Central Venous Access in Obese Patients: A Potential Complication
Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States Anesthesia and analgesia
(Impact Factor: 3.47).
05/2006; 102(4):1293-4. DOI: 10.1213/01.ANE.0000199216.28502.1D
Available from: Geoffrey P Kohn
- "In addition, improved reimbursement rates for CVL implantation noted in our study will further support the financial success of a program. Although a higher level of difficulty for intravenous access in morbidly obese patients has not been established in comparative studies, there are a number of references to obesity as a contributing factor in difficult peripheral and central intravenous access       . Our data suggest that difficult venous access in bariatric surgery patients may contribute to OR delays. "
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ABSTRACT: Background. Bariatric surgery has increased across America. Venous access is difficult in these patients. Anesthesiologists often utilize valuable operating room (OR) time acquiring reliable intravenous lines. Our objective was to determine if outpatient central venous line (CVL) placement improves OR efficiency and professional reimbursement for CVL insertion. Methods. In our bariatric practice, selected surgery patients have outpatient CVLs placed during prophylactic vena cava filter placement. In a cohort of 268 gastric bypass patients operated between 1/01 and 11/06, we compared time-to-incision between 106 with pre-established CVLs and 162 without. In addition, we determined professional compensation rates for CVLs placed outpatient versus CVLs inserted in the OR. Results. Patients with preoperative (outpatient) CVLs required 35.6 ± 12.5 minutes to skin incision compared with 42.5 ± 13.9 minutes for controls (P < 0.0001), and 34.9% had skin incision in <30 minutes compared with 16.4% of controls. Radiologists collected 28.2% of outpatient billings for CPT code 36556, compared with anesthesiologists who collected <1% when placing CVLs in the OR. Conclusions. Outpatient CVLs prior to gastric bypass improve efficiency in the OR with earlier skin incision. Professional reimbursement is better for outpatient CVLs than intraoperative inpatient CVLs.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: Obese patients are at higher than normal risk for postoperative infections such as pneumonia and surgical site infections, but the relation between obesity and infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. Our objective was to describe the relation between body mass index (BMI) and site-specific ICU-acquired infection risk in adults.
Secondary analysis of a large, dual-institutional, prospective observational study of critically ill and injured surgical patients remaining in the ICU for at least 48 h. Patients were classified into BMI groups according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines: <or= 18.5 kg/m(2) (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) (normal), 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (overweight), 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) (obese), and >or= 40.0 kg/m(2) (severely obese). The primary outcomes were the number and site of ICU-acquired U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined infections. Multivariable logistic and Poisson regression were used to determine age-, sex-, and severity-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and incidence rate ratios associated with differences in BMI.
A total of 2,037 patients had 1,436 infection episodes involving 1,538 sites in a median ICU length of stay of 9 days. After adjusting for age, sex, and illness severity, severe obesity was an independent risk factor for catheter-related (OR 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5, 3.4) and other blood stream infections (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.9, 5.3). Cultured organisms did not differ by BMI group.
Obesity is an independent risk factor for ICU-acquired catheter and blood stream infections. This observation may be explained by the relative difficulty in obtaining venous access in these patients and the reluctance of providers to discontinue established venous catheters in the setting of infection signs or symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: Central venous catheterization may be difficult in morbidly obese patients because anatomic landmarks are often obscured.
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation in 55 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The usefulness of ultrasonic examination combined with intraatrial electrocardiogram as a diagnostic tool for catheter misplacement was studied.
Preliminary ultrasound examination of the neck vessels demonstrated anatomical variations in the position of internal jugular vein in 19 cases and four unrecognized asymptomatic thromboses of the right internal jugular vein. Central venous catheterization was successful in all 55 patients, in 51 with single skin puncture, and in 42 with single vein puncture. In three cases in whom the catheter was misplaced, this was detected by bedside ultrasonic examination during the procedure and immediately corrected by real-time echographic visualization. No arterial puncture, no hematoma, and no pneumothorax occurred in any patient. Successful catheter placement was also confirmed in all patients by post-operative chest X-ray. No evidence of infection or thrombosis subsequently was noted.
The use of ultrasound guidance may increase the success rate and decrease the incidence of complications associated with central venous cannulation. The advantages of this approach is visualization of the anatomical structures at puncture site prior to skin puncture and the ability to track needle and guide-wire placement during the procedure. With its high accuracy in detecting catheter misplacement, bedside ultrasonic examination combined with intraatrial electrocardiogram may further decrease morbidity associated with misplaced central venous catheters.
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