Rac GTPase signaling through the PP5 protein phosphatase

Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, ウェストラファイエット, Indiana, United States
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 04/2006; 103(13):5202-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0600080103
Source: PubMed


We have investigated the Rac-dependent mechanism of KCNH2 channel stimulation by thyroid hormone in a rat pituitary cell line, GH(4)C(1), with the patch-clamp technique. Here we present physiological evidence for the protein serine/threonine phosphatase, PP5, as an effector of Rac GTPase signaling. We also propose and test a specific molecular mechanism for PP5 stimulation by Rac-GTP. Inhibition of PP5 with the microbial toxin, okadaic acid, blocked channel stimulation by thyroid hormone and by Rac, but signaling was restored by expression of a toxin-insensitive mutant of PP5, Y451A, which we engineered. PP5 is unique among protein phosphatases in that it contains an N-terminal regulatory domain with three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) that inhibit its activity. Expression of the TPR domain coupled to GFP blocked channel stimulation by the thyroid hormone. We also show that the published structures of the PP5 TPR domain and the TPR domain of p67, the Rac-binding subunit of NADPH oxidase, superimpose over 92 alpha carbons. Mutation of the PP5 TPR domain at two predicted contact points with Rac-GTP prevents the TPR domain from functioning as a dominant negative and blocks the ability of Y451A to rescue signaling in the presence of okadaic acid. PP5 stimulation by Rac provides a unique molecular mechanism for the antagonism of Rho-dependent signaling through protein kinases in many cellular processes, including metastasis, immune cell chemotaxis, and neuronal development.

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    • "This type of domains has been found in a particular class (PP5) of protein phosphatases [55]. In PP5 phosphatases, these domains mediate the interaction with G proteins [56] and the small GTPase Rac protein [57]. FHA is a phosphoprotein-binding domain and has been found to be associated with a number of signaling proteins that interact with the partners, phosphorylated at serine/threonine residue. "
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    ABSTRACT: Protein phosphatases are the key components of a number of signaling pathways where they modulate various cellular responses. In plants, protein phosphatases constitute a large gene family and are reportedly involved in the regulation of abiotic stress responses and plant development. Recently, the whole complement of protein phosphatases has been identified in Arabidopsis genome. While PP2C class of serine/threonine phosphatases has been explored in rice, the whole complement of this gene family is yet to be reported. In silico investigation revealed the presence of 132-protein phosphatase-coding genes in rice genome. Domain analysis and phylogenetic studies of evolutionary relationship categorized these genes into PP2A, PP2C, PTP, DSP and LMWP classes. PP2C class represents a major proportion of this gene family with 90 members. Chromosomal localization revealed their distribution on all the 12 chromosomes, with 42 genes being present on segmentally duplicated regions and 10 genes on tandemly duplicated regions of chromosomes. The expression profiles of 128 genes under salinity, cold and drought stress conditions, 11 reproductive developmental (panicle and seed) stages along with three stages of vegetative development were analyzed using microarray expression data. 46 genes were found to be differentially expressing in 3 abiotic stresses out of which 31 were up-regulated and 15 exhibited down-regulation. A total of 82 genes were found to be differentially expressing in different developmental stages. An overlapping expression pattern was found for abiotic stresses and reproductive development, wherein 8 genes were up-regulated and 7 down-regulated. Expression pattern of the 13 selected genes was validated employing real time PCR, and it was found to be in accordance with the microarray expression data for most of the genes. Exploration of protein phosphatase gene family in rice has resulted in the identification of 132 members, which can be further divided into different classes phylogenetically. Expression profiling and analysis indicate the involvement of this large gene family in a number of signaling pathways triggered by abiotic stresses and their possible role in plant development. Our study will provide the platform from where; the expression pattern information can be transformed into molecular, cellular and biochemical characterization of members belonging to this gene family.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · BMC Genomics
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    • "The ability of the TPR domain to undergo ligand-induced conformational change allows PP5 to respond to a number of cellular factors and thus may be crucial to PP5 function. For example, PP5 were found to interact, through its TPR domain, with the G proteins Gα 12 and Gα 13 (Yamaguchi et al., 2002) and the small GTPase Rac (Gentile et al., 2006). These interactions were found to stimulate the phosphatase activity of PP5, which subsequently modulates the cognate signaling processes. "
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    ABSTRACT: The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is accomplished by opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases. Relatively few protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PSPs) control the specific dephosphorylation of thousands of phosphoprotein substrates. Many PSPs, exemplified by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and PP2A, achieve substrate specificity and regulation through combinatorial interactions between conserved catalytic subunits and a large number of regulatory subunits. Other PSPs, represented by PP2C and FCP/SCP, contain both catalytic and regulatory domains within the same polypeptide chain. Here, we discuss biochemical and structural investigations that advance the mechanistic understanding of the three major classes of PSPs, with a focus on PP2A.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Cell
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    • "Whether PP5 reduces Aβ-induced tau hyperphosphorylation is another important issue to be addressed. Thyroid hormone has been shown to signal through PP5 (Gentile et al. 2006). In addition to its well-established role in brain development, thyroid hormone plays an important role in protection against neurodegeneration (Tan & Vasan 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid-beta (Abeta) is thought to promote neuronal cell loss in Alzheimer's disease, in part through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase which has been implicated in several cell stress response pathways and shown to inactivate MAPK pathways through key dephosphorylation events. Therefore, we examined whether PP5 protects dissociated embryonic rat cortical neurons in vitro from cell death evoked by Abeta. As predicted, neurons in which PP5 expression was decreased by small-interfering RNA treatment were more susceptible to Abeta toxicity. In contrast, over-expression of PP5, but not the inactive mutant, PP5(H304Q), prevented MAPK phosphorylation and neurotoxicity induced by Abeta. PP5 also prevented cell death caused by direct treatment with H(2)O(2), but did not prevent Abeta-induced production of ROS. Thus, the neuroprotective effect of PP5 requires its phosphatase activity and lies downstream of Abeta-induced generation of ROS. In summary, our data indicate that PP5 plays a pivotal neuroprotective role against cell death induced by Abeta and oxidative stress. Consequently, PP5 might be an effective therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is implicated.
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