Article

A Shifted Paradigm for the Further Understanding, Evaluation, and Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men: Focus on the Bladder

The Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.
European Urology (Impact Factor: 13.94). 05/2006; 49(4):651-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2006.02.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent among older men and have a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Frequent comorbidity with potential prostatic disease adds complexity to the management of male LUTS. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological conditions that underlie male LUTS, and examine the relationship between symptoms and urodynamic findings. The contribution of bladder dysfunction to male LUTS, with a particular emphasis on overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, is explored. We also consider pharmacotherapeutic options for male LUTS. Pharmacotherapies that target the prostate (alpha1-receptor antagonists and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors) often fail to alleviate OAB symptoms, and may not be the most appropriate therapy for men with storage LUTS. Multiple studies have suggested that antimuscarinic therapy alone or in combination with alpha1-receptor antagonists improve OAB symptoms in men with and without bladder outlet obstruction. Although these agents may represent appropriate first-line therapies for men with OAB symptoms, the therapeutic potential of antimuscarinics alone or in combination with alpha1-receptor antagonists in this population should be evaluated in large-scale, well-designed clinical trials.

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Available from: Claus G Roehrborn
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    • "This causal link between the prostate and the pathogenesis of LUTS has come into question in recent years[6]. Although benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) can significantly contribute to the onset of LUTS in a proportion of men over 40 years of age, other metabolic, neurological, inflammatory, and anatomical factors should be considered[7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common, causing significant bother and impair quality of life. LUTS are a spectrum of symptoms that may or may not be due to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). LUTS are divided into storage, voiding or post micturition symptoms, which each need to be considered in terms of impact, mechanism and treatment options. In most patients, a mixture of symptoms is present. In order to have a better insight about which symptoms are affecting quality of life, a thorough evaluation should include medical history, examination, validated symptom questionnaires, bladder diary, and flow rate (with post void residual measurement). Other tests, particularly urodynamic tests may be needed to guide treatment selection, particularly for surgery. Management of male LUTS is tailored according to the underlying mechanisms. Different treatment modalities are available according to individual patient preference. These range from watchful waiting, behavioral and dietary modifications, and/or medications - either as monotherapy or in combination. Surgery to relieve BPO may be needed where patients have significant bothersome voiding LUTS, and are willing to accept risks associated with irreversible treatment. Interventions for storage LUTS are available, but must be selected judiciously, using particular caution if nocturia is prominent. In order to achieve better outcomes, a rational stepwise approach to decision making is needed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Surgery (London, England)
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    • "LUTS consist of storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms, with the storage symptoms being the most frequent among these [3], [4]. For the treatment of storage symptoms anti-muscarinic agents are effective [5], [6]. However, there are issues associated with these drugs including a high burden of economic cost and significant adverse effects including dry mouth and constipation [7], [8], [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) include storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms, featuring many urological diseases. Storage symptoms are the most frequent among these and associated with overactive bladder and non-bacterial bladder inflammation such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Gap junction, a key regulator of hyperactive conditions in the bladder, has been reported to be involved in pathological bladder inflammation. Here we report involvement of gap junction in the etiology of storage symptoms in bladder inflammation. In this study, cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis was adapted as a model of bladder inflammation. Cyclophosphamide-treated mice showed typical storage symptoms including increased urinary frequency and reduced bladder capacity, with concurrent up-regulation of connexin 43 (GJA1), one of the major gap junction proteins in the bladder. In isometric tension study, bladder smooth muscle strips taken from the treated mice showed more pronounced spontaneous contraction than controls, which was attenuated by carbenoxolone, a gap junction inhibitor. In voiding behavior studies, the storage symptoms in the treated mice characterized by frequent voiding were alleviated by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, another gap junction inhibitor. These results demonstrate that cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model of cystitis shows clinical storage symptoms related with bladder inflammation and that gap junction in the bladder may be a key molecule of these storage symptoms. Therefore, gap junction in the bladder might be an alternative therapeutic target for storage symptoms in bladder inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "LUTS in men are often treated first with agents that target the prostate or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO; dynamic obstruction), such as 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and alpha receptor antagonists [9]. Men with LUTS/OAB are usually treated with BPH drugs rather than those specific for OAB, despite the high prevalence of coexistent storage symptoms in men with LUTS [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are highly prevalent in older men. The storage subcategory of LUTS is synonymous with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome, which is an empirical diagnosis. Traditionally, alpha-blockers are widely prescribed to manage the LUTS of BPH, although storage symptoms may persist in many men despite treatment. Therefore, because therapies that target the prostate often fail to alleviate storage symptoms, they may not be the appropriate therapy for OAB. In past years, most physicians appeared to give more weight in elderly men to voiding symptoms than to storage symptoms and to be more concerned with initial treatment with anticholinergics for males with storage symptoms. Considering the recent increase in data on the efficacy and safety of combination treatment with alpha receptor antagonists and antimuscarinic agents, the standard pharmacologic treatment of patients with LUTS combined with OAB should be an alpha receptor antagonist and an antimuscarinic agent. Beta-3 adrenoreceptor agonists may also potentially be useful for the treatment of male LUTS combined with OAB.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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