos biliares são comparados aos efeitos dos FOS e dos Isomaltooligossacarídeos (IOS). ...
... Bifidobactérias na saúde humana incluem a supressão da atividade de bactérias putrefativas; a prevenção da formação de produtos de nitrosaminas (FUJIKAWA et al., 1991; CAMPBELL et al., 1997); a repressão da proliferação de bactérias patogênicas (SUWA et al., 1999; OKAZAKI et al., 1990; WOLF et al., 1998), devido à produção de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (ácido acético e lático) (LOO et al., 1999; OKAZAKI et al., 1990; WOLF et al., 1994) e a promoção da digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Isso resulta na habilidade de prevenir infecções gastrintestinais, reduzindo assim a diarréia (DOHNALEK et al., 1998), com aumento do bolo fecal e esvaziamento intestinal periódico nas evacuações (ZIEMER & GIBSON, 1998; TATEYAMA et al., 2005). Baseado nos efeitos positivos dos xilooligossacarídeos para a saúde humana, pode-se afirmar que estes compostos são comprovadamente denominados de prebióticos. ...
Article
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Xylooligosaccharides are non-conventional sugars (sugar oligomers made of xylose units), non-calorics and non-digestible by humans. They are recognyzed as prebiotics once there are non digestible food ingredient that stimulate selectively probiotic growth like Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium bifidum, promoting several benefices to the human health as the reduction of the gut constipation, the increase of the digestion and nutrient absorption, prevention of gastrointestinal infections, and the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. This article reviews the production of xylooligosaccharides from lignocellulosic materials (by chemical or enzymatic methods) and its end products, as well as their application as food ingredients, with special attention to the beneficial effects caused on health by these types of compounds.
... XOS can facilitate the generation of SCFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid [30], as well as other organic acids such as lactic acid, succinate, formic acid, isobutyric acid, and isohexanoic acid [31], which play important roles in preventing various intestinal diseases. XOS was found to increase the moisture content of stool and improve constipation [32]. In addition, XOS have a strong ability to adsorb pathogens, thereby preventing diarrhea [33]. ...
... XOS can modulate the diversity of intestinal ora, effectively multiply favorable bacteria such as bi dobacteria, and produce bene cial metabolites including SCFAs [53]. In addition, it has been reported that XOS are bene cial to type 2 diabetes mellitus [54], diarrhea [33], and constipation [32]. However, so far, there is no study evaluating the role of XOS consumption on the intestinal ora in patients with CRC. ...
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Background: The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) worldwide is a huge challenge to human health. Primary tumor locations found to impact prognosis and response to therapy. The important role of gut microbiota in the progression and treatment of CRC has led to many attempts of alleviating chemotherapy-induced adverse effects using microecologics. However, the underlying mechanism of the difference in the prognosis of different primary tumor locations and the synergistic effect of prebiotics on chemotherapy need to be further elucidated. This study aims to explore the differences in tumor microbiota and examine the effectiveness of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) on gut microbiota, adverse effects, and bioavailability of chemotherapy drugs in CRC patients at different primary tumor locations. Methods: This is a double-blinded, randomized, parallel controlled clinical trial. Participants with left-sided CRC (LSCRC, n = 50) and right-sided CC (RSCC, n = 50) will randomly allocated to prebiotic group (n = 25) or control group (n = 25) and will receive either a daily XOS (3 g/d) or placebo, respectively, for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes will be the differences in the mucosa microbiota composition at different tumor locations, and differences in gut microbiota composition, adverse effects, and blood concentration of capecitabine posttreatment. The secondary outcomes will include other blood indicators, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration, quality of life, and mental health. Discussion: This study will reveal the potential benefits of prebiotic for improving the gut microbiota composition, alleviating the adverse effects, and improving the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with CRC. In addition, this study will provide data on the different distribution of tumor microbiota and the different changes of gut microbiota during treatment in LSCRC and RSCC, which may provide novel insights into personalized cancer treatment strategies based on primary tumor locations and gut microbiota in the future. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry(www.chictr.org.cn): ChiCTR2100046237. Registered on 12 May 2021.
... 129 Thus, the classical fibre functionality of inulin of improved bowel frequency and softer stool consistency might be useful during pregnancy. Xylo-oligosaccharides have been shown to improve bowel habit in severely constipated pregnant women, 130 but so far there are no studies with inulin. Constipation in pregnancy is probably caused by rising progesterone levels (resulting in diminished smooth muscle contractility and inhibited gastrointestinal transit, are often implicated. ...
... Constipation in pregnancy is probably caused by rising progesterone levels (resulting in diminished smooth muscle contractility and inhibited gastrointestinal transit, are often implicated. 128,130 There is some evidence that low fluid and fibre intake may also be contributing factors. 128 First-line therapies include increased dietary fibre consumption and/or fibre supplementation, which strongly suggest a role for inulin or oligofructose in pregnancy. ...
Article
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises beta-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role. There is an ever increasing association between nutrition and gut microbiota composition and development, with life health status of an individual. This review summarizes the latest knowledge in the infant gut microbiota from preterms to healthy newborns, as well as in malnourished children in developing countries. The impact of inulin or mixtures thereof on infants, toddlers and young children with respect to intestinal function and immunity in general, is reviewed. Possible benefits of prebiotics to support the gut microbiome of malnourished infants and children, especially those with infections in the developing world, are considered, as well as for the pregnant mothers health. Importantly, novel insights in metabolic programming are covered, which are being increasing recognized for remarkable impact on long term offspring health, and eventual potential beneficial role of prebiotic inulins. Overall increasing findings prompt the potential for gut microbiota-based therapy to support health or prevent the development of certain diseases from conception to adulthood where inulin prebiotics may play a role.
... XOS intake at 2.8 g per day reduced fecal pH after 14 days and both groups experienced an increase in bifidobacteria after 28 days at 1.4 g per day and 14 days at 2.8 g per day. Cholesterol, glucose and serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly reduced in subjects taking 2.8 g per day 21 . ...
Article
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Prebiotics are non-viable food ingredients selectively metabolized by beneficial intestinal bacteria. Prebiotics are ingredients that are selectively fermented and they allow specific changes in composition as well as activity in gastrointestinal microflora that can benefit host well-being and health. Prebiotic xylooligosaccharide seems to show positive effects on different health conditions like constipation, type 2 diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, has anticancer properties, decrease visceral fat depots as well as increase healthy gut microbiota as they are selectively fermented ingredients that benefits the host organism by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or more but limited number of probiotic bacteria in colon. XOS is well accepted orally in different foods as it possesses zero or very mild aftertaste, no extra side effects and can be used as a substitute of sugar.
... without being degraded by recognized harmful strains (Kondepudi et al., 2012). In human studies, GOS and XOS consumption led to an increase in gut Bifidobacterium populations and in the fecal concentrations of SCFAs (Tateyama et al., 2005;Sawicki et al., 2017). The beneficial effects of these two prebiotics have also been delineated in broiler chickens; for example, the use of GOS in combination with the enzyme b-galactosidase has been demonstrated to result in an increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus populations (Jung et al., 2008). ...
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Studies have shown that prebiotics can affect meat quality; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate whether prebiotics affect the flavor of chicken meat via the gut microbiome and metabolome. The gut content was collected from chickens fed with or without prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharides or xylo-oligosaccharides) and subjected to microbiome and metabolome analyses, whereas transcriptome sequencing was performed using chicken breast. Prebiotic supplementation yielded a slight improvement that was not statistically significant in the growth and production performance of chickens. Moreover, treatment with prebiotics promoted fat synthesis and starch hydrolysis, thus increasing meat flavor by enhancing lipase and α-amylase activity in the blood of broiler chickens. The prebiotics altered the proportions of microbiota in the gut at different levels, especially microbiota in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, such as members of the Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Faecalibacterium genera. Furthermore, the prebiotics altered the content of cecal metabolites related to flavor substances, including eight types of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and four types of amino acid. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by prebiotics were significantly involved in fatty acid accumulation processes, such as lipolysis in adipocytes and the adipocytokine signaling pathway. Changes in gut microbiota were correlated with metabolites, e.g., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were positively and negatively correlated with lysoPC, respectively. Finally, DEGs interacted with cecal metabolites, especially meat-flavor-related amino acids and their derivatives. The findings of this study integrated and incorporated associations among the gut microbiota, metabolites, and transcriptome, which suggests that prebiotics affect the flavor of chicken meat.
... Constipation during late pregnancy has a series of negative consequences on both the mother and offspring [1,7,26]. Dietary fiber is regarded as an effective nutrient in the maternal diet as it not only promotes fecal moisture in late gestating sows but also alleviates pathological constipation in the rat model [17,27]. ...
Article
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Constipation is a common problem in sows and women during late pregnancy. Dietary fiber has potential in the regulation of intestinal microbiota, thereby promoting intestinal motility and reducing constipation. However, the effects of fibers with different physicochemical properties on intestinal microbe and constipation during late pregnancy have not been fully explored. In this study, a total of 80 sows were randomly allocated to control and one of three dietary fiber treatments from day 85 of gestation to delivery: LIG (lignocellulose), PRS (resistant starch), and KON (konjaku flour). Results showed that the defecation frequency and fecal consistency scores were highest in PRS. PRS and KON significantly increased the level of gut motility regulatory factors, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), motilin (MTL), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in serum. Moreover, PRS and KON promoted the IL-10 level and reduced the TNF-α level in serum. Furthermore, maternal PRS and KON supplementation significantly reduced the number of stillborn piglets. Microbial sequencing analysis showed that PRS and KON increased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing genera Bacteroides and Parabacteroides and decreased the abundance of endotoxin-producing bacteria Desulfovibrio and Oscillibacter in feces. Moreover, the relative abundance of Turicibacter and the fecal butyrate concentration in PRS were the highest. Correlation analysis further revealed that the defecation frequency and serum 5-HT were positively correlated with Turicibacter and butyrate. In conclusion, PRS is the best fiber source for promoting gut motility, which was associated with increased levels of 5-HT under specific bacteria Turicibacter and butyrate stimulation, thereby relieving constipation. Our findings provide a reference for dietary fiber selection to improve intestinal motility in late pregnant mothers.
... The supplement of prebiotics and probiotics has been reported to be a practical method to influence intestinal function [9,17], for instance tagatose, inulin, Bifidobacterium, and lactobacillus [18][19][20]. The administrated ROS collected in the terminal ileum was 97%, the feature of which suggested that it possesses a potential prebiotic effect [13][14][15]. ...
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Raffino-oligosaccharide (ROS), the smallest oligosaccharide of the raffinose family, is a novel food ingredient. However, the anti-constipation effects of ROS remain obscure. This study investigates the anti-constipation effects of ROS based on the loperamide-induced mice model and reveals the underlying mechanism using constipation parameters, neurotransmitter level, 16S rRNA sequencing, and the targeted screening strategy. The prevention effects were firstly investigated by the gastro-intestinal transit rate experiment (50 mice) and defecation status experiment (50 mice), which were divided into five groups (n = 10/group): blank, model, and low-, medium- and high-dose ROS. Furthermore, the slow-transit constipation experiment (blank, model, and high-dose ROS, n = 10/group) was conducted to illustrate the underlying mechanism. The results showed that ROS aided in preventing the occurrence of constipation by improving the gastro-intestinal transit rate and the defecation frequency in mice, and ROS significantly reduced the serum levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). In addition, ROS regulated the diversity and structure of intestinal flora. Among them, one specific family and six specific genera were significantly regulated in constipated mice. The targeted screening revealed that 29 targets related to the anti-constipation effects of ROS, indicating ROS may play a role by regulating multiple targets. Furthermore, the network pharmacology analysis showed that Akt1, Stat3, Mapk8, Hsp90aa1, Cat, Alb, Icam1, Sod2, and Gsk3b can be regarded as the core anti-constipation targets. In conclusion, ROS could effectively relieve constipation, possibly by inhibiting the level of neurotransmitters and regulating the gut flora in mice. This study also provides a novel network pharmacology-based targeted screening strategy to reveal the anti-constipation effects of ROS.
... Pharmaceutical application Anti-allergic activity by producing inhibitory compounds against IgE antibody. Also has some anti-oxidant activity Synthesis of xylooligosaccharides of daidzein and their anti-oxidant and anti-allergic activities (Shimoda et al. 2011) It was observed in vitro that XOs has some cytotoxicity towards leukemia cells obtained from acute lymphoblastic leukemia Hot-compressed-water decomposed products from bamboo manifest a selective cytotoxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (Ando et al. 2004) XO consumption has been found to significantly reduce severe constipation in pregnant women with no side effects Effect of xylooligosaccharide intake on severe constipation in pregnant women (Tateyama et al. 2005) XOs as sole carbon source remarkably promote the growth of probiotics. It can be employed in food related applications as it has excellent anti-oxidant activity Xylooligosaccharides production by crude microbial enzymes from agricultural waste without prior treatment and their potential application as nutraceuticals (Jagtap et al. 2017) Oral administration of Rice husk supplemented with XOs has beneficial, antidiabetic potential and significantly regulates blood glucose, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia by maintaining gut microbiota Antihyperglycemic effect of rice husk derived xylooligosaccharides in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model (Khat-udomkiri et al. 2020) Novel application Esters and ethers have been manufactured from XOs (with high molar mass) utilized in biodegradable plastics as thermoplastic compounds. ...
Article
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The capacity of different Bacillus species to produce large amounts of extracellular enzymes and ability to ferment various substrates at a wide range of pH and temperature has placed them among the most promising hosts for the industrial production of many improved and novel products. The global interest in prebiotics, for example, xylooli-gosaccharides (XOs) is ever increasing, rousing the quest for various forms with expanded productivity. This article provides an overview of xylanase producing bacilli, with more emphasis on their capacity to be used in the production of the XOs, followed by the purification strategies, characteristics and application of XOs from bacilli. The large-scale production of XOs is carried out from a number of xylan-rich lignocellulosic materials by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis followed by purification through chromatography, vacuum evaporation, solvent extraction or membrane separation methods. Utilization of XOs in the production of functional products as food ingredients brings well-being to individuals by improving defense system and eliminating pathogens. In addition to the effects related to health, a variety of other biological impacts have also been discussed.
... Function of regulating the spleen-stomach of both P. cocosand T. fuciformis is included in Compendium of Materia Medica which is a famous ancient book and considered the premier reference tool for Chinese herbal medicine. Modern pharmacological investigations revealed that TTC ingredients have effect of laxative, anti-inflammation, immunomodulatory and improving intestinal barrier (Radha and Laxmipriya, 2015;Sharma et al., 2019;Tateyama et al., 2005;Wu et al., 2019;Xu et al., 2019). TTC is widely treated for constipation in China and has a good feedback from patients. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Tiantian capsule (TTC), as a functional food, which consists of four herb medicines, including Aloe vera Burm.f. (25%), leaf juices, dried; Cucurbita moschata Duch. (25%), fructus, dried; Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. (12.5%), sclerotium, dried; Tremella fuciformis Berk. (12.5%), fruiting bodies, dried, and one extract xylooligosaccharides (25%) from Maize Cob by enzymolysis, has been commonly used in China to ameliorate constipation. Aim of the study: The aim of the work is to elucidate the potential laxative mechanisms of TTC in loperamide-induced constipated rats. Materials and methods: LC-MS/MS was employed for analyzing the TTC extract. The gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by X-ray. The H&E and Alcian-Blue stain were applied to determine the changes of goblet cells and mucus layer, respectively. Meanwhile, levels of neurotransmitters were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expressions were also measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results: Our results showed that TTC administration attenuated constipation responses in aspects of fecal pellets number, water content of feces, stomach emptying and gastrointestinal transit. Further investigations revealed that TTC treatment not only induced the recovery of neurotransmitters, such as motilin, substance P, somatostatin, endothelin and vasoactive intestinal peptide, but also up-regulated the expressions of c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF). Additionally, the number of goblet cells and thickness of the mucus layer were elevated, and the guanylate cyclase C-cGMP signal pathway was also up-regulated after TTC treatment. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that the laxative effect of TTC in constipation rats is probably due to the regulation of bowel movement and intestinal fluid secretion.
... XOS is considered to be novel prebiotics, which has been suggested to improve gut health and stimulate the animals' immune response [34,35]. XOS consumption has been found to result in increased Bifidobacterium populations in human and animal studies [24,36,37]. Studies with XOS also indicate the potential to improve the management of glucose metabolism [25,26]. ...
Article
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Gut dysbiosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD) may result in low-grade inflammation leading to diverse inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics and prebiotics on obesity have been reported previously. However, their benefits in promoting human health and the underlying mechanisms still need to be further characterized. This study is aimed at understanding how probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng® (BL) and prebiotic xylooligosaccharides (XOS) influence the health of a rat model with HF (60 kcal %) diet-induced obesity. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed a normal fat diet (CON) or an HFD with or without BL and XOS supplementation for 3 weeks. Lipid profiles, inflammatory biomarkers, and microbiota composition were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Rats fed an HFD exhibited increased body weight and disordered lipid metabolism. In contrast, combined BL and XOS supplementation inhibited body weight gain and returned lipid metabolism to normal. Furthermore, BL and XOS administration changed the gut microbiota composition and modulated specific bacteria such as Prevotellaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. In addition, supplements of combined BL and XOS obviously reduced the serum LPS level, which was significantly related to microbial variations. Our findings suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota as a result of probiotic BL and prebiotic XOS supplementation has a positive effect on HFD-induced obesity in rats.
... A statistically significant increase in Bifidobacteria was observed in most trials with XOS [34][35][36][37][38][39]. Improvements in laxation were noted by Childs et al. [34], Chung et al. [35], Iino et al. [40], and Tateyama et al. [41]; the latter was a study in constipated pregnant women. Studies by Childs et al. [34], Na and Kim [39], and Sheu et al. [42] observed improvements in triglyceride and cholesterol levels, at doses as low as 2.8 g/d, whereas Yang et al. [43] did not observe changes in triglycerides when dosing XOS at 2 g/d (2.8 g/d of a 70% purity product). ...
... XOS are sugar oligomers made up of xylose units, which are linked through beta-(1-4) linkages (Vazquez, 2000). In human studies, XOS consumption has been found to result in increased fecal Bifidobacterium populations, increased fecal concentrations of SCFAs, and reduced constipation in pregnant women [23,24]. Moreover, XOS supplementation was found to have effects on markers of immune function in healthy adults [25]. ...
Article
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Recently, the concept of prebiotics has been revisited to expand beyond non-digestible oligosaccharides, and the requirements for selective stimulation were extended to include microbial groups other than, and additional to, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here, the gut microbiota-modulating effects of well-known and novel prebiotics were studied. An in vitro fermentation screening platform (i-screen) was inoculated with adult fecal microbiota, exposed to different dietary fibers that had a range of concentrations (inulin, alpha-linked galacto-oligosaccharides (alpha-GOS), beta-linked GOS, xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) from corn cobs and high-fiber sugar cane, and beta-glucan from oats), and compared to a positive fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) control and a negative control (no fiber addition). All dietary fibers displayed prebiotic activity, with beta-glucan showing more distinct effects on the microbial composition and metabolism compared to the other fibers. Beta-glucan induced the growth of Prevotella and Roseburia with a concomitant increase in propionate production. Inulin and both forms of GOS and XOS had a strong bifidogenic effect on the microbial composition. A dose-response effect was observed for butyrate when exposed to beta-glucan and inulin. The findings of this study support the potential for alpha-GOS, XOS, and oat beta-glucan to serve as novel prebiotics, due to their association with the positive shifts in microbiome composition and short-chain fatty acid production that point to potential health benefits.
... The prebiotic effects of XOS have previously been summarized by Broekaert et al. [20]. While there is less evidence supporting the prebiotic effects of XOS compared to other types of prebiotics, studies have shown that XOS supplementation in humans can increase SCFA and bifidobacteria, as well as improve stool consistency and frequency [21][22][23]. This paper compares the fermentation effects of XOS to previously established prebiotics (inulin and beta-glucans) in a controlled in vitro model. ...
Article
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Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs. Fecal donations were collected from three healthy volunteers. Materials analyzed included: pure beta-glucan, Oatwell (commercially available oat-bran containing 22% oat β-glucan), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), WholeFiber (dried chicory root containing inulin, pectin, and hemi/celluloses), and pure inulin. Oatwell had the highest production of propionate at 12 h (4.76 μmol/mL) compared to inulin, WholeFiber and XOS samples (p < 0.03). Oatwell’s effect was similar to those of the pure beta-glucan samples, both samples promoted the highest mean propionate production at 24 h. XOS resulted in a significant increase in the genus Bifidobacterium after 24 h of fermentation (0 h:0.67 OTUs (operational taxonomic unit); 24 h:5.22 OTUs; p = 0.038). Inulin and WholeFiber increased the beneficial genus Collinsella, consistent with findings in clinical studies. All analyzed compounds were fermentable and promoted the formation of beneficial SCFAs.
... Depending on the type, XOS are water soluble and less sweet, typically 0.3-0.6 times of that of sucrose, and they have low daily intake (0.7-1.4 g/ day), low water activity; inhibit microbial growth, are acid and heat stable, which makes them suitable for low-calorie food preparations (Vazquez et al., 2000). XOS intake has been found highly effective for the reduction of severe constipation in pregnant women without adverse effects (Tateyama et al., 2005). With the increasing health consciousness among consumers and the rapid progress of physiologically active functional foods, the future profile of products containing oligosaccharides with biological activities seems to be greatly promising (Nakakuki, 2005). ...
Article
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The growing commercial importance of xylooligosaccharides is based on their beneficial health properties, particularly their ability to stimulate the growth and activity of intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Xylooligosaccharides are less sweet, acid, and heat stable, with low recommended levels of intake compared to other oligosaccharides. In view of the consumer demand for foods with low sugar, low fat, and high fiber contents, they are suitable for incorporation into bakery products. In this study, we have developed wheat-based cookies incorporated with xylooligosaccharides at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of the cookies changed with xylooligosaccharides incorporation; both crude fiber and dietary fiber contents increased by 14% and 35%, respectively, in the enriched cookies. The moisture levels increased with increase in the percentage of xylooligosaccharides incorporated. Cookies with 5% xylooligosaccharides were found most acceptable, although the color was slightly darker compared to the control, while cookies with 10% and 15% xylooligosaccharides were softer and darker and therefore less acceptable. Enrichment with xylooligosaccharides at 5% provided a product stable for 21 days at room temperature (25 AE 2 C). The storage stability of cookies with higher levels of xylooligosaccharides was less than the 5% xylooligosaccharides cookies and control. The retention of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in the products was relatively high (74%).
... По сравнению с вышеописанныìи пребиотикаìи, ÊОÑ ìенее изу÷ены. В настоящее вреìя существуют сведения об эффективности ÊОÑ при желудо÷но-кише÷ных патологиях [46,53]. Они эффективны при поддержании уровня железа в пе÷ени [32], предотвращают адгезию патогенных ìикроорганизìов (in vitro) [17], способны стиìулировать иììунную систеìу путеì синтеза интерферона и образования ìакрофагов и Ò-лиìфоöитов [70]. ...
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Recently much attention is paid to the biologically active additives – «prebiotics», which selectively stimulate the growth and metabolic activity of probiotic microorganisms beneficially effecting on the whole macroorganism. This review highlights the current state of the question of the carbohydrate prebiotics and their effects on the macroorganism. The work reflects only those types of prebiotic products that have received an official recognition on the base of preclinical and clinical studies. It is shown that nowadays «prebiotic» trend in medicine, veterinary medicine and the food industry is developing intensively. In the modern strategy of intestinal dysbiosis correction prebiotics play a leading role. At the same time, there are many unresolved questions concerning the scientific study of prebiotics’ elaboration, which limit the possibility of their intensive production and use.
... Third, in this study, due to iron supplementation in pregnant women and its impact on stool color, we could not see better changes in these criteria. By activation of bifidobacteria growth in the intestinal tract, the amount of short chain fatty acids increases, stool PH decreases and stool color changes to yellow (21). Fourth, since the performance of women declines during pregnancy both physically and emotionally, the lack of improvement in the quality of life cannot be definitely attributed to the lack of probiotics effect. ...
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Background: Probiotics can alter the colonic microbiota and might improve bowel function. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of yogurt, enriched with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 4.8 × 10(10) (CFU) on the symptoms of constipated pregnant women. Materials and methods: This triple-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 constipated pregnant women who were diagnosed by the ROME III criteria in Tabriz, Iran from December 2014 to July 2015. Participants were randomly put into two groups including the treatment and the control group through block randomization. The treatment group received 300 g of yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 4.8 × 10(10) colony forming units (CFU) (n = 30) while the control group received conventional yogurt (n = 30) for 4 weeks. The defecation frequency, stool consistency, straining during defecation, sensation of anorectal obstruction, sensation of incomplete evacuation and manual manoeuvres to facilitate defecation were primary outcomes while the amount of defecation, stool colure, and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Results: The frequency of defecation was increased from 2.1 (0.8) at baseline to 8.3 (4.4) in the probiotic yogurt group vs. 2.3 (0.7) at baseline to 8.1 (4.3) in the conventional yogurt group at the end of 4th week. These results were based on the repeated measure ANOVA test and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (mean difference: 0.1; Confidence Interval 95%: -1.4 to 1.7; P = 0.872). Constipation symptoms including straining, anorectal obstruction, manipulation to facilitate defecation, consistency of stool and color of stool were improved significantly (P < 0.05) in both groups. In addition, the amount of defecation was significantly increased in both groups (P < 0.05), while incomplete evacuation was significantly reduced in the treatment group (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the mean scores of physical (P = 0.726) and mental (P = 0.678) aspects of quality of life after the intervention with the adjusting of baseline scores. Conclusions: Consumption of 300 g/day probiotic and conventional yogurt can play a role in improving the symptoms of constipation during pregnancy.
... A specific mixture of GOS and long-chain FOS enhanced stool frequency, led to softer stools [73], and accelerated gastrointestinal transport in infants, too [74]. In addition, XOS intake increased the population of intestinal Bifidobacterium in humans, maintained normal fecal water content, and reduced constipation [75]. Therefore, iS could be considered as useful and safe tool for ameliorating constipation. ...
Article
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Indigestible sugars (iS) have received particular interest in food and nutrition research due to their prebiotic properties and other health benefits in humans and animals. The main aim of this review article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding digestive and health-enhancing properties of iS such as sugar alcohols, oligosacharides, and polysaccharides, in rodents and rabbits. Besides ameliorating gut health, iS ingestion also elicits laxative effects and stimulate intestinal permeability and fluid secretions, thereby shortening digesta transit time and increasing stool mass and quality. In rodents and rabbits, as hindgut fermenters, consumption of iS leads to an improved nutrient digestibility, too. Cecal fermentation of iS reduces luminal pH and extends wall tissue facilitating absorption of key dietary minerals across hindgut. The microbial fermentation of iS also enhances excessive blood nitrogen (N) flowing into the cecum to be used as N source for bacterial growth, enhancing N retention in cecotrophic animals. This review also highlights the impact of iS on improving lipid metabolism, mainly by lowering cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the blood. The paper serves as an index of the current knowledge of iS effects in rodents and rabbits and also identifies gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed by future research.
... In two out of six published clinical trials with the prebiotic compounds oligofructose, inulin, galacto-oligosaccharides and trans-galacto-oligosaccharides, a significant increase in faecal output was observed (for a review, see Macfarlane et al. (19) ). Xylo-oligosaccharides, a prebiotic compound with structural similarity to AXOS, has been proven to alleviate constipation in Japanese pregnant women (20) . Till now, the effect of WBE on faecal output has been investigated in only one study in which healthy volunteers ingested 14 g/d WBE for 3 weeks (8) . ...
Article
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Wheat bran extract (WBE) is a food-grade soluble fibre preparation that is highly enriched in arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides. In this placebo-controlled cross-over human intervention trial, tolerance to WBE as well as the effects of WBE on faecal parameters, including faecal output and bowel habits, were studied. After a 2-week run-in period, twenty healthy volunteers consumed WBE (15 g/d in the first week, 30 g/d in the second week), oligofructose (15 g/d in the first week, 30 g/d in the second week) and placebo (for 2 weeks) in a random order, with 2-week washout periods between each treatment period. Subjects collected a 72 h stool sample for analysis of faecal output, stool pH and stool moisture concentration. Additionally, the volunteers completed questionnaires scoring occurrence frequency and distress severity of eighteen gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. An overall GI symptom measure was calculated to analyse the overall effect of WBE and oligofructose on GI symptoms. Intake of both 30 g/d WBE and 30 g/d oligofructose lowered stool pH, indicative of increased colonic fermentation, and increased stool moisture concentration as compared with placebo intake. Intake of 30 g/d oligofructose increased the overall GI symptom measure by 1·9-fold as compared with placebo intake. Intake of WBE at doses up to 30 g/d did not affect the overall GI symptom measure. WBE exerts beneficial effects on stool characteristics and is well tolerated at up to 30 g/d. Oligofructose exerts comparable beneficial effects on stool characteristics. However, intake of 30 g/d oligofructose appears to cause GI discomfort to some extent.
... Increased microbial population further contributes to faecal bulk and stool consistency and thereby stimulates passage through the colon resulting in reduced transit time. Prebiotics also reduce the colonic resorption of water, hence the stool becomes softer with increased frequency, thereby alleviating constipation, root cause of many disorders (Flint et al., 2007;Sharma et al., 2012;Tateyama et al., 2005). In this connection, a study was conducted on constipated adults that showed significant laxative effect of inulin type fructans (20 g/day) as compared to the control (Brandt, 2001). ...
... XOS intake was associated with reduction in feces hardness in healthy young women (Na & Kim, 2007, Iino et al., 1997, increased fecal water content in elderly with no effect on stool consistency and frequency (Chung, Hsu, Ko, & Chan, 2007). Moreover, 4.2 g/day XOS was found to be safe and effective in normalizing the bowel movements in pregnant women thus, providing an alternative intervention for treatment of severe constipation during the third trimester of pregnancy (Kiso et al., 2005). ...
Article
Xylan is available abundantly in nature as a major constituent of hemicellulose, a component of lignocellulosic biomass. Agricultural wastes such as straw, stalk, cob, hull, husk, bagasse and pulp of hardwood represent a major source of xylan. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS), the hydrolysis product of xylan is substrate for colonic commensal bacterial population, acting as potential prebiotic. Its fermentation produces short chain fatty acids, improves gut epithelial health and regulates metabolic process. These oligosaccharides possess bound phenolics including ferulic acid, coumaric acid, thus imparting additional antioxidant effect and immunomodulatory activity. This paper deals with xylan based oligosaccharides with an emphasis placed on the need of oligosaccharides and discusses in detail the health benefits of xylooligosaccharides.
... Further, the studies did not find any influence of XOS on the different gastrointestinal behaviour or symptoms such as appetite, rumbling, voices of gut, belching, flatulence, faecal smelling etc. In addition to above studies, consumption of XOS by pregnant woman is recorded to be highly effective against constipation without any other adverse effects (Tateyama et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The growing demands of novel food products for well-being and age related issues coupled with increasing health care expenditure has attracted global attention on prebiotics. During the end of twentieth century, a great concern was expressed for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from animal to human through food chains leading to the concept of “preventive medication”. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) is the only nutraceutical that can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. Production of XOS from agricultural residues offers great scope to the nutraceutical industries as the raw material is cheap and abundantly available. The major advantages of XOS consumption, apart from selective growth stimulation of beneficial gut microflora, include reduction of blood glucose and cholesterol, reduced pro-carcinogenic enzymes in gastrointestinal tract, enhanced mineral absorption from large intestine and immune-stimulation. The sweet taste of XOS enables it to be used as an artificial sweetener. Owing to the ban on antibiotics as a feed supplement in livestock, the XOS could be future alternatives to guard gastrointestinal tract from the onslaught of pathogenic microflora. This will sustain the productivity and improve the quality of animal products to fulfil the demands of value added livestock products. Therefore, XOS could be the future sought after molecules in preventive medicine.
... XOS intake was associated with reduction in feces hardness in healthy young women (Na & Kim, 2007, Iino et al., 1997, increased fecal water content in elderly with no effect on stool consistency and frequency (Chung, Hsu, Ko, & Chan, 2007). Moreover, 4.2 g/day XOS was found to be safe and effective in normalizing the bowel movements in pregnant women thus, providing an alternative intervention for treatment of severe constipation during the third trimester of pregnancy (Kiso et al., 2005). ...
Article
Xylan is available abundantly in nature as a major constituent of hemicellulose, a component of lignocellulosic biomass. Agricultural wastes such as straw, stalk, cob, hull, husk, bagasse and pulp of hardwood represent a major source of xylan. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS), the hydrolysis product of xylan is substrate for colonic commensal bacterial population, acting as potential prebiotic. Its fermentation produces short chain fatty acids, improves gut epithelial health and regulates metabolic process. These oligosaccharides possess bound phenolics including ferulic acid, coumaric acid, thus imparting additional antioxidant effect and immunomodulatory activity. This paper deals with xylan based oligosaccharides with an emphasis placed on the need of oligosaccharides and discusses in detail the health benefits of xylooligosaccharides.
... 51 A mixture of inulin-type fructans and galactooligosaccharides has been repeatedly shown to improve the stool frequency and consistency of bottle-fed infants similar to that of breast-fed infants. 52 Administration of isomaltooligosaccharides has been shown to increase stool frequency and wet stool output in constipated elderly men, 53 xylooligosaccharides have been shown to reduce severe constipation in pregnant woman, 54 and lactulose administration has a long clinical history of alleviating constipation. 45 ...
Article
The intestinal microbiota provides the human host with an array of health benefits. Microfloral organisms act as a functional barrier against colonization by pathogens, promote normal gastrointestinal function, contribute to energy production, and exert enteric and systemic immunomodulatory activity. Support for the health of intestinal flora can take the form of supplementation with living probiotic organisms or prebiotic substances that nourish beneficial endogenous species. Prebiotics are digestion-resistant carbohydrates that selectively stimulate the growth and activity of health-promoting microorganisms such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Major prebiotics include inulin, inulin-type fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and lactulose. Prebiotics taken alone or with probiotics, as in a synbiotic supplement, contribute to the integrity of the gut barrier, help normalize colonic motility, improve nutrient bioavailability, enhance gastrointestinal and systemic immunity, and may favorably modulate blood sugar and lipid levels. Numerous studies in both animals and humans have demonstrated the health benefits of prebiotics. Prebiotic use in nutritional supplements and functional foods is rapidly gaining wide acceptance.
... The limitations of these studies are the small number of subjects (five, nine and ten men), an uncontrolled study-design and the use of the plating method in enumeration of microbes in faeces. Some preliminary evidence exists on the ameliorating effects of XOS on constipation in women (Iino et al., 1997;Tateyama et al., 2005) although more controlled studies are needed to further assess the health benefits associated with XOS. ...
... Animal studies have demonstrated that XOS stimulate the growth of caecal and faecal bifidobacteria at higher levels compared with the prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (13 -15) . In human studies, 2 -5 g of XOS/ d have been found to result in significant increases in the population of faecal bifidobacteria and faecal concentrations of SCFA and concomitant decreases in pH, proteolytic metabolite levels and enzyme activity (16 -18) and to have an ameliorating effect on constipation in women (19,20) . Therefore, evidence for the prebiotic capacity and health benefits of XOS is promising, but further placebo-controlled studies are required, in particular, to evaluate a wide range of health parameters (21,22) . ...
Article
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Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics are dietary ingredients with the potential to influence health and mucosal and systemic immune function by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. In the present study, a candidate prebiotic (xylo-oligosaccharide, XOS, 8 g/d), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07, 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/d) or synbiotic (8 g XOS+109 CFU Bi-07/d) was given to healthy adults (25-65 years) for 21 d. The aim was to identify the effect of the supplements on bowel habits, self-reported mood, composition of the gut microbiota, blood lipid concentrations and immune function. XOS supplementation increased mean bowel movements per d (P= 0·009), but did not alter the symptoms of bloating, abdominal pain or flatulence or the incidence of any reported adverse events compared with maltodextrin supplementation. XOS supplementation significantly increased participant-reported vitality (P= 0·003) and happiness (P= 0·034). Lowest reported use of analgesics was observed during the XOS+Bi-07 supplementation period (P= 0·004). XOS supplementation significantly increased faecal bifidobacterial counts (P= 0·008) and fasting plasma HDL concentrations (P= 0·005). Bi-07 supplementation significantly increased faecal B. lactis content (P= 0·007), lowered lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-4 secretion in whole-blood cultures (P= 0·035) and salivary IgA content (P= 0·040) and increased IL-6 secretion (P= 0·009). XOS supplementation resulted in lower expression of CD16/56 on natural killer T cells (P= 0·027) and lower IL-10 secretion (P= 0·049), while XOS and Bi-07 supplementation reduced the expression of CD19 on B cells (XOS × Bi-07, P= 0·009). The present study demonstrates that XOS induce bifidogenesis, improve aspects of the plasma lipid profile and modulate the markers of immune function in healthy adults. The provision of XOS+Bi-07 as a synbiotic may confer further benefits due to the discrete effects of Bi-07 on the gut microbiota and markers of immune function.
... Xylobiose is also considered a Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with a degree of polymerization of 2 [63]. It presents 30% of the sweetness of sucrose [64]. ...
Article
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Prebiotics are substances that can promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms, mainly in the intestinal tract, and will modify the colonic microbiota. The following health benefits are attributed to prebiotics: relief from poor digestion of lactose, increased resistance to bacterial infection, better immune response and possible protection against cancer, reduction of the risk of diseases such as intestinal disease, cardiovascular disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity and osteoporosis. This article presents a discussion of prebiotics, with descriptions of the concepts and its use in clinical practice, and a review of some recent research showing the benefits that these ingredients provide to human health and providing data on the recommended intakes for consumption.
Chapter
Human health primarily depends on the diet, as diet plays a fundamental role in revamping the population of intestinal microbiota, which assists in maintaining equanimity of various biological processes in the human body and also prevents diseases. Hence consumers are in demand for food that beneficially affects intestinal microbiota and improves human health. In this vein, prebiotic foods portray the most important foods which are known to perpetuate the load of beneficial microbiota and promote human health. Prebiotics are the fermentable fiber that fastidiously nourishes healthy bacteria and conserves beneficial microbiota habitat in the human gut. The beneficial effect of prebiotics can be enhanced and maintained for a longer time if they are taken in combination with probiotics. Probiotics are live microbes that improve flora in the gut and positively improve human health. The synergistic effect of both prebiotic and probiotic is synbiotic in which a population of live microbes (probiotics) is maintained/increased by using nondigestible fermentable fiber (prebiotics) and is an asset for human health. This chapter brings forth the inexorable background and important details on the sources, characteristics, potential health benefits, and future trends of prebiotic and synbiotic foods across the globe.
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Cellobiose and xylobiose are disaccharides composed of two glucose or xylose units with β-1,4 linkages. This study aimed to isolate a Trichoderma reesei mutant that lacks β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase activities for the simultaneous production of these disaccharides. Mutagenesis using Fe-ion beam resulted in a mutant strain, T. reesei T1640; the cellulase production in this strain was as high as that in the parent strain. Genomic analysis revealed that T1640 lost both the β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase activities owing to the translocation of the responsible genes. Hydrolysis of alkali-treated bagasse using the enzymes from T1640 leads to high yields (365 mg/g-biomass) and ratios (72.7% of the total sugars) of cellobiose and xylobiose.
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Summary This study delt with the production of functional bread by using two types of wheat flour different in extaction rates. The first type had an extract ratio (72%) and had the symbol (B) and the other type had an extract ratio (100 %) and symbolished (A). They were treated by some kinds of the Probiotics latic acid bacteria to produce (Sourbread) , as well as studied the rheological , qualitalive and keeping properties of the produced bread . The study also delt with the volatile compounds by using GC-MASS Technique for all these treatments. The nutritional experiment included the feeding of animals on the sourbread to know the effects of thes treatments on the biochemical and physiological atttributes. The results of this study showed the difference of the two types of flourin the chemical composition. The flour of full extraction was higher in its moisture ratio , protein , ash , dry gluten and gluten index which were ( 95, 8 , 0.78 , 12.90 , 13.10) % respectively compared with the white flour. Farinograph result showed , an increase in values of water absorbtion , the time of maturity of dough , the duration of stability and the time of departure of the full fluor which were (68.6, 8.2, 8.4, 12.3) respectively. The results of the Amylograph appeared superiority of the treatment of white flour that treated by the lactic acid bacteria in maximum of the viscosity and tempeiature of the beginning of gelatification. The results of extensograph test illustrated for the period of fermentation (45 minutes) a decrease of both energy and resistance qualities for the treatment A3 and B1.They reached at (33 , 240) and (77 , 238) respectively as compared with the two control samples A4 and B4 which amounted to (45 , 373) and (90 , 267) respectively . In the period of fermentation (90) minutes , the lowest value for energy was in two treatment A3 and B1 . They were (33 , 63) respectively as compared with the two treatment of control A4 and B4 that reached at (83 , 92) respectvely. In the period of fermentation (135) mintues. The value of enereg decreased for the both treatment A3 and B1 which amounted to (32 , 63) respectively compared with the standerd treatment A4 and B4 which were (68 , 69) respectively.The results of keeping proprties of bread , especially in the proprties quality, showed distinction the tretment B3 that belonged to Lb.casei Bacteria by producing the best penetration during all steps of storge ( 2,24 , 48 , 72 ) hours. They reched at(45 , 40 , 39 , 36.6) respectively . In the Absorption, the coefficiemt A2 was distinguished significantly.It was belonged to Lb.acidophillus bacteria over all tretments It didn’t observe there were significant differences.In the averages of acidity values for the treated bread types by the studied bacteria species( A1 , A2,A3 ) that attained (4.5%) for each. All these were significantly superior to that control tretmentes A4 that got to (2.8)% . In the result of staling evaluation , it was abvious that the best in these tretments were the tretments A3 and B3 that related to Lb-Casei-Bacteria (4.48 , 4.57). The result of GC-MASS Test showed the superiority of sourbread type A to the type B in ratio of producing the volatile compounds .It was also observed all the treatment of sourbread by the two compounds , acetic acid and propionic acid,noting the abundance of these two acids in addition to other organic acids , followed by alcohols , most notably 2.3-Batanediol , 1,1-Ethanediol diacetate also the presence of Benzene , Toluene . Glycine as one of the amino acids abseved in twovsamples A1 , B1. Acetaldehyde was noted in both sampls A3 , B3. The nutrational expermental used 45 white male rats with average age (6-8) months and average weight (116-203) gram. The rats were divided at random into nine groups (Each group consists of four males) . The first group was acontrol Group that gave food from animal house and water only. The second group was given loaves consisted of while wheat flour fermented by lactic bacteria (L.fermen- tum). The third group were given loaves contained while wheat flour fermented by lactic bacteria (Lacidphillus). The fourth group was given loaves composed of while wheat flour fermented by lactic bacteria (L-Casie). The fifth group was given loaves contained while wheat flour only . The sixth group was given loaves of while wheat flour fermented by lactic bacteria (L-fermentum). The seventh group was given loaves of fine flour fermented by lactic bacteria (L-acid phillus). The eightnh group was given loaves of while flour fermented by lactic bacteria (L- Casie). The ninth group was given loaves made of while wheat flour only . Each ALT, AST, ALP was measured as indicators on the liver function , noting a decrease of the levels of The levels of heptic enzymes compared with the control group . The tretment A2 decreased enzyme ALP to 102.3 mg/dl compared with the control tretment that was 126.1 mg/dl where as the tretment A3 for Ast was decreased to 99.9 mg/dl compared with the control tretment that was 278.9 mg/dl . The coefficient B3 for ALT enzyme was the best of treatment , reaching 30.2 mg/dl , whereas the control sample was (76.3) mg/dl. The levels of triglyceraid were measured , cholesterol and the other fats in all groups . The tretment B1 was the best one of triglyceriad level which amounted to 154 mg/dl compared with the control sample that was 204 mg/dl . In the test of cholestrol , A1 was the best tretment amounting to 72 mg/dl compared with the control sample that was 125 mg/dl , and the coefficient B2 played an important role by raising the levels of HDL which where 58 mg/dl compared with the control sample that reached 43 mg /dl. In the test of LDL ,the tretment A2 was the best of tretment in decreasing these lipids, which were 25.5 mg /dl . the glucose was also measured in the rat blood . The coefficient A3 was given a greater decrease reaching 137 mg /dl compared with control tretment that Amounted to 188mg/dl. The urea and creatin were decreased by the action of taken Sourbread. The best treatment in the testing urea was B3 which attained 32 mg/dl compared with the control The urea and creatin were decreased by the action which amounted to 69 mg/dl . In the testing Creatin , the positive action of the Sourbread appeared in decreasing the levels of these indicators . A after the measuring, there were no obvious significant Changes in the eight groups that were given diet food fermented by types of lactic bacteria comparedwith the control group. It was also tested the tissues of liver and kidny for all groups . Any Infections or did not observed in the eight groups which were given sourbread fermented by types of the lactic bacteria compared with the control group.
Article
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are mainly derived from lignocellulosic materials, such as rice husk, corn cobs, straw, wheat bran, wheat straw and other grain by-products. XOS have become one of the functional oligosaccharides of great concern at home and abroad due to their beneficial functional properties, such as low calorie, high stability, poor digestibility and high performance in proliferating probiotics. At present, the XOS extraction methods from grain byproducts mainly include autohydrolysis, acidolysis and enzymolysis. Among them, autohydrolysis method has high requirements for equipment for achieving higher extraction rate and higher purity of products; and acidolysis can cause environmental pollution due to the usage of harmful reagents. Enzymolysis is the most common method for the production of XOS because of its high convenience, high efficiency and no pollution; and the widely used enzyme is the xylanase from Aspergillus niger. Current research showed that XOS can be utilized by probiotics such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus to exert prebiotic effects, such as optimizing intestinal flora, promoting intestinal health, improving intestinal barrier, enhancing immune function, improving antioxidant capacity and so on. However, XOS extracted from the grain by-products contain a large amount of impurities, which limits its industrial application and makes it difficult to control the product quality. Therefore, XOS refining, separation and purification has become the key to its subsequent industrial application. This paper reviewed the current status of XOS extraction technologies from various grain by-products, and also summarized the prebiotic effect of XOS to provide reference for industrial production of XOS and its wide application in prebiotics market, thereby facilitating utilization and development of grain byproducts.
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Backgroud Studies have shown that prebiotics could affect meat quality, but the underlying mechanism are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate whether prebiotics affect chicken’s meat quality through gut microbiome and metabolome. Methods The gut content were collected from chickens fed with or without prebiotics (galactooligosaccharides or xylo-oligosaccharides) and subjected to microbiome and metabolome analyses, and chicken breast was performed transcriptome sequencing. Results The prebiotics altered proportions of microbiota in gut contents at different levels, especially microbiota in the phylum of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, such as genus of Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Faecalibacterium. The prebiotics also altered contents of caecal metabolites such as lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), intramuscular fat and flavor compound (Benzaldehyde and myristic acid). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by prebiotics were significantly involved in regulation of lipolysis inadipocytes and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Changes in gut microbiota and metabolites were remarkably correlated such as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was respectively positively and negatively correlated with lysoPC. DEGs were also interacted with caecal metabolites. Conclusion These findings integrated and incorporated link among gut microbiota, metabolites and transcriptome, which proposed prebiotics may affect meat quality and flavor of chickens.
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The use of agro-industrial residue in new processes has encouraged the development of biotechnological strategies to obtain biomolecules. Lignocellulosic materials are rich in xylan and can be used as an alternative and inexpensive source for xylooligosaccharide (XOS) production, contributing to the sustainable generation of products with high added-value. This article provides an overview of recent methodological strategies for XOS production, their health benefits as prebiotics, purification, and technological properties for industrial application. Classified as non-digestible, XOS are prebiotics and can be used as functional foods, promoting health benefits. The main advantages of XOS include the selective stimulation of beneficial microorganisms, the suppression of pathogenic bacteria and reduction of toxic compounds from the metabolism. XOS are produced from a wide diversity of lignocellulosic materials by chemical, physical and enzymatic methods, or by a combination of them. Physicochemical methods can generate undesirable by-products, and/or a large amount of monosaccharides, and result in a more difficult purification, while enzymatic hydrolysis allows milder process conditions because the reactions are specific and less pollutant residues are generated. Technological and nutritional approaches for XOS production which allow their use in different food and pharmaceutical products, and which stimulate the dissemination of researches in other technological areas, have also been discussed.
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Dietary fiber is a group of heterogeneous substances that are neither digested nor absorbed in the small intestine. Some fiber can be classified as prebiotics if they are metabolized by beneficial bacteria present in the hindgut microbiota. This review aimed to specify the prebiotic properties of different subgroups of dietary fibers (resistant oligosaccharides, non-starch polysaccharides, resistant starches, and associated substances) to classify them by prebiotic categories. Currently, only resistant oligosaccharides – fructans (fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose and inulin) and galactans – are well documented as prebiotics in literature. Other fibers are considered candidates to prebiotics or with prebiotic potential, and apparently some have no prebiotic effect on humans. The classification of dietary fibers by prebiotic categories proposed in this study contribute to clarify these concepts in literature and to stimulate the processing and consumption of foods rich in fiber and other products with prebiotic properties, as well as to develop protocols and guidelines on food sources of prebiotics.
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Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are booming in food, pharmacy and feed industries that they have attracted great interest in the high-value utilization of lignocellulose. Selective acidolysis dominates the commercial production of XOS except for intractable color contaminations derivate from ligoncellulosic degradation. Based on a detailed kinetics and thermodynamics investigation, Amberlite XAD-16N was designated as preferred decolorant because of its high adsorption-selectivity for XOS and the colored contaminants. The adsorption of the main compositions in lignocellulosic acidolysis solution was well described by Langmuir models, the kinetics were clearly fitted by Pseudo-second-order model, showing that the adsorption was controlled by electron sharing/transfer between the resin cross-linking groups and colorant. The adsorption mechanism was also verified by the adsorption-simulation of three detected typical colorants. The thermodynamics clearly indicated a spontaneous endothermic reaction. This study provides an important approach for industrial technology development to not only xylooligosaccharides production and lignocellulosic acidolysis, but also Amberlite XAD-16N adsorbent.
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Chronic functional constipation is a kind of common intestinal disease that occurs in children, adults and elderly people. This disease not only causes great influence to physiological function, but also results in varying degrees of psychological barriers. At present, constipation treatments continue to rely on traditional methods such as purgative therapy and surgery. However, these approaches can disrupt intestinal function. Recent research between intestinal diseases and gut microbiota has gradually revealed a connection between constipation and intestinal flora disturbance, providing a theoretical basis for microbial treatment in chronic constipation. Microbial treatment mainly includes probiotic preparations such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Due to its safety, convenience and curative effect, probiotic preparations have been widely accepted, especially gradually developed FMT with higher curative effects. Microbial treatment improves clinical symptoms, promotes the recovery of intestinal flora, and has no complications during the treatment process. Compared with traditional treatments, microbial treatment in chronic constipation has advantages, and is worthy of further promotion from clinical research to clinical application.
Chapter
Most studies on prebiotics and mineral absorption have focused on calcium as it is crucial for bone health, especially in children and women. Many human trials have been carried out, and these have confirmed that prebiotics stimulate mineral absorption. Prebiotics were originally defined by some researchers as 'a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health'. Since prebiotics can benefit human gut health in many aspects, their effects on colorectal cancer have also been investigated. Inulin-type fructans are the best studied prebiotics, and many human studies have been carried out to investigate various health benefits, such as increased mineral absorption, effect on energy regulation, effect on lipid metabolism, improvement of immunity, potential to prevent colorectal cancer and gut function improvement.
Article
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Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of xylobiose-sugar mixture intake on defecation frequency and constipation symptoms in 31 young women with constipation. Methods: Thirty-one subjects were assigned to two groups, and subjects in each group were administered 10 g of a 7% xylobiose-sugar mixture (Experiment 1: XBS, n = 15) or 10 g of a 7% xylobiose-sugar mixture containing coffee mix (Experiment 2: XBS coffee mix, n = 16) twice per day for 6 weeks. During the study, clinical efficacy was assessed by a daily diary record. The subjects recorded their defecation frequency and fecal characteristics. Results: During pretreatment week, mean defecation frequency of XBS subjects was 2.13 times/week, whereas that of XBS coffee mix subjects was 1.56 times/week. The mean defecation frequencies of XBS and XBS coffee mix subjects increased significantly to 3.73 times/week (p < 0.05) and 3.56 times/week by week 6 (p < 0.05), respectively. After treatment with either XBS or XBS coffee mix, patients presented significant improvements in their amounts of stool, feelings of residual stool leftness, and abdominal pain symptoms (p < 0.05). The total constipation scoring system (CSS) for diagnosing constipation symptoms significantly decreased in the XBS group (10.53 score vs 7.22 score) and in the XBS coffee mix group (10.75 score vs 6.51 score) after 6 weeks. Improvement due to intake of 7% xylobiose-containing sugar seemed to last during the experimental period. Conclusion: The addition of approximately 7% xylobiose to commercially available sweeteners has been shown to improve constipation.
Article
Objective To assess the effect of a cocoa and unripe banana flour beverage (UBF) on fecal short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA), gastrointestinal symptoms, fecal characteristics and inflammation, in overweight women with abdominal adiposity. METHODS This prospective, double‐blinded, randomized clinical trial involved 60 female volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years. One group received a cocoa beverage (n = 30) and one group received a cocoa and UBF beverage (n = 30), for 6 weeks. Intestinal microbiota was indirectly assessed by consistency, shape, and color of feces, determination of fecal SCFA, and gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS Both beverages increased the production of propionic acid (p < .05) and decreased gastrointestinal symptoms (p < .05). The cocoa beverage decreased indigestion (p < .05) and the pro‐inflammatory cytokine, IL‐17. CONCLUSION Cocoa and cocoa with UBF beverages decreased the symptoms of dyspepsia, improved gastrointestinal symptoms, and increased production of propionic acid, favoring healthy intestinal microbiota. Only the cocoa beverage showed an anti‐inflammatory effect. Practical applications Unripe banana flour and cocoa have been widely used to decrease cardiovascular risk, by improving inflammatory parameters and gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the interaction between these two food ingredients and the implication of their interaction on human health remains unknown. Important health benefits may be achieved by assessing the synergism or antagonism of functional foods, particularly when they coexist in the same product. This study aims to attract the interest of the scientific community to conduct more studies on functional bioavailability. Both unripe banana flour and cocoa can have therapeutic potential but it may not be a good idea to associate them. This article provides relevant information to the scientific and broader community regarding the preparation of these foods, to maximize their health benefits on a daily basis, and, additionally, offers the food industry valuable knowledge that can be used to develop healthier food products.
Article
Food was originally for human beings to obtain nutrition necessary for life activity. However, with westernization of the dietary habits and changes of the lifestyle, food becomes an onset factor of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes, recently. For prevention of the lifestyle-related diseases, it is necessary to improve the eating habits, furthermore, the prevention is possible by the intake of "functional foods". Thus, "functional foods" have been energetically developing with the view to prevent life-style diseases by the use of potential functions ("tertiary functions") that foods fundamentally possess. In developing "functional foods", scientific evidences in functionality, safety and quality are required, and analytical chemistry is in heavily used. For example, to identify any claimed health benefit, separation-purification and high sensitivity detection technology can identify a function ingredient from the food that very many components are mixed, thus, these techniques make contribution for the determination of effective amount. In this review, I would like to explain about the FOSHU (food for specified health use) system, and to introduce functional evaluation of the purple sweet potato anthocyanin, as an example of the current situation about analysis of functional components in a beverage.
Chapter
The human large intestine is an intensively colonized area containing bacteria that are health promoting as well as pathogenic. This has led to functional food developments that fortify the former at the expense of the latter. Probiotics have a long history of use in humans as live microbial feed additions. In contrast, a prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by targeting indigenous components thought to be positive. Dietary carbohydrates, such as fibers, are candidate prebiotics, but most promise has been realized with oligosaccharides. As prebiotics exploit nonviable food ingredients, their applicability in diets is wide ranging. Main prebiotic targets at the moment are bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (although this may change as our knowledge of the microbiota diversity and functionality expands). Any dietary component that reaches the colon intact is a potential prebiotic; however, much of the interest in the development of prebiotics is aimed at nondigestible oligosaccharides such as inulin-type fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS). In Europe, FOS and TOS have been shown to be prebiotics, through numerous volunteer trials, as evidence by their ability to positively change the gut flora composition after a short feeding period. Other prebiotics are emerging. Some prebiotics occur naturally in several foods such as leek, asparagus, chicory, Jerusalem artichoke, garlic, artichoke, onion, wheat, banana, and oats. However, these foods contain only trace levels, so developments have taken the approach of removing the active ingredients from such sources and adding them to more frequently consumed products in order to attain levels whereby a prebiotic effect may occur, for example, cereals, confectionery, biscuits, infant feeds, yogurts, table spreads, bread, sauces, drinks, etc. As gastrointestinal disorders are prevalent in terms of human health, both probiotics and prebiotics serve an important role in the prophylactic management of various acute and chronic gut-derived conditions. Examples include protection from gastroenteritis and some inflammatory conditions.
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of the intake of xylooligosaccharide-sugar mixture (XOS) on defecation frequency and symptoms in 56 young women (mean age of 22.1 years old) with constipation. Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a randomized double-blind study was performed to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks' intake of 10 g sucrose containing 7% xylooligosaccharide or 10 g sucrose on constipation. In experiment 2, 24 g coffee mixture containing 12.8 g plant cream and 11.2 g xylooligosaccharide-sugar mixture was consumed by the subjects. During the study, the clinical efficacy was assessed by using a daily diary. The subjects indicated the number of frequencies they defecated in a day and the clinical symptom scores. Results: In experiment 1, the mean frequency of defecations was 2.07 in the pretreatment week and increased significantly to 4.05, 4.42, 4.84, 4.84, and 4.05 in weeks 2 to 6 of XOS intake, in comparison with the 3-3.67 with sucrose intake (sucrose, SUC). In experiment 2, the mean frequency of defecations significantly increased from 2.47 in the pretreatment week to 4.11-5.67 in weeks 1-6 of XOS intake. The occurrence of very loose or loose stools in the XOS group was significantly increased in weeks 5 and 6, compared with the pretreatment week and SUC group. XOS intake significantly alleviated the abdominal displeasure and feeling of residual stool leftness in weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6, while SUC did so in weeks 4 and 6 (p < 0.05). The coffee mixture containing xylooligosaccharide-sugar mixture reduced the abdominal displeasure and feeling of residual stool leftness from week 3 until the end of the experiment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that xylooligosaccharide-sugar mixture intake was effective, without adverse effects, for the alleviation of constipation in the young women in this study.
Article
This chapter describes the various compounds that can act as prebiotic fibers: their structure, occurrence, production, and physiological effects (health effects) will be presented. The basis for the description is the latest definitions for dietary fibers and for prebiotics. Using as much as possible data from human studies, both the fiber and the prebiotic properties will be described of a variety of compounds. Based on the presented data the latest developments in the area of prebiotics, fibers and gut and immune health will be discussed in more detail as they show best what the potential impact of prebiotics on health of the human host might be. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of xylooligosaccharides (XOSs) on the intestinal microbiota, gastrointestinal (GI) function, and nutritional parameters of the elderly. Subjects 65 years and older who did not have recent history of GI disease were included and randomly divided as either a control (n = 9) or XOS group (n = 13). The treatment group was supplemented with 4 g of XOS per day for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was given a placebo. The anthropometric and nutrient parameters, fecal moisture content, pH, Bifidobacterium species count, and Clostridium perfringens count of the subjects were determined. The results showed that XOS supplementation significantly increased the population of bifidobacteria and the fecal moisture content, and decreased the fecal pH value. The nutrient intakes, GI function, and blood parameters were not significantly different between the XOS and control groups after 3 weeks of administration. In conclusion, XOS supplementation was effective in promoting the intestinal health and did not show adverse effects on nutritional status in the elderly.
Article
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Abstract Prebiotics are the non-digestible food ingredients, which help in the successful digestion of the food components in the gut and lower intestine. They play an important role in the promotion of the growth of ‘‘good’’ bacteria in the intestine and gut of humans. In other words, nutraceuticals are beneficial for the maintenance of gut microbiota, microflora, and human health. This study specially reviewed different articles on the role of prebiotics in hepatic encephalopathy, cardiovascular diseases, constipation, diarrhea, hypotriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, prebiotics are supplements to improve health and can favorably treat biological disorders.
Article
A total of 218 Cambridgeshire women in the third trimester of pregnancy were questioned about the occurrence of constipation during pregnancy and the methods they used to treat it. Of this number, 38 per cent reported having been constipated sometime during pregnancy and 20 per cent in the third trimester. The main methods of treatment (some women used more than one) were dietary manoeuvres (71 per cent), drug therapy (24 per cent) and changes in iron supplementation (15 per cent). A total of 15 per cent took no steps to relieve their symptoms. While increasing dietary fibre was the most frequently used primary treatment, it was only successful in 47 per cent of cases. The problem of constipation which was resistant to treatment was studied in a total of 84 women in the third trimester. Increasing dietary fibre had been tried by 45 per cent and drug therapy by 29 per cent while iron supplements were being taken by 58 per cent, compared with 61 per cent of women who never had constipation. This study implies that current suggetions for treatment need to be examined in more detail.
Article
キシロオリゴ糖摂取により腸内ビフィズス菌が増加することが明らかにされている。本報では, キシロナリゴ糖摂取に伴う, 腸内腐敗産物の挙動について検討した。腸内腐敗産物 (p-クレゾール, インドール, スカトール) はキシロオリゴ糖を摂取することにより減少する傾向が認められた。腸内腐敗産物 (アンモニア, p-クレゾール, インドール) は腸内バクテロイデス菌の増加と有意に正の相関が認められた。他方ビフィズス菌の割合が増加するとこれら腸内腐敗産物は減少する傾向が認められた。
Article
The administration of xylooligosaccharides selectively promotes the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria in men. The effects of the administration of 2 to 10g of xylooligosaccharides on the hardness of feces and the frequency of diarrhea were investigated in 10 men. Both the hardness of feces and the frequency of diarrhea were decreased by such administration of 2g of xylooligosaccharides.
Article
Irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, and diarrhea may complicate a pregnancy. Complaints of IBS and constipation may be managed by nonpharmaceutical methods. A careful history should be conducted to determine whether these complaints are of an acute or a long-standing nature. Conservative treatment of IBS is recommended and may include stool-bulking agents, a high-fiber diet, elimination of offensive foods, and the behavioral treatment of passive muscle relaxation, biofeedback or supportive psychotherapy. Constipation is generally self-limiting. It also may be treated conservatively with stool-bulking agents, increases in dietary fiber, and the addition of pelvic muscle exercises, preferably using electromyographic biofeedback. Laxatives should be used judiciously (Table 1). Diarrhea is caused most often by infectious agents in pregnancy but may also be from food poisoning or a viral disease. Infectious diarrhea may be treated by mild antidiarrheal agents and safe antibiotics. Fluid replacement is the mainstay of treatment, and care should be taken, remembering that the treatment involves two patients. These complaints can generally be managed conservatively, but persistent cases should be investigated as in a nonpregnant patient.