Correlations between Motor Performance and Cognitive Functions in Children Born < 1250 g at School Age

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
Neuropediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.24). 02/2006; 37(1):6-12. DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-923840
Source: PubMed


Very low birth weight born children manifest a higher prevalence of motor and cognitive impairments than term children. Seventy-four prospectively enrolled children born < 1250 g underwent testing of motor (Zurich neuromotor assessment ZNA: timed motor performances and associated movements) and cognitive functions (Kaufman-ABC) at age six years. Children with cerebral palsy or mental retardation were excluded. Adaptive motor tasks (pegboard and dynamic balance) and visuomotor cognitive functions were specifically impaired, and a distinct correlation pattern between motor and cognitive abilities was detected. The adaptive fine motor task (pegboard) correlated with visuomotor functions of the Kaufman-ABC ("triangles", r = 0.35; "matrix analogies", r = 0.39), while pure motor tasks of the ZNA (repetitive, alternating, and sequential movements) did not in spite of impaired motor performance. Timed motor performance below the 10th percentile correlated strongly with cognitive delay (IQ < 85: adaptive fine motor: OR 6.0 [95% CI] 4.7-7.3; adaptive gross motor: OR 7.0 [CI 5.6-8.4]; static balance: OR 9.6 [CI 8.2-11.0]). In conclusion, motor deficits in children born < 1250 g without severe disabilities correlate with specific cognitive impairments, in particular of the visuomotor domain. The correlation pattern may indicate specific dysfunction in visuomotor transformation, the intermediate process between visual-perceptual input and motor output. Early assessment of both motor and cognitive functions using standardized assessment tools is important to determine the extent and combination of specific developmental disturbances and to tailor therapeutic intervention.

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Available from: Oskar Jenni, Jan 19, 2016
    • "The intraclass correlations were generally higher for timed performances (0.65–0.95) than for associated movements (0.45–0.8). Concurrent validity has been reported with younger children (Schmidhauser et al., 2006; Seitz et al., 2006). Age and gender effects have been identified. "
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    ABSTRACT: Difficulties with low motor competence in childhood and adolescence, such as that seen in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), often persist into adulthood. Identification of DCD at all ages is particularly challenging and problematic because of the diversity of motor symptoms. Many tests of motor proficiency and impairment have been developed for children up to 12 years of age. Whilst identification of DCD is important during childhood, it is of equal importance to identify and monitor the impact of this impairment as an individual grows and develops. Currently there is no test specifically designed to support diagnosis and monitor change in the age range 16-30 years. In this article we review five tests that have been used to assess motor competence among young adults (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, Tufts Assessment of Motor Performance and the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment). Key issues relevant to testing motor skills in older populations, such as the inclusion of age appropriate skills, are explored. While the BOT-2 provided the most evidence for valid and reliable measurement of Criterion A of the diagnostic criteria for DCD among this age group, no test adequately evaluated Criterion B. Further evaluation of motor skill assessment among the young adult population is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    • "They were recruited in the neonatal period and followed prospectively until adolescence. Repeated neurodevelopmental assessments were performed at three, nine and 24 months corrected age and at six and ten years (Latal-Hajnal et al., 2003; Natalucci et al., 2013; Schmidhauser et al., 2006; Seitz et al., 2006). Mean birth weight of this sample was slightly lower than in the larger samples tested at age ten, where as gestation age was comparable, 1008 g and 28.6 weeks in Natalucci et al. (2013). "
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