The course of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression: A prospective study

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 08/2006; 93(1-3):61-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.02.012
Source: PubMed


Negative cognitive styles have been shown to prospectively predict depression onset and recurrence. Research has also begun to suggest that cognitive styles may be associated with the course of depression as well. This study examined whether cognitive risk for depression onset also predicts the course of depression in a prospective design.
One hundred fifty-nine initially nondepressed participants from the Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project who experienced a depressive episode while in the study were followed prospectively for 2.5 years. Four indicators of the course of depression were assessed from diagnostic interviews and questionnaires administered every 6 weeks: the number, severity and duration of episodes and the chronicity of the depression experienced.
Cognitive high-risk participants experienced more episodes of depression, more severe episodes, and more chronic courses than low-risk participants. There were no risk group differences observed for the duration of episodes.
This study's sample was chosen to include individuals with high and low cognitive vulnerability to depression, potentially limiting the generalizability of the findings to other individuals. Also, the study included some participants with a past history of depression.
Negative cognitive styles predict a worse course of depression as well as rendering an individual prone to depression onset. This highlights that the cognitive factors impacting depression's course overlap, at least partly, with those that initiate depression. Thus, knowledge of a depressed individual's cognitive styles could aid in prognosis and treatment planning.

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    • "Beck [12] [13] hypothesized that depressed people have unrealistical and dysfunctional beliefs about the self, the world, and the future, a set of faulty cognitive processes known as the " cognitive triad. " Several researches have provided support for the critical role of cognitive vulnerability (i.e., a trait-like tendency to interpret information in negative and distorted ways in face of subjectively perceived stressful events [14]) in the development of depressive disorders [15] [16] [17] [18]. For example, Evans et al. [18] found that holding a negative self-schema is an independent risk factor for the onset of depression in women, whereas Alloy et al. [16] reported that a negative inferential style increases the risk for the initial onset and recurrence of depressive episodes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives and Methods. Several researchers have provided support for the critical role of cognitive vulnerabilities in the development of depression. The Attitudes toward Self-Revised (ATS-R) was designed to assess three potential self-regulatory vulnerabilities to depression: High Standards (HS), Self-Criticism (SC), and Negative Generalization (NG). The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the ATS-R in the Italian young adult population. The ATS-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Teate Depression Inventory (TDI) were administered to 857 (320 men and 537 women) young adults. Results. The best-fitting solution for the ATS-R was a 2-factor model, which obtained satisfactory homogeneity of content (HS/SC: Cronbach α = 0.81; mean interitem correlation = 0.46. NG: Cronbach α = 0.75; mean interitem correlation = 0.43) and significant correlation with the BDI-II (NG: Pearson r = 0.29, P < 0.01), the TDI (HS/SC: Pearson r = -0.26, P < 0.01), and the BHS (HS/SC: Pearson r = -0.29, P < 0.01; NG: Pearson r = 0.22, P < 0.01). Conclusions. The Italian version of the ATS-R seems to be a valid instrument for the study of the role of cognitive tendencies as potential vulnerability for depression.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Depression research and treatment
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    • "Previous studies (Alloy et al. 1992, 2000 ; Haeffel et al. 2003) found that negative cognitive styles were associated with a greater likelihood of past major, minor, and hopelessness depression (HD). In a 2.5-year longitudinal study of college students with prior depression, Iacoviello et al. (2006) found that individuals with negative cognitive style experienced more depressive episodes with increased "
    L Wang · L Liu · S Shi · J Gao · Y Liu · Y Li · Z Zhang · G Wang · K Zhang · M Tao · [...] · G Chen · M Cai · J Dong · Q Mei · Z Shen · R Pan · Z Liu · Y Tan · J Flint · K S Kendler ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied. Method: The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results: Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms. Conclusions: During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Psychological Medicine
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    • "Moreover, longitudinal, prospective studies focusing on the role of cognitive vulnerability factors in the course of depression from onset to relapse and recurrence are emerging. Dysfunctional attitudes have been found predictive of first-onset, relapse as well as recurrence of MD (Alloy et al. 2006; Iacoviello et al. 2006; Segal et al. 1999, 2006). Comparably fewer studies have investigated EMSs as assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ; Young and Brown 1990) as predictors of depression severity in cross-sectional studies (Harris and Curtin 2002; Hoffart et al. 2005; Schmidt et al. 1995; Halvorsen et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) have been suggested as vulnerability markers for depression and entrenched psychological disorders, respectively. One-hundred-and-fifteen clinically depressed (CDs), previously depressed (PDs), and never depressed individuals completed the DAS, the YSQ, and the Beck Depression Inventory in the index study, and were followed up 9years later in relation to diagnostic status, depression severity and course of depression. From multiple regression analyses YSQ domain scales emerged as significant predictors of concurrent depression severity in the index study, and depression severity and episodes of Major Depression, 9years later. A majority of CDs and PDs experienced a recurrent depression over 9years. The findings indicate that YSQ scales are promising as vulnerability markers for depression and underscore a conceptualisation of depression as a serious disorder due to its highly recurrent course, and highlight the necessity to identify and tackle long-term vulnerability factors. KeywordsCognitive vulnerability-Depression-Dysfunctional attitudes-Early maladaptive schemas
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Cognitive Therapy and Research
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