Evaluation of positive airway pressure treatment for sleep related breathing disorder in adults

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States
Sleep (Impact Factor: 4.59). 04/2006; 29(3):381-401.
Source: PubMed


Positive airway pressure (PAP) is used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea (CSA), and chronic hypoventilation. This document provides a systematic analysis and grading of peer-reviewed, published clinical studies pertaining to application of PAP treatment in adults. The paper is divided into 5 sections, each addressing a series of questions. The first section deals with whether efficacy and/or effectiveness have been demonstrated for continuous PAP (CPAP) treatment based on a variety of parameters and the level of OSA severity. Next, CPAP titration conducted with full, attended polysomnography in a sleep laboratory is compared with titration done under various other conditions. The third section investigates what can be expected regarding adherence and compliance with CPAP treatment as measured by subjective and objective methods and what factors may influence these parameters. Side effects and the influence of other specific factors on efficacy, effectiveness and safety of CPAP therapy are evaluated in the fourth section. Finally, the use of bilevel PAP therapy is reviewed for both patients with OSA and those with other selected nocturnal breathing disorders. Each section also contains a brief summary and suggestions for future research.

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Available from: Terri E Weaver, Jun 30, 2014
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    • "Positive airway pressure (PAP) is considered as the most effective treatment for OSA [2]. Consistent PAP device usage leads to improvement or even complete alleviation of daytime symptoms and PAP therapy also mitigates cardio-and neurovascular complications of untreated sleep apnea [3]. Nevertheless, poor PAP adherence is considered as a major barrier for optimal OSA treatment [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP) devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients) were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD) for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 345 patients decreased from 27.32 ± 22.24 to 12.78 ± 16.89 events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%). Random effects modeling mean difference (MD) was −14.78 events/hr [95% CI −19.12, −10.45], p value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in 247 patients decreased from 21.2 ± 19.3 to 12.4 ± 14.1 events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, p value < 0.00001). Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) M ± SD improved in 146 patients from 83.2 ± 6.8 % to 86.2 ± 11.1 %, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) M ± SD improved (359 patients) from 9.9 ± 5.3 to 7.4 ± 5.0 , MD −2.5 [95% CI −3.2, −1.8], p value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent) reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding) that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    • "In years prior to diagnosis and treatment, OSA patients use more physician services and are admitted to hospitals at greater rates compared with individuals without OSA [2]. Fortunately continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treats OSA effectively and economically [3]. Cerebrovascular disease and cardiovascular disease are major contributors to health disparity between the insured and the uninsured [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients who cannot afford a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is challenging. In this study we compare time to CPAP procurement in three groups of patients diagnosed with OSA: uninsured subsidized by a humanitarian grant (Group 1), uninsured unsubsidized (Group 2), and those with Medicare or Medicaid (Group 3). We evaluate follow-up and adherence in Group 1. We hypothesize that additional factors, rather than just the ability to obtain CPAP, may uniquely affect follow-up and adherence in uninsured patients. Methods. 30 patients were in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. 12 patients were in Group 3. Time of CPAP procurement from OSA diagnosis to CPAP initiation was assessed in all groups. CPAP adherence data was collected for Group 1 patients at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in gender, age, body mass index, or apnea hypopnea index. The mean time to procurement in Group 1 was shorter compared to Group 2 but not significant. Compared to both Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 patients had significantly shorter times to device procurement. Conclusion. Time to procurement of CPAP was significantly shorter in those with Medicaid/Medicare insurance compared to the uninsured.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    • "In a cohort of 149 consecutive patients who were referred to the sleep laboratory and prescribed CPAP therapy, 18% of them rejected CPAP immediately after CPAP titration, and 16% dropped out after 2 weeks of therapy [25]. When defining adequate nightly use as at least 4 h per night, 29e83% of patients could be classified as nonadherent [1] [4]. Even when patients do not completely abandon CPAP, their adherence to recommended nightly use may be poor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is associated with substantial health care costs, morbidity and mortality, and has been a leading obstacle in the effective management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Successful interventions to improve CPAP adherence may ultimately include a variety of components. For patients living with spouses (refers to all domestic partners), the spouse will likely be an integral component to any successful intervention. Developing understanding of the role of spouses in adherence to CPAP has been identified to be a critical research need. This review expands the investigation of CPAP adherence to a broader context, from an exclusive focus on individual patients to a dyadic perspective encompassing both patients and their spouses. A conceptual framework based on social support and social control theories is proposed to understand spousal involvement in CPAP adherence. Methodologies for future investigations are discussed, along with implications for developing interventions that engage both patients and their spouses to improve CPAP use.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Sleep Medicine Reviews
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