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Curry Leaf ( Murraya koenigii Spreng.) Reduces Blood Cholesterol and Glucose Levels in ob/ob Mice

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Abstract

We observed that curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract possesses the property to decrease blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels in diabetic ob/ob mice. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of 80 mg/kg curry leaf extract for 10 consecutive days. The extract significantly decreased blood cholesterol level from 277.6 +/- 16.6 mg/d (day 0) to 182.0 +/- 15.3 mg/d (day 10, p < 0.01 compared with the change in vehicle group). The extract also significantly decreased blood glucose level from 387.0 +/- 15.6 mg/dl (day 0) to 214.0 +/- 26.6 mg/dl (day 10, p < 0.01). In addition, body weight was reduced after extract treatment. Our data suggest that curry leaf may be proved to be of clinical importance in improving the management of high cholesterol level and type 2 diabetes.

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... Mechanism of action: Curry leaf is a plant found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical countries of East Asia; including India, Pakistan, China, and northeastern Australia [47]. It is widely used as a flavoring agent in India, especially in south India. ...
... The result showed a significant reduction in the blood cholesterol level from 277.6 + 16.6mg/dL on day zero to 182.0 + 15.3mg/dL (p < 0.01) on the 10 th day of treatment. The extract also significantly decreased blood glucose level from 387.0 + 15.6mg/dL: (day0) to 214.0 + 26.6mg/dL (p < 0.01) on treatment day 10 suggesting anti-diabetic effect [47]. ...
Article
Background: Inflammation-induced endothelial abnormalities, dietary habits, and tobacco smoking are considered to be the primary risk factors for causing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disorders, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prevention of CVDs with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents has been a challenging task for decades. Currently, CVDs have taken a top position among the health-related issues and are considered the foremost cause of mortality and morbidity around the globe. Objective: Emerging evidence from several sources indicates that nutraceuticals and plant products may be a cost-effective approach for the prevention of CVDs. A limited number of clinical studies done with nutraceuticals have shown positive effects for promoting health and well-being as well as reduction of CVDs in humans. Some plants from which nutraceutical ingredients are isolated and will be discussed in this review are: Murraya koenigii, Curcuma longa, Beta vulgaris, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Lagenaria siceraria Stand, Trigonella foenum-graecum. Method: Literature searches were done using keywords for plants, nutraceuticals, and plant products that have revealed beneficial effects in the prevention of CVDs. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of nutraceuticeuticals and plant ingredients play a significant role in capturing free radicals and reducing endothelial risk factors associated with the occurrence CVDs. Result: This review has explored the usefulness of animal studies performed with nutraceuticals and herbal products and to understand their mode of action in the prevention of CVDs. Also, we have referred to patents for different nutraceuticals for better understanding their quantitative effects and dosage forms. Conclusion: It is concluded that nutraceuticals possess enormous health benefits and their interventions can be highly beneficial in the prevention/reduction of CVDs and related disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart attack and stroke. The findings of this review provide an update on the emerging uses of nutraceuticals, functional foods, and herbal remedies in humans. Nevertheless, large-scale randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials are needed to confirm the health benefit claims about nutraceuticals and herbal products to establish their long-term safety and to resolve the controversy about the role of clinical nutrition in curing lifestyle diseases.
... M. koenigii is used as a stimulant, anti-dysentric and for the treatment of diabetes mellitus [3]. The plant is highly valued for its leaves, which forms an important ingredient in all Indian cuisine to boost appetite and digestion. ...
... An extract of the toasted leaves can stop vomiting. Leaves after being steam distillated can be used as stomachic, purgative, febrifuge and anti-anemic [3]. Crushed leaves are employed externally for bruises, eruption [4] in addition, to relieve burns, the leaves and roots are bitter, acrid, cooling, analgesic and anti-helminthic It also cures piles, quenches body heat, thirst, itching and inflammation. ...
Article
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Plant materials remain one of the important resources to combat serious diseases around the world. In the developing countries, the traditional medicinal methods, especially the use of medicinal plants, still play a major role to cover the basic health requirements. The medicinal values of these plants rest in some bioactive substances that produce certain physiological activity on the human body. The major bioactive constituents in the plant are alkaloids, tannin, flavonoid and phenolic compounds. The various notable pharmacological actions of the plant such as anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetic and cholesterol trimming property, antiulcer activity, antioxidative property, antimicrobial, anti-diarrhea, phagocytic and cytotoxic activity. The common medicinal herb with such bioactive compounds is Murraya koenigii. This review paper summarizes the ethanobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the medicinal herb Murraya koenigii.
... This plant has several important uses in the traditional system of medicine in Eastern Asia (Ningappa and Srinivas., 2008) [17] . Murraya koenigii is also used in ethanomedicine / folk medicine as a stimulant, antidysentric, anticancer, hypoglycemic, hypolipodermic and in the management of diabetes mellitus (Xie et al., 2006) [29] . The leaves of this plant are highly valued as an important ingredient in Indian cuisine, known to promote appetite and digestion. ...
... This plant has several important uses in the traditional system of medicine in Eastern Asia (Ningappa and Srinivas., 2008) [17] . Murraya koenigii is also used in ethanomedicine / folk medicine as a stimulant, antidysentric, anticancer, hypoglycemic, hypolipodermic and in the management of diabetes mellitus (Xie et al., 2006) [29] . The leaves of this plant are highly valued as an important ingredient in Indian cuisine, known to promote appetite and digestion. ...
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Murraya koenigii, commonly growing in eastern Asia, is a herb that is highly valued for its medicinal potential; leaves of this plant, commonly known as Kurry Patta, are also used widely for culinary purpose, particularly in India. Medicinal value of the plant include antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antidiabetic activity. The active principle conferring such effect consists of carbazole alkaloids viz. Mahanine, Mahanimbine and Coumarins; the most potent being Mahanimbine. AFLP based Species Specific DNA Marker(s), identified in accessions of Murraya koenigii collected from different altitudinal regions established that all the genotypes used in this study belong to the same species viz. Murraya koenigii. Comparative HPLC analysis of the most potent active principle i.e. Mahanimbine revealed that content of this compound varies among plants growing in different altitudes: plants colleted from high altitude (viz. Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh) exhibited high content of mahanimbine in comparison to plants collected from low altitude places (viz. Kolkata and West Midnapur). This study indicates a correlation between altitude (related UV fluence) and mahanimbine content. The phylogenetic tree, obtained through analysis of AFLP derived binary matrix, exhibits clustering of Murraya plants on the basis of the altitude of collection site; plants collected from high, intermediate and low altitude formed separate clusters. Our study indicated that altitude related variation in content of active principle correlate with variation in genome as reflected in the dendogram. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) correlating active principle content and associated DNA fingerprinting data identified one AFLP allele (156 base pair allele generated by primer pair EcoRI-AAG / MseI-CTG) as Trait (Mahanimbine) Related AFLP Marker(s) in Murraya koenigii.
... Its main constituents present in roots are different types of alkaloids like mucoline, o-methyl murrayanine, 3-methyl carbazole, eustifolin-D, mahanine, mahanimbine, girinimbine, girinimbilol, mukoenin-A with essential oil like linalool, bornyl acetate, dehydro aromadendrene. [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] ...
... Fresh and dried curry leaves are considered as an important ingredient in South Indian cuisine and are broadly used for seasoning and flavoring dishes. The curry leaves have well established therapeutic potentials like hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic [12][13][14][15], nephroprotective [16,17], hepatoprotective [18,19], gastroprotective [20], cardioprotective [21,22], atherosclerotic [23] and cholesterol lowering effects in experimental animals [24]. The alcoholic leaf extract possessed antioxidant [25,26], analgesic, anti-inflammatory [27][28][29], antipyretic [30], antitrichomonal [31], antibacterial [32,33], antifungal [34], antileishmanial [35], antidiarrheal [36], wound-healing [37], anti-obesity [38], anticancer [39][40][41], and immunomodulatory activities [42,43]. ...
Article
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Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) mainly affect neurons and gradually lead to a loss of normal motor and cognitive functions. Atypical protein homeostasis-misfolding, aggregations and accumulations, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis-are common features in most NDs. To date, due to the complex etiology and pathogenesis of NDs, no defined treatment is available. There has been increasing interest in plant extracts as potential alternative medicines as the presence of various active components may exert synergistic and multi-pharmacological effects. Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) is utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for various ailments. Pharmacological studies evidenced its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, immunomod-ulatory, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective activities, among others. In line with our interest in exploring natural agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, this review presents an overview of literature concerning the mechanisms of action and the safety profile of significant bioactive components present in M. koenigii leaves to support further investigations into their neuroprotective therapeutic potential.
... e potency of M. koenigii leaf on lowering blood cholesterol levels could be ascertained by various experimental conditions, including the study's duration, the type of animal model or the form of M. koenigii leaf used, or the solvent used for the extraction. Another finding showed that obese diabetic ob/ob mice given 80 mg/kg aqueous M. koenigii extract for ten consecutive days have significantly decreased blood cholesterol levels from 277.6 ± 16.6 mg/day (day 0) to 182.0 ± 15.3 mg/day [73]. In addition, the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of M. koenigii leaves lowered body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese rats at oral administration of 30 mg/kg/ day. ...
Article
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Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Micromelum minutum (M. minutum), and Clausena indica (C. indica) are three varieties of curry leaves in the family Rutaceae. They have been widely used in Ayurvedic medicine worldwide in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier findings provide strong evidence to support the three curry leaf species’ potent pharmaceutical and biological effects, including antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various parts of these plants, such as leaves, seeds, flowers, and fruit, contain constituents responsible for the modulation of numerous biological processes. Leading constituents of curry leaves play a crucial role in diabetic and anticancer management by regulating various molecular pathways, including Bcl-2, Bax, NF-κB, and TNFα, according to in vitro and in vivo models established. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on research achievements made in terms of phytoconstituents, their structures, biological activities, and pharmacological actions with clinical studies of curry leaves up to date. The review also emphasizes the necessity for comprehensive research studies on the pharmacological actions and the mechanisms of selected phytochemicals of M. koenigii, M. minutum, and C. indica to validate their efficacy as potent herbal remedies for many ailments.
... The various multiple biological properties of M. koenigii such as its anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, antiprotozoal, anti-mutagenic, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-leukemial, anti-inflammatory activities [19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. The soap and cosmetic aromatherapy industry utilizes the essential oil of M. koenigii as an important ingredient in soap, bath oils, massage oils, perfume oils, lotions, diffusers, facial steams, potpourri, towel scenting, air fresheners, incense, body fragrance, scent, aromatherapy products [26][27]. ...
Article
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The magical plant of Indian spice, Murraya koenigii(curry leaf) family Rutaceae grows throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is used in the treatment or prevention of many diseases including kidney stone, dysentery disorders, renal pain, stomach upsets & morning sickness. It is one of the main components of formulation in the traditional ayurvedic system of medicine since many centuaries. A scrutiny of literature reveals some notable pharmacological activities of plant. These include pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitumor and neuroprotective.The leaves, roots and barks of this plant are rich in source of carbazole alkaloids. The carbazole alkaloids includes koenigin, bicyclomahanim-bicine, cyclomahanimbine, murrayastine, coumarine, koenidine has medicinal activities.
... Mahanimbicine, bicyclomahanimbicine, phebalosin, coumarine as Murrayoneimperatoxin, cyclomahanimbine and tetrahydromahanmbine are also present within the leaves [46] . Murraya koenigii is employed as a stimulant, anti-dysenteric and for the management of diabetes mellitus [47] . The plant is very valued for its leaves a crucial ingredient in an Indian cuisine to market appetite and digestion. ...
Article
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Nanotechnology are often described as the manipulation of materials by certain conventional and/or natural processes so as to get materials with some specifications which will be utilized in various applications including the fields of drugs, chemistry, climate, electricity, agriculture, information, communication, heavy industry, and commodity. In recent years, the event of efficient green chemistry methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles has become a serious focus of research to having several strong benefits of biological synthesis protocols over traditionally used physical and chemical methods. They need investigated so as to seek out an eco-friendly technique for production of well-characterized nanoparticles. Among these plants seem to be the simplest candidates and that they are suitable for large-scale biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Nano-conjugates which are developed by green origin are more consistent, stable and therefore the rate of synthesis is quicker than within the case of microorganisms. Moreover, the nanoparticles are more various in shape and size as compared with those produced by other organisms. During this review, role of six different ethnomedicinally important plants: Phyllanthus amarus, Acalypha indica, Mentha spicata, Limonia acidissima, Centella asiatica, Murraya koenigii within the synthesis of metal nano-conjugates has been discussed. The prosperity of employing such plants and plant-derived compounds for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles make the researchers to find accurate yet nontoxic safe research mechanisms of metal ions uptake and thereafter their bio reduction by plants, and to know the possible mechanism of nano-conjugates synthesis.
... leaf extract may have the potential to attenuate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity which may arise as a result of the damage caused by free radical formation. Although the antioxidative, cytotoxic, hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiulcer, positive inotropic, and cholesterol-reducing activities of Murraya koenigii have been reported in vivo, its effects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity has never been investigated [35][36][37][38][39][40][41]. erefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the cardioprotective potential of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. ...
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Dose-dependent cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin may lead to irreversible congestive heart failure. Although multiple mechanisms are involved, generation of free radicals is the most commonly postulated mechanism. Therefore, free radical scavengers are considered as potential therapeutic agents. As Murraya koenigii leaves are a rich source of flavonoids and phenols, they have the ability to scavenge free radicals effectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective potential of Murraya leaf extract against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups with 10 animals in each group. Doxorubicin was administered intraperitonially at 18 mg/kg while lyophilized plant extract was administered orally at 2 g/kg. Dexrazoxane, at 180 mg/kg, was used as the positive control. Cardiac damage of doxorubicin control was evident with a significant increase (p
... Ningappa and Srinivas (2008) isolated a 35 kDa antioxidant protein PII, having potential to inhibit lipoxygenase activity and lipid peroxidation on erythrocyte ghosts and ROS scavenging activity. In diabetic ob/ob mice, Xie (2006) depicted a decrease in blood glucose and cholesterol levels along with a reduction in body weight on leaf supplementation. Potential to lower blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced moderately and alloxan-induced mild diabetic rats, fed with curry leaf powder showed a decrease of 8.2% and 21.4%, respectively, Yadav (2002). ...
... Sricharoen et al. 2017 Curry leaf Lowered blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels in diabetic ob/ob mice. Xie et al. 2006 Dill Suggested for the treatment of advanced glycation endproductsmediated complications in diabetic patients. Oshaghi et al. 2015 Fennel (fruit) Lowered glucose and triacylglycerol contents as compared with diabetic control. ...
Article
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Spices have broadly been used as food flavoring and folk medicine since ancient times. Numerous phytochemicals have been identified in spices, namely thymol (ajowan and thyme), anethole (aniseed), piperine (black pepper), capsaicin (capsicum), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon), eugenol (clove), linalool (coriander), sabinene (curry leaf), limonene (dill seed), estragole (fennel seed), allicin (garlic), gingerol (ginger), safranal (saffron), and curcumin (turmeric), among others. The antioxidants in spices are very effective and also render anti-mutagenic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Apart from their antioxidant efficacy, spices, particularly their essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and microbial toxins synthesis. In this contribution, a summary of the most relevant and recent findings on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of spices has been compiled and discussed. The content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids in different spices are summarized. In addition, the beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and in health promotion and disease risk reduction are briefly described.
... Sricharoen et al. 2017 Curry leaf Lowered blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels in diabetic ob/ob mice. Xie et al. 2006 Dill Suggested for the treatment of advanced glycation endproductsmediated complications in diabetic patients. Oshaghi et al. 2015 Fennel (fruit) Lowered glucose and triacylglycerol contents as compared with diabetic control. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spices have broadly been used as food flavoring and folk medicine since ancient times. Numerous phytochemicals have been identified in spices, namely thymol (ajowan and thyme), anethole (aniseed), piperine (black pepper), capsaicin (capsicum), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon), eugenol (clove), linalool (coriander), sabinene (curry leaf), limonene (dill seed), estragole (fennel seed), allicin (garlic), gingerol (ginger), safranal (saffron), and curcumin (turmeric), among others. The antioxidants in spices are very effective and also render anti-mutagenic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Apart from their antioxidant efficacy, spices, particularly their essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and microbial toxins synthesis. In this contribution, a summary of the most relevant and recent findings on phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties of spices has been compiled and discussed. The content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids in different spices are summarized. In addition, the beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and in health promotion and disease risk reduction are briefly described.
... This plant has been reported to have cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiulcer, positive inotropic, and cholesterol reducing activities. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] Ocimum tenuiflorum (Krishna Tulsi) Family: Lamiaceae; Labiatae, the most sacred herb commonly known as Holy Basil is well known for its huge therapeutic activities and prevention against various diseases. O. tenuiflorum is a well-regarded deity herb native to India, widely dispersed, cultivated over the sphere. ...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant property of polyherbal extracts (Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum tenuiflorum, and Murraya koenigii) and identification, characterization of phytoconstituents present in the extract by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: Crude drug was processed and extracted with different solvent as per their polarity index. Qualitative and quantitative screening of phytochemical present in polyherbal extracts has been done as per the guidelines led by the World Health Organization. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content was done for the assessment of the antioxidant property of extracts. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and H 2 O 2 free radical scavenging activity. The phytochemicals present in the polyherbal extract were identified and characterized by ATR and GC-MS. Results: The GC-MS analysis of the hydromethanolic extract of polyherbal formulation revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds with valuable biological activities. The ATR analysis indicated the presence of alcohol, alkane, alkene, alkyl halide, alkyne, amine, aromatic, carbonyl, ether, acid, aldehyde, anhydride, and ester. Conclusion: The phytochemical profile of the polyherbal leaf extract indicates the presence of various bioactive compounds which can be utilized further for medicinal purposes.
... leaf extract may have the potential to attenuate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity which may arise as a result of the damage caused by free radical formation. Although the antioxidative, cytotoxic, hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiulcer, positive inotropic, and cholesterol-reducing activities of Murraya koenigii have been reported in vivo, its effects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity has never been investigated [35][36][37][38][39][40][41]. erefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the cardioprotective potential of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. ...
... The spice resulted in a fall in total Serum Cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL and an increase in HDL levels. Xie et al, in 2006 also observed the hypocholesterolemic activity of Murraya Koenigii extract in Diabetic ob/ob mice by administration of intraperitoneal injections of 80 mg/ kg curry leaf extract for 10 consecutive days. The potency of Curry leaves can be ascertained by the fact that even a short duration of one month oral administration of aqueous extract of leaves in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats at a dose of 300 mg/ kg body weight resulted in a fall of 19.2% and 30.3% in Total Cholesterol and 22.97% and 37.1% of Triglyceride level in case of normal as well as diabetic rats respectively. ...
Article
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Review article about Murraya Koenigii(curry leaves)
... M. koenigii is a plant which has various important uses in the traditional system of medicine in Eastern Asia [1]. Based on ethanomedicine, M. koenigii is used as a stimulant, antidysentric and for the management of diabetes mellitus [2]. The leaves of this plant contain high amount of oxalic acid, leaves also contains crystalline glycosides, carbazole alkaloids, koenigin and resin. ...
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In the present study a highly efficient and reproducible procedure for the large scale propagation of M. koenigii is described. Rapid plantlet regeneration system via adventitious shoot proliferation from cotyledon and leaf explants was developed. The best results were observed on modified MS medium supplemented with BAP 12.75 µM, Kinetin 8.98 µM and ADS 152.74 µM. On this medium 91.0 ± 0.59 percent cotyledon explants showed an average number 8.09 ± 0.02 shoots whereas 6.3 ± 0.07 shoots were regenerated leaf explants. The highest shoot multiplication rate in cotyledons (4.9 ± 0.09 fold) and leaf explants (2.8 ± 0.07 fold) were achieved on MS basal medium augmented with 9.05 µM BAP, 4.46 µM Kinetin and 186.94 µM ADS. Rooting of in vitro shoots occurred in 3-4 weeks on transfer to MS basal medium containing 14.86 µM IBA. In vitro plantlets were hardened in small earthen pots containing a mixture of peat moss: perlite: vermiculite in the ratio of 1: 1: 1 at 70-80% relative humidity and 28°C for 21 days. 70% of in vitro-raised plantlets survived under field conditions. Standardization of an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol could be helpful in carrying out various genetic modifications in this economically important crop.
... It is a rich source of biologically active carbazole alkaloids and possesses pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumor. The curry leaf extract has been reported to decrease blood cholesterol and glucose concentrations in diabetic animals (Kesari, Gupta, & Watal, 2005;Xie et al., 2006). Yadav, Vats, Dhunnoo, and Grover (2002) reported that feeding a diet containing various doses of curry leaves (5, 10 and 15%) to normal rats for 7 days as well as alloxan-induced mild diabetic and STZ-induced moderate diabetic rats for 5 weeks showed varying hypoglycemic effects. ...
Article
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications.
... Widely used in Indian cookery for centuries because it has a versatile role to promote appetite and digestion. Based on ethanomedicine, M. koenigii is used as a stimulant, antidysentric and for the management of diabetes mellitus, cancer [69]. A number of chemical constituents from every part of the plant have been extracted. ...
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The uses of ethnomedicinal dietary antimutagens and anticarcinogens for human healthcare still remain the most promising approach to the protection of human health and medication system in developing and under developing nations. The plant sources of India provide effective anticancer agents. Spice Herbs have a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Spices have been used for thousands of years and are known for their flavor, taste and color in the food. Moreover, ethnomedicinal spices used to treat cancer are considerably cheap. Herbal drug treatment can be given to poor people in the rural areas to treat different cancers effectively at an affordable cost. The article reveals the most recent studies on dietary ethnomedicinal spices and their families used to treat various types of cancer. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All rights reserved.
... It is currently used a cooking spice and has been commonly used in traditional Indian medicine for thousands of years . Studies report curry leaves to have hypoglycemic, antidiabetic (Xie et al., 2006;Dineshkumar et al., 2010), hepatoprotective (Sathaye et al., 2011), antibacterial (Ningappa et al., 2010;Tajkarimi et al., 2010;Biswas et al., 2012), anti-inflammatory (Gupta et al., 2010) and antioxidative properties (Ningappa et al., 2008;Gupta and Prakash, 2009). The bioactivity of curry leaf has been attributed to the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, essential oils, phenolic acids (Singh et al., 2011), terepenoids, tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein (Palaniswamy, 2001), as well as minerals, protein and fat (Singh et al., 2011). ...
Article
Curry leaves (Murraya koenigii), native to South Asian countries are commonly used as a food flavoring agent and known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anticancer and toxic effects of Curry Leaf Extracts (CLE) in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and to assess the phytochemical content and antioxidant activities of CLE. The Caco-2 human colon adenocarcinoma (ATCC HTB-37) cells and Hep2G human liver cells (ATCC HB-8065) and were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA). For assay, 5×104cells/well were seeded in a 24 well culture plate and incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 until development of a monolayer. Cells were incubated with aqueous CLE at selected concentrations (0.2-0.8 μg mL-1) for 12 and 24 h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, histone-related DNA fragmentation and detoxification enzymes were determined. Phytochemical content and antioxidative activities of the extract were determined using in vitro methods. After 24 h, LDH release was highest in Caco-2 cells treated at 0.8 μg mL-1 (45.83 μg mL-1). The LDH of HepG2 cells peaked at 15.74% (12 h-0.8 μg mL-1), inferring low acute cytotoxicity. The GST activity in Caco-2 cells increased with increasing concentration of CLE, however, SOD activity decreased. Histone-related DNA fragmentation was highest in cells treated with 0.4 μg mL-1 for both cell lines. Total phenolics and flavonoids of methanolic CLE were 541.11±12.41 GAE/100 g CLE and 192.22±2.75 CE/100 g CLE. The results from this study indicate that curry leaf may be effective in colon cancer prevention while causing minimal toxic effects to liver cells.
... et al., 2000). Curry leaves have properties that can help in lowering one's blood cholesterol levels (Jing-Tian Xie et al, 2006). Curry leaves is a staple in Indian dishes, commonly used as seasoning, this leaf adds a special flavour to every dish it is added to. ...
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Indian cooking basically contains a handful of herbs like Murraya koenigii which help to enhance the flavor of the dish. But there is more to the humble curry leaf than simply flavor. Leaves in present investigation contains major nutrient like N, P, K, S and Na were 2.95 %, 0.67 %, 0.34 %, 1.97 % and 0.88 percent respectively. On dry weight basis, it contains 18.49 % total protein, 4.81 % total fat and almost 68.66% total carbohydrate. The leaves also contains comparable amount of antioxidant like ascorbic acid, flavonoid and total phenol as well as linolenic acid, PUFA, which is very good for health.
... Among all the different polarity of leaf and bark extracts, the aqueous and methanolic leaf extract at the dose levels of 300 mg/kg body weight produced a significant decrease in fasting blood-glucose level by 64.16 and 60.84 per cent respectively with respect to be initial fasting blood-glucose level after 15 days of the treatment was reported by Sahu et al. (2013). Xie et al. (2006), observed curry leaf ( M. koenigii) extract possesses the property to decrease blood cholesterol and blood-glucose levels in diabetic ob/ob mice. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of 80 mg/kg curry leaf extract for 10 consecutive days. ...
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Murraya koenigii, L. Spreng, a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, and very popularly used in Indian cuisine are the daily basis. The study of literature reveals some remarkable phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the plant. The whole plant of M. koenigii are rich in carotenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids and it keeps several biological activitiessuch asimmunomodulatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiulcer, anti-diarrhea, antiamnesic, anthelmintic, and antioxidant properties. M. koenigii also is rich in simple phenolic acid such as gallic, caffeic, tannic, ferulic and vanillic acids. Based on the above consideration, it is not surprising that M. koenigii have been attracting greater interest. Therefore, this article reviews the most updated information of the phytochemical properties and pharmacological effects of M. koenigii extract as well as its miscellaneous uses.
... The plant contains various types of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, amino acids and saponins (Sindhu and Arora, 2012). The reported pharmacological activities are anti-oxidative, cytotoxic (Shah and Juvekar, 2006), antimicrobial (Manfred et al., 1985), anti-diabetic and cholesterol-reducing (kesari et al., 2005) and antiulcer (Xie et al., 2006), with positive inotropic effect (Rahman and Gray, 2005). Ficus lacor Buch. ...
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Murraya koenigii root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform (MKPE , MKEA and MKCF, respectively) and Ficus lacor aerial root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol (FLPE , FLET, FLCF and FLET, respectively) at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) using animal models of acute inflammation (carrageenan-, histamine- and serotonin-induced inflammation). The results of the Murraya koenigii roots chloroform extract caused 66.4% inhibition and the ethanol extract of Ficus lacor aerial roots caused 68.3% inhibition at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., MKPE and MKCF showed 55.10% and 70.10% inhibition, respectively. FLPE and FLET showed 74.50% and 75.40% inhibition, respectively, in the carrageenan-induced inflammation model. In histamine-induced inflammation, the MKCF showed 60% inhibition, and 67.01% and 68.02% inhibition with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts, respectively, in Ficus lacor aerial roots at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w.), MKCF showed 64% inhibition. FLPE and FLET showed 70.13%and 74.01% inhibition, respectively; 62.15% and 66.10% inhibition was observed with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Ficus lacor aerial roots at 50 mg/kg b.w. At higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w.), FLPE and FLET showed 69.10% and 68.72% inhibition in serotonin-induced inflammation.
... Curry leaves may be medicinally useful for the treatment or prevention of diabetes, cancer, and possibly cardiovascular disease (Dasguptaa, Raoa, & Yadavaa, 2003). Ingestion of curry leaves improved the plasma lipid profile in the rat feeding model (Khan, Abraham, & Leelamma, 1997), it also promoted both hypocholesterolemic effects and improved glycemic status in the obese mouse model (Xie et al., 2006). Curry leaves have been identified as containing a rich profile of simple phenolic acids including tannic, gallic, caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, ferulic, and vanillic acids (Singh et al., 2004). ...
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Curry leaf (Murraya koenegii) is a common flavouring agent in Indian foods. This study characterised the flavonol profile of curry leaf extracted with different solvents and the relative antioxidant capacity of these extracts by quantifying phenolic constituents. Flavonols were extracted using ethanol, methanol, or acetone prior to identification and quantification using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC-MS–MS) with negative ion detection. Major curry leaf flavonols included myricetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-O-pentohexoside, quercetin-3-diglucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-acetylhexoside, quercetin-O-xylo-pentoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-aglucoside. Lag-time and TBARS tests demonstrated that curry leaf phenolics prevent cupric-ion induced oxidation of LDL. The best extraction yield was obtained with 80% ethanol. Acetone extracts provided better antioxidant activity expressed as increased lag-time formation, than did ethanol or methanol extracts. Curry leaf is a rich source of flavonols that have biological activity in vitro and further studies are warranted in regards to the potential health benefits and identification of the novel flavonols whose identities remain unknown.
... Carbazole alkaloids and methanolic extracts of M. koenigii are also reported to possess anti-oxidative [10][11][12], anti-diarrheal and anti-trichomonal activities [13,14]. M. koenigii leaf extracts reduced blood cholesterol and glucose levels in ob/ob mice [15]. Methanolic extract of M. koenigii leaves possess anti-inflammatory [16] and immunomodulatory activity [17]. ...
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Background Inhibition of the proteolytic activity of 26S proteasome, the protein-degrading machine, is now considered a novel and promising approach for cancer therapy. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitors have been demonstrated to selectively kill cancer cells and also enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, polyphenols/flavonoids have been reported to inhibit proteasome activity. Murraya koenigii Spreng, a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Here we show that Murraya koenigii leaves (curry leaves), a rich source of polyphenols, inhibit the proteolytic activity of the cancer cell proteasome, and cause cell death. Methods Hydro-methanolic extract of curry leaves (CLE) was prepared and its total phenolic content [TPC] determined by, the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. Two human breast carcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line, WI-38 were used for the studies. Cytotoxicity of the CLE was assessed by the MTT assay. We studied the effect of CLE on growth kinetics using colony formation assay. Growth arrest was assessed by cell cycle analysis and apoptosis by Annexin-V binding using flow cytometry. Inhibition of the endogenous 26S proteasome was studied in intact cells and cell extracts using substrates specific to 20S proteasomal enzymes. Results CLE decreased cell viability and altered the growth kinetics in both the breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. It showed a significant arrest of cells in the S phase albeit in cancer cells only. Annexin V binding data suggests that cell death was via the apoptotic pathway in both the cancer cell lines. CLE treatment significantly decreased the activity of the 26S proteasome in the cancer but not normal cells. Conclusions Our study suggests M. koenigii leaves to be a potent source of proteasome inhibitors that lead to cancer cell death. Therefore, identification of active component(s) from the leaf extract could lead to the development of anti-cancer agents which could be useful in the treatment of different types of cancers.
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Background: Murraya koenigii (MK), also known as ―Krishnanimba‖ in Ayurveda is a well-known member of the Rutaceae family. It is widely consumed, particularly in Asia, as a seasoning or flavouring agent. For centuries, it has been used to cure different body ailments. Because of its immense pharmacological abilities, it is often known as the "Magic Tree of Indian Spice". Purpose: This review aimed to analyse the medicinal benefits of MK and its active constituents, which warrants further extensive research in the form of clinical trials, and novel drug discovery. Methods: We conducted searches for this literature study utilising scientific databases, such as PUBMED, Science Direct, Elsevier, and Google scholar. For this research, the publications considered were all in the English. We used the terms "Murraya koenigii" and "Traditional medicine" or "Alternative medicine" and/or "Bioactive compounds" or "Chemical compounds" for current research-based literature, and "Curry leaf" and/or "Antioxidants" and/or "Anti-diabetic" and/or "Cardioprotection" and/or "Anti-inflammatory" and/or "Hepatoprotection" and/or "Nephroprotection" and/or "Neuroprotection" and/or "Gastroprotection" and/or "Anti-ulcerative" and/or "pro-fertility" and/or "wound-healing" for current research-based literature. We selected just those publications that would fit within the scope of our current review. Results: Results showed its hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-ulcerative, pro-fertility, anti-diabetic effects etc. Conclusion: Worldwide, people should include this herb in their diet owing to its numerous health benefits. However, extensive clinical trials utilizing various parts of this herb are obligatory to get benefits from this herb.The availability of relatively cheaper natural medicines with minimum side effects against different ailments could then be feasible.
Chapter
Murraya koenigii belonging to the family Rutaceae is a small perennial plant or aromatic shrub that grows wild and is found almost in the lowlands and hill forests of Nepal, Bhutan, China, India, and Myanmar except in the higher parts of the Himalayas. The leaves of the plant have been very popularly used in Indian cuisine and also used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Phytochemical analysis of fresh leaves of Murraya koenigii evidenced the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, fiber, minerals, and the fruit extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic contents which reveal immense prospects to enhance consumer health as well as to alleviate disease risks. This chapter highlights the agronomic and neutraceutical applications for realizing the market potential of Murraya koenigii along with its ethnomedicinal importance. Figure 30.1
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Diabetes mellitus is becoming a metabolic disease that is defined by the level of hyperglycemia. Nowadays, it has a serious threat to public healthiness in throughout the world. Constituents and extracts isolated from diverse natural resources, mainly plants, have constantly been a rich store for controlling and treating diabetes problems. Numerous researches are ongoing to identify the suitable traditional medical drugs, medicinal herbs, and resources for managing this condition. Murraya koenigii Spreng (family Rutaceae) is commonly known as a ‘curry leaf tree’ locally. It is widely scattered in India and Sri Lanka, and leaves are commonly used for cooking. And also mainly used for various health conditions such as diabetes, anemia, diarrhea, and others. The present review aimed to critically review the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the M. koenigii based on the review, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. Based on this review, the M. koenigii possess flavonoids, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. It has shown a potential anti-hyperglycemic effect on induced diabetic rats. This review reported the potential of M. koenigii and its extract to be a high-value dietary product in terms of its anti-hyperglycemic effects and industrial profits. Therefore, the present review supports the researchers and readers/users to realize the importance of using M. koenigii in managing diabetes mellitus. Further, this review provides a valuable document for future scientific-related clinical trials in diabetic patients.
Chapter
This is an overview of plant use for medicinal applications, a practice from old civilizations still used around the world. According to WHO, nearly 80% of people use herbal medicine plant extracts as their primary health solution. Ethnobotany emerges as a research field to document and understand the traditional knowledge about plants and their roles in society. Diseases like diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and cancer are the predominant challenges to global health, chronic diseases accounting for two-thirds of deaths worldwide. This document discusses ethnobotanical studies on many medicinal plants affecting these diseases.
Chapter
The term “spices” has been derived from the word “species,” which was connected to the group of exotic foods in medieval times. Spices and herbs have a long history of culinary use, medicinal properties, and as additives and thus have a distinct place in Ayurveda. Exhibiting the merits of spices by scientific methods still remains a challenge. This review investigates the anti-diabetic properties in preventing and managing diabetics and associated complications with commonly used spices. The bioactive compounds in these spices are additionally discussed. The major aim and object of the present work is to investigate the customary therapeutic usage of basic Indian spices and to corelate their observed pharmacological activities with the presence of explicit bioactive compounds present for the treatment or counteractive action of diabetes. This includes the basic underlying mechanism of their blood glucose lowering property including exploratory experimental evidence from proposed animal and human trials.
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Murraya koenigii, commonly known as curry leaves, is a well-known spice and natural flavouring substance used in Indian households for preparing delicacies. It is of Indian origin, easily available throughout the year and has been a constituent of many Ayurvedic medicines since old age. It has been used traditionally by the folks to cure ailments besides adding taste in food. Studies of literature disclose many prominent pharmacological behaviours of the plant. Carbazole alkaloids which are copiously available in the roots, fruits, leave and bark has been accounted for their anticancerous, antinociceptive, antibacterial, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Beside them, the plant has an ample array of therapeutic activities. Pharmacology and phytochemistry of this plant requires an inclusive review of its prediction as a vital therapeutic manager for the managing of many diseases usually affecting humans. A recent review highlights the detailed report on clinical, pharmacological, photochemical and pre-clinical works carried out on Murraya koenigii and also notifies therapeutic aspects.
Chapter
The term “spices” has been derived from the word “species,” which was connected to the group of exotic foods in medieval times. Spices and herbs have a long history of culinary use, medicinal properties, and as additives and thus have a distinct place in Ayurveda. Exhibiting the merits of spices by scientific methods still remains a challenge. This review investigates the anti-diabetic properties in preventing and managing diabetics and associated complications with commonly used spices. The bioactive compounds in these spices are additionally discussed. The major aim and object of the present work is to investigate the customary therapeutic usage of basic Indian spices and to corelate their observed pharmacological activities with the presence of explicit bioactive compounds present for the treatment or counteractive action of diabetes. This includes the basic underlying mechanism of their blood glucose lowering property including exploratory experimental evidence from proposed animal and human trials.
Chapter
This is an overview of plant use for medicinal applications, a practice from old civilizations still used around the world. According to WHO, nearly 80% of people use herbal medicine plant extracts as their primary health solution. Ethnobotany emerges as a research field to document and understand the traditional knowledge about plants and their roles in society. Diseases like diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and cancer are the predominant challenges to global health, chronic diseases accounting for two-thirds of deaths worldwide. This document discusses ethnobotanical studies on many medicinal plants affecting these diseases.
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Dyslipidemia is a high level of lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides or both) carried by lipoproteins in the blood. The condition is rapidly spreading globally and has even riven the age bar. It is now swaying in young people too. The persistent dyslipidemias are often associated with many complexities. The most available and accessible therapies for dyslipidemias include Statins, the long use of which may be detrimental to human health. Natural plants have always been used to prevent and treat various diseases for thousands of years. India is a home to innumerous medicinal plants, many of which remain underutilized. Murraya Koenigii (curry leaf) a medicinal plant native to India, Sri Lanka and other South Asian countries, is one such plant. The therapeutic potential of the plant is one beyond measure and thus it can truly be called 'The Indian Panacea'. A screening of research reviews on curry leaves highlights its importance as a potent hypocholesterolemic herbal alternative. Dehydrated leaf powder and crude extracts of Murraya Koenigii supports its role in food processing industry and as value addition component in health and nutrition. The present stands on vintage pillars. The review covers contemporary as well as established data on therapeutic potential of Murraya Koenigii in Dyslipidemia.
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The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of curry leaf powder. The phenolic contents of curry approximately increased 5–6 folds after SSF by T. verins, T. viride, T. reesei and T. harzianum. The major identified flavonoids analysis by HPLC increased several folds ranged from 2.5 to 8.1 in fermented curry than unfermented curry. The phenolic compounds of fermented curry had higher antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and phosphomolybdenum complex (PMC) assays compared with unfermented curry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fermented curry by Trichoderma spp. against Bacillus cereus (B.C.), Bacillus subtils (B.S.), Staphylococcus aureus (S.A.), Escherichia coli (E.C.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.A.) and Klebsiella pneumonia (K.P.) were lower than those of unfermented curry. The time-killing curves of E.C., P.A., B.C., B.S. and K.P. in presence of phenolic compounds of curry fermented by T. harzianum were similar to Ampicillin as control. The results showed the strong correlation between the concentration of phenolic content of curry and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In conclusion, the SSF upgraded the nutrient value of curry as spices which used widely in human foods.
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Medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds have been utilized for primary and traditional healthcare system since time immemorial. The leaves of Murraya koenigii are used as a herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. They are believed to possess anti-diabetic, anti microbial, anti inflammatory properties. Murraya koenigii is a medicinal herb traditionally also used in the treatment of piles, itching and are useful in leucoderma and blood disorders. The methanolic extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five compounds were identified which included α.-Caryophyllene, 2-phenyl-4-quinolinecarboxamide and Phenanthrene. In this article we outline about pharmacological and biological activities of these compounds.
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This chapter explains antidiabetic activities of woody plants like Achras sapota, Bombax ceiba, Barringtonia acutangula, Casuarina equisitifolia, Conocarpus lancifolius, Eriobotrya japonica, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Jasminum sambac, Kigelia pinnata, Lagerstroemia indica rosea, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Morus alba, Murraya koenigii, and Roystonea regia. More than 400 plants are reported to have antidiabetic activities due to their effects on lowering blood cholesterol, decreasing lipid peroxidation, and increasing the renewal of parietal cells in the pancreas and thereby stimulating the secretion of pancreatic insulin. The medicinal properties of many such trees are described in this section.
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Medicinal plants or their bioactive compounds have been utilized by developing countries for primary and traditional healthcare system since very long period of time. In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, Murraya koenigii, a medicinally important herb from mainly Asian origin has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in bronchial disorders, piles, vomiting, skin diseases etc. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for leaf, stem, bark and oil. The well studied pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. koenigii and therapeutic potential of this plant needs to be compiled in form of review. The present review incorporates the description of M. koenigii, its phytochemical constituents and various pharmacological activities of isolated compounds as well as bioactivity of extract studies carried out by various numbers of laboratories. In addition to that, it highlights its potential to be the important nutraceutical for diabetes and cardioprotection.
Article
In the current study, we carried out a comparative analysis of the antioxidant activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the selected leaves of herbs commonly used in Indian cuisine. Total content of phenols, carotenes, tannins and flavonoids was quantitatively estimated from leaves of lemon grass, mint, coriander and curry leaves. Antioxidant activity of the two extracts using free radical scavenging assays like DPPH, FRAP, SO, NO and H2O2 was determined. It was observed that presence of greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to a more powerful radical scavenging effect as was shown by methanolic extract of the leaves when compared to the aqueous extracts. Among the herbs investigated by us lemon grass exhibited the maximum content of phenols and hence greatest antioxidant profile. Mint showed significant concentration of phenols and thus good activity against deleterious oxidants. The results show that use of the natural antioxidants occurring in herbs used in the Indian diet, or their extracts, is a viable option for the food industry as long as the organoleptic characteristics of the food product are not affected.
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The curry leaf tree is vulnerable to leaf spot disease characterized by black necrotic spots on leaves. Not much work has been done on leaf spot of Murraya koenigii. Hence this research work has emphasized in elucidating the disease causing agent and determining their role in producing the observed symptoms. Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from infected curry leaf were characterized by molecular methods and compared with morphological identification. The two its universal primer pair used for PCR 5′- TCC GTA GGT GAA CCT GCG G- 3′ and 5 - TCC TCC GCT TAT TGA TAT GC- 3′ determined the causative agent as Colletotrichum gloeosporoides.
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Bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces and biofilm development are ubiquitous phenomena with several deleterious medical and economic consequences. The establishment of biofilms by alginate-producing P. aeruginosa strains is the most common mode of growth in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic lung infections, with the biofilms providing a protected environment against the host immune system and a number of antibiotics. Selected natural products that originate in plants can influence microbial biofilm formation. In this paper specific inhibition of alginate production by and antibiofilm activity of Matricaria chamomilla essential oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa are studied. Disk diffusion method employed to evaluate P. aeruginosa inhibition exposed to the essential oil concentrations of Matricaria chamomilla L. did not show antimicrobial property. The oil composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS led to identification of 18 components of which the major ones were: guaiazulene (25.6%), (E)-W-faransens (20.1%), chamazulene (12.4%), V-bisabolol oxide B (7.3%), V-bisabolol (7.3%), and hexadecanole (5.6%). Biofilm formation was studied using saffranin stain employing plate reader. Alginate production was quantified in absence and in presence of the essential oil concentrations. The alginate production reduced significantly as the oil concentration increased. At the oil concentration of 0.5 [g/ml both biofilm and alginate reduced restoring alginate/biofilm ratio to normal level with decreased biofilm/alginate ratio. Use of natural agents capable of reducing biofilm formation would be useful in control of microbial pathogenicity leading to the prevention of infections of numerous biofilm producing bacterial species.
Chapter
Curry leaf is a small, fast growing, deciduous, aromatic shrub or tree with strong antioxidant activity. This chapter describes the botany, history, producing regions, flavor and aroma, parts used, and active constituents. The chapter also highlights the uses of curry leaf in different recipes around the world. Curry leaves are popular and extensively used in South Indian and Sri Lankan dishes. Curry leaf has been reported to have carminative, antifungal, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antineoplastic, antitumor, antihypercholesteremic, antidiabetic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant properties. Finally the medicinal uses, functional properties, and antioxidant properties of curry leaves are discussed in great detail.
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Coriander is a strongly aromatic, erect, herbaceous annual herb with strong antioxidant activity and this antioxidant activity correlated well with the phenolic compounds. This chapter describes the botany, history, producing regions, flavor and aroma, parts used, and active constituents. The chapter also highlights the uses of coriander in different recipes around the world. Coriander has been reported to have antibacterial, spasmolytic, stomachic, carminative, antimicrobial, antifungal, cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Finally the medicinal uses, functional properties, and antioxidant properties of coriander are discussed in great detail.
Article
Context: Murraya paniculata (Linn) JACK (Rutaceae) is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, and microbial disorders. Objective: This study determined the polyphenol composition and antimicrobial and acute toxicological activity of the hydroethanolic extract of M. paniculata leaves (EEMp). Materials and methods: Chemical composition was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 assays and by HPLC-DAD. Antibacterial and modulatory activity was determined by the microdilution method. Toxicity was assessed with a single dose of EEMp administered orally at doses of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day in male and female Swiss mice. Results: Total phenolic content of the EEMp samples varied from 66.5 to 396.8 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract and flavonoid content varied from 0.3 to 31.1 mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract. The principal component identified by HPLC-DAD assay was ellagic acid. The results of oral acute toxicity showed no mortality, changes in hematological parameters, or CNS and ANS toxicities in rats. Biochemical analysis showed a significant increase in glucose and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity and reduction in triglycerides and cholesterol for 5000 and 2000 mg/kg doses, respectively, when compared with the control group. Histopathological evaluation showed no significant microscopic changes. EEMp showed essentially no antimicrobial activity, but when aminoglycosides were combined with EEMp their MIC was reduced. Conclusions: Significant effects were observed in the acute toxicity assay, but they had no clinical relevance. The results suggest that M. paniculata could be used as a source of natural products with antibacterial resistance-modifying activity, with lower toxicity.
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Increasing amounts of evidence clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the polyphenolic antioxidants found in natural products improving brain performance and health. Vegetables and fruits might be able to reduce or block the neuronal death that occurs during various neuro-pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, hypoxia, Parkinson's disease, etc. Recently, consumption of pomegranate fruits has been well demonstrated to attenuate neuro-degenerative processes of the brain due to the presence of various active components. In this chapter, we review the mechanism of action of pomegranates on brain health.
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Medicinal plants are used in herbalism and thought to have some medicinal properties. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. Ethanobotany is a distinct branch of natural science dealing with various aspects such as anthropology, archaeology, botany, ecology, economics and medicine, religious, cultural and several other disciplines. Recently, great interest in the above given studies of herbal drugs and traditional remedies is indicated worldwide and there has been an upsurge in the scientific investigations in this area. The Murraya koenigii plant is widely used as herb, spice, condiments and also used to treat various types of ailments in Indian traditional system. World's about 80% population relies upon herbal products, because they have been considered as safe, effective and economical. The present study was aimed to review the ethanobotanical properties, pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Murraya koenigii plant. The various parts of this plant are widely used by different tribal communities. The leaves of plant are use as tonic, stomachic, carminative, internally in dysentery, vomiting. Used as antihelminthic, analgesic, cures piles, allays heat of the body, thirst, inflammation and itching. Following various claims for cure of numerous diseases, efforts have been made by researchers to verify the efficacy of the plant through scientific biological screening. A scrutiny of literature reveals some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as activity on heart, anti diabetic and cholesterol reducing property, antimicrobial activity, antiulcer activity, antioxidative property, cytotoxic activity, anti diarrhea activity, phagocytic activity and many more medicinal values.
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants are used in herbalism and thought to have some medicinal properties. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. Ethanobotany is a distinct branch of natural science dealing with various aspects such as anthropology, archaeology, botany, ecology, economics and medicine, religious, cultural and several other disciplines. Recently, great interest in the above given studies of herbal drugs and traditional remedies is indicated worldwide and there has been an upsurge in the scientific investigations in this area. The Murraya koenigii plant is widely used as herb, spice, condiments and also used to treat various types of ailments in Indian traditional system. World's about 80% population relies upon herbal products, because they have been considered as safe, effective and economical. The present study was aimed to review the ethanobotanical properties, pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Murraya koenigii plant. The various parts of this plant are widely used by different tribal communities. The leaves of plant are use as tonic, stomachic, carminative, internally in dysentery, vomiting. Used as antihelminthic, analgesic, cures piles, allays heat of the body, thirst, inflammation and itching. Following various claims for cure of numerous diseases, efforts have been made by researchers to verify the efficacy of the plant through scientific biological screening. A scrutiny of literature reveals some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as activity on heart, anti diabetic and cholesterol reducing property, antimicrobial activity, antiulcer activity, antioxidative property, cytotoxic activity, anti diarrhea activity, phagocytic activity and many more medicinal values.
Article
Background & Objectives: The complications of atherosclerotic macrovascular disease account for majority of deaths and disproportionate degree of morbidity in people with diabetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male, Wistar rats were divided into four groups as described in methods. The effect of oral administration of M. koenigii leaves extract on the levels of blood glucose and serum glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile in the serum, liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats was examined. The levels of serum lipoproteins and tissue fatty acid composition were also monitored. Results: The significant increase in the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in diabetic rats were considerably restored to near control in M. koenigii as well as glibenclamide treated rats. The alterations observed on the levels of serum lipoproteins and fatty acid compositions were reverted to near control levels after the treatment of M. koenigii leaves extract. Interpretation & Conclusion: M. koenigii leaves extract possess antihyperlipidemic properties, which in turn may be due to the presence of carbazole alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, triterpenoids and phenolic compounds in the extract.
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The mechanisms that balance food intake and energy expenditure determine who will be obese and who will be lean. One of the molecules that regulates energy balance in the mouse is the obese (ob) gene. Mutation of ob results in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. The ob gene product may function as part of a signalling pathway from adipose tissue that acts to regulate the size of the body fat depot.
Article
Murraya koenigii leaf and Brassica juncea seeds at 10% levels were incorporated into a high fat cholesterol diet and fed to rats for 3 months. The results showed pronounced hypolipidemic effect. The plasma lipoprotein profile showed that these spices reduced remarkably the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoprotein fractions.
Article
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) is commonly used in India as a natural flavoring agent for various food preparations. Drinking water containing 10% and 20% fresh crude curry leaf aqueous extract was given to Swiss albino mice to investigate its ability to modulate the level/activities of drug metabolising Phase I enzymes (Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome b5, Cytochrome P450 reductase and Cytochrome b5 reductase), Phase II enzymes (Glutathione S- transferase and DT- diaphorase), antioxidant parameters (Reduced glutathione, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, Glutathione reductase), lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation changes. The level of glutathione, glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase was examined also in the extrahepatic organs viz., forestomach, kidney and lung. There was a significant increase in the activities of acid soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) content (from P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), glutathione- S transferase and DT-diaphorase (from P < 0.005 to P < 0.001). Antioxidative parameters were also elevated above basal value being: superoxide dismutase (P < 0.005), catalase (P < 0.001), Glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.005), and glutathione reductase (P < 0.005). Level of lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase decreased significantly. Anticarcinogenic potential of curry leaf was evaluated adopting the protocol of Benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive response was measured by tumor burden (papillomas/mouse), and by the percentage of tumor bearing animals. Both the investigated dose levels of curry leaf showed a significant reduction in tumor burden (P < 0.001) as well as tumor incidence at both the tumor model system studied. Our studies strongly suggest that the curry leaf can be useful for the prevention of human stomach and skin cancers.
Article
The chemical composition of the volatile oil of the fresh leaves of Murraya koenigii growing wild in Dehra Dun was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-four compounds consisting of 97.4% of the oil were identified. The major constituents identified were α-pinene (51.7%), sabinene (10.5%), β-pinene (9.8%), β-caryophyllene (5.5%), limonene (5.4%), bornyl acetate (1.8%), terpinen-4-ol (1.3%), γ-terpinene (1.2%) and α-humulene (1.2%).
Article
The volatile oils from the leaves of six species of the genus Murraya have been studied by GC-MS and about 60 monoterpene and sesquiterpenes components identified. From these results and published data on other species it appears that oils are either predominantly sesquiterpenoid or monoterpenoid in nature. The distinction between the two oil types coincides with other chemical data that supports the division of the genus into two sections, Murraya and Bergera.
Article
Curry leaves powder supplementation (12g providing 2.5 g fibre) was carried out for a period of 1 month in 30 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients. The parameters monitored at 1, 15 and 30 days were fasting and 2 h post-prandial blood sugar levels, serum total cholesterol and its lipoprotein fractions, triglycerides, total amino acids, uronic acid, glycosylated serum proteins and glycosylated low density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. The results indicated a transient reduction in fasting and post-prandial blood sugar levels at 15-day period with no appreciable changes in serum glycosylated protein levels, glycosylated low density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, serum lipids, lipoprotein cholesterol levels, uronic acid and total amino acids were observed during the supplementation period, i.e, either at 15 days or 30 days.
Article
Effect of Murraya koenigii and Brassica juncea on carbohydrate metabolism has been studied using rats as experimental animals. Both showed significant hypoglycemic action. There was increase in the concentration of hepatic glycogen and glycogenesis, as evident from the increased activity of glycogen synthetase, and decrease in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis as evident from the decreased activity of glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes.
Article
Three groups with 12 weanling male albino rats were group fed for 90 days on a standard laboratory rat diet plus 20% coconut oil either without a supplement or with the addition of 10% curry leaf or 10% mustard seeds. Feed was offered at a level of 10% body weight. At the end of the trial, measurements were made on the total serum cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, and very low density lipoproteins fractions, release of lipoproteins into the circulation, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity and lipoprotein lipase activity. Feed intake and mean body weight of the rats on each treatment was not significantly different. Both spices resulted in a reduction in total serum cholesterol and LDL + VLDL, an increase in the HDL, lower release of lipoproteins into the circulation and an increase in the LCAT activity.
Article
Curry leaves are one of the spices used in Indian dishes for aroma and preservation. There are no reports on the antioxidant properties of curry leaves. In this study, the antioxidant potential of curry leaves in rats treated with a known chemical carcinogen, dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) was investigated. Food intake was reduced in the rats fed curry leaf-supplemented diet but the body and the organ weights were not affected. Vitamin A content in the liver was significantly increased whereas glutathione (GSH) content was not altered. A 50% reduction was seen in the micronuclei induced by DMH and a 30% reduction in the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase when the rats were fed a curry leaf-supplemented diet. These results indicate that curry leaves have high potential as reducer of the toxicity of DMH.
Article
The antioxidative properties of the leaves extracts of Murraya koenigii using different solvents were evaluated based on the oil stability index (OSI) together with their radical scavenging ability against 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract and the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction of the 70% acetone extract significantly prolonged the OSI values comparable to those of alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Five carbazole alkaloids were isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) extract and their structures were identified to be euchrestine B (1), bismurrayafoline E (2), mahanine (3), mahanimbicine (4), and mahanimbine (5) based on (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass (MS) spectral data. The OSI value of carbazoles at 110 degrees C decreased in the order 1 and 3 > alpha-tocopherol > BHT > 2 > 4, 5 and control. It is assumed that compounds 1 and 3 contributed to the high OSI value of the CH(2)Cl(2) extract of M. koenigii. The DPPH radical scavenging activity for these carbazoles was in the order ascorbic acid > 2 > 1, 3 and alpha-tocopherol > BHT > 4 and 5.
Article
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.
Article
We evaluated antihyperglycemic and anti-obese effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and its major constituent, ginsenoside Re, in obese diabetic C57BL/6J ob/ ob mice and their lean littermates. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of Panax ginseng berry extract for 12 days. On day 12, 150 mg/kg extract-treated ob/ob mice became normoglycemic (137 +/- 6.7 mg/dl) and had significantly improved glucose tolerance. The overall glucose excursion during the 2-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test decreased by 46% (P < 0.01) compared with vehicle-treated ob/ob mice. The improvement in blood glucose levels in the extract-treated ob/ ob mice was associated with a significant reduction in serum insulin levels in fed and fasting mice. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study revealed a more than twofold increase in the rate of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in treated ob/ ob mice (112 +/- 19.1 vs. 52 +/- 11.8 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1) for the vehicle group, P < 0.01). In addition, the extract-treated ob/ob mice lost a significant amount of weight (from 51.7 +/- 1.9 g on day 0 to 45.7 +/- 1.2 on day 12, P < 0.01 vs. vehicle-treated ob/ob mice), associated with a significant reduction in food intake (P < 0.05) and a very significant increase in energy expenditure (P < 0.01) and body temperature (P < 0.01). Treatment with the extract also significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels in ob/ob mice. Additional studies demonstrated that ginsenoside Re plays a significant role in antihyperglycemic action. This antidiabetic effect of ginsenoside Re was not associated with body weight changes, suggesting that other constituents in the extract have distinct pharmacological mechanisms on energy metabolism.
Article
The commonly used spice curry patta (Murraya koenigii) is traditionally consumed by diabetics in southern part of India. Feeding of diet containing various doses of curry leaves (5, 10 and 15%) to normal rats for 7 days as well as mild diabetic (blood glucose levels >175 mg/dl induced by alloxan 35 mg/kg IP) and moderate diabetic rats (blood glucose levels >250 mg/dl induced by STZ 60 mg/kg IP) for 5 weeks showed varying hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effect. In normal rats, reduction in blood glucose was almost negligible (approximately 4% with 10 and 15% diet). In mild and moderate diabetic rats, feeding of 5, 10 and 15% diet caused a maximal reduction in blood sugar by 13.1, 16.3 and 21.4% (NS, P<0.05 and 0.005) and 3.2, 5.58, 8.21% (NS), respectively. The mechanism of action is further discussed in light of results of previous and the present study.
Article
Purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of daily oral feeding 15% of powdered leaves of Murraya koeingii (MK) (commonly called as Curry patta) and 10% powder of seeds of Brassica juncea (BJ) (commonly called as Rai) for 60 days on serum glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin (STZ; 100mg/kg) diabetic rats. Serum glucose levels, body weight, urine volume, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin (UAE) levels were monitored on day 0, 10, 25, 40, and 70 of the experiment. After 60 days of STZ administration, urine volume per day and UAE levels were significantly higher (P<0.0005) in diabetic controls (DC) as compared to normal controls (NC). Although feeding of the MK/BJ showed a trend towards improvement in most of the parameters, results were not statistically different from the DC except in serum creatinine values in BJ-fed rats on day 70. Thus, these plants can be best utilized by promoting them as preferable food adjuvants for diabetic patients.
Article
A new dimeric carbazole alkaloid, 8,10'-[3,3',11,11'-tetrahydro-9,9'-dihydroxy-3,3',5,8'-tetramethyl-3,3'-bis(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)]bipyrano[3,2-a]carbazole (12), was isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) extract of Murraya koenigii together with six known carbazole alkaloids, koenimbine (6), O-methylmurrayamine A (7), O-methylmahanine (8), isomahanine (9), bismahanine (10), and bispyrayafoline (11). Their structures were determined on the basis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric (MS) data. The antioxidative properties of 12 carbazole alkaloids isolated from leaves of M. koenigii were evaluated on the basis of the oil stability index together with their radical scavenging ability against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. On the basis of the lag time to reach a steady state, the 12 carbazoles were classified into three groups. It is suggested that an aryl hydroxyl substituent on the carbazole rings plays a role in stabilizing the thermal oxidation and rate of reaction against DPPH radical.
Article
Mahanine, a carbazole alkaloid occurs in the edible part of Micromelum minutum, Murraya koenigii and related species has been found to induce apoptosis in human myeloid cancer cell (HL-60). Concentration of 10 microM mahanine caused a complete inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in a time dependent manner. Mahanine-induced cell death was characterized with the changes in nuclear morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase like activities, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, release of cytochrome c into cytosol and stimulation of reactive oxygen species generation. The cell death was completely prevented by a pancaspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aspart-1-yl-[(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)oxy]methane (Z-Asp-CH(2)-DCB). Mahanine activated various caspases such as caspase-3, -6, -8 and -9 (like) activities but not caspase-1 like activity. More than 70% cell survival was observed in the presence of a caspase-3 inhibitor. In addition, co-treatment of cyclosporin A markedly increased the survival of mahanine-treated HL-60 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that mahanine decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential of intact cells, and disrupted cell cycle progression by increasing the number of cells in sub-diploid region, concomitantly with the decrease of cells in diploid phases, particularly at late hours of apoptosis. The overall results suggest that mahanine down regulates cell survival factors by activation of caspase-3 through mitochondrial dependent pathway, and disrupts cell cycle progression.
Article
Nausea and vomiting are significant adverse effects of chemotherapeutic agents like cisplatin, and cause significant patient morbidity. Cisplatin treatment results in oxidant gut injury, which is postulated to be the primary cause of nausea and vomiting. We evaluated the effects of two antioxidant herbs, Scutellaria baicalensis and American ginseng berry, on cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting using a rat model. Rats react to emetic or nausea-producing stimuli, such as cisplatin, with altered feeding habits, manifested by increased kaolin consumption (pica). We measured pica in rats to quantify cisplatin-induced nausea. We observed that pretreatment of rats with S. baicalensis or ginseng berry extracts resulted in a significant reduction in cisplatin-induced pica. The in vitro free radical scavenging ability of the herbal extract observed in the study, further confirmed the antioxidant action of the herb. We conclude that herbal antioxidants may have a role in attenuating cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting.
Article
Ginseng is a well-known medicinal plant used in traditional Oriental medicine. In recent decades, ginseng root has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the United States. Ginseng has also been commonly used in Oriental medicine to treat diabetes-like conditions. The present review discusses the research on the anti-diabetic effects of ginseng and the possible mechanisms of its anti-diabetic actions. © 2005 World Scientific Publishing Company. Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine.
Article
Chemotherapy is highly cytotoxic, causing a number of severe adverse effects such as nausea and vomiting. Herbal medicines, which can often be used on a daily basis for prolonged treatment, may be clinically beneficial. Ganoderma lucidum or Lingzhi mushroom has been recognized as a remedy in treating a number of medical conditions, including balancing immunity and decreasing drug-induced side effects. It has been shown that rats react to emetic stimuli, like the chemotherapy agent cisplatin, by increased consumption of kaolin, known as pica; and this rat model has been utilized to evaluate novel anti-emetic compounds. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a G. lucidum extract (SunRecome, the most commonly used Lingzhi mushroom extract in China) in attenuating cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting in the rat pica model. We observed that intraperitoneal cisplatin injection caused a significant increase in kaolin intake at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, reflecting cisplatin's nausea and vomiting action. This cisplatin-induced kaolin intake dose-dependently decreased after 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg G. lucidum extract injection (p < 0.01). In addition, there was a significant reduction of food intake after cisplatin. The cisplatin-induced food intake reduction improved significantly after G. lucidum extract administrations in a dose-related manner (p < 0.01), suggesting a supportive effect of the extract on general body condition. Future controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this herbal medication.
Article
A traditional Korean herbal formula (KH), which is based on Taeumjowi-tang, is currently the most widely used herbal formula in Korea. In this study, KH was administered to obese children for 30 days, and was found to be clinically safe and effective. The subjects were children admitted to hospital to be treated for obesity with relative body weights (%RBW) of 20% or more. Originally, there were 31 subjects, but nine dropped out during the experiment. There were eight girls and 14 boys, whose average age was 11.00 ± 2.62 years, average weight was 53.37 ± 17.29 kg , and average period (30-day amount) of KH dosage was 51.18 ± 22.58 days. The short-term effects of KH on obese children were the reduction of their BMI from 24.34 ± 3.10 to 23.26 ± 3.00 kg/m ² , of %RBW from 34.41 ± 10.90 to 25.94 ± 11.18% ( p < 0.01), of body fat mass from 17.99 ± 5.37 to 16.50 ± 4.82 kg , and of body fat from 34.16 ± 3.75 to 32.08 ± 3.15% ( p < 0.01). Concerning anthropometrical measurements, abdominal skin-fold decreased from 26.16 ± 9.08 to 22.90 ± 8.35 mm , as did subscapular skin-fold from 20.86 ± 5.20 to 18.46 ± 5.31 mm ( p < 0.01). In terms of serum lipid levels, which are indices of heart disease, their total cholesterol decreased from 195.38 ± 31.39 to 183.25 ± 33.27 mg/dl , the arteriosclerosis index from 4.100 ± 0.81 to 3.84 ± 0.64 mg/dl ( p < 0.05), and serum leptin level from 14.91 ± 6.59 to 12.24 ± 4.98 ng/ml ( p < 0.01). Concerning the safety of KH, there were no significant changes in the subjects' livers, hearts, or kidneys. Nor were there any short-term signs of clinically serious side effects or withdrawal symptoms observed. The short-term effects of KH on obese children are weight loss and a decrease in obesity.
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