Safety and efficacy of sedation with propofol for transoesophageal echocardiography in children in an outpatient setting
Paediatric Cardiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA. Cardiology in the Young
(Impact Factor: 0.84).
05/2006; 16(2):152-6. DOI: 10.1017/S1047951106000084
Transoesophageal echocardiography has become a powerful tool in the diagnosis and management of children with congenital cardiac malformations. Unlike adults, children will not tolerate transoesophageal echocardiography under light sedation. This study was undertaken, therefore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deep sedation with propofol for transoesophageal echocardiography in children examined in an outpatient setting.
This is a retrospective study of patients undergoing transoesophageal echocardiography with propofol given in bolus aliquots to achieve a level of sedation adequate to insert the transoesophageal echocardiographic probe and maintain sedation throughout the procedure.
We included a total of 118 patients, 57% being male, with a mean age of 12.9 years. Adequate sedation was achieved using a mean propofol dose of 8.3 milligrams per kilogram, with the dose per kilogram decreasing concomitant with increasing weight of the patient. Patients less than two years of age were intubated for the procedure. There were no clinically significant changes in cardiac function or haemodynamics. Non-intubated patients received supplemental oxygen prior to, or just after, the onset of sedation, with transient hypoxaemia observed in one-fifth. Complications were rare, with minor problems occurring in 7.6%, and major ones in 4%.
Transoesophageal echocardiography can be performed on an outpatient basis in children with a wide spectrum of congenital cardiac malformations, and propofol is an ideal sedative agent in this setting. Although not common, preparations must be made for significant haemodynamic and respiratory complications. In our study, we intubated all the children under 2 years of age.
Available from: PubMed Central
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Radial glial cells play an essential role during corticogenesis through their function as neural precursors and guides of neuronal migration. Both reelin and neuregulin1 (NRG1) maintain the radial glial scaffold; they also induce expression of Brain Lipid Binding Protein (BLBP), a well known marker of radial glia. Although radial glia in normal ferrets express both vimentin and BLBP, this coexpression diverges at P3; vimentin is expressed in the radial glial processes, while BLBP appears in cells detached from the ventricular zone. Our lab developed a model of cortical dysplasia in the ferret, resulting in impaired migration of neurons into the cortical plate and disordered radial glia. This occurs after exposure to the antimitotic methylazoxymethanol (MAM) on the 24th day of development (E24). Ferrets treated with MAM on E24 result in an overall decrease of BLBP expression; radial glia that continue to express BLBP, however, show only mild disruption compared with the strongly disrupted vimentin expressing radial glia. When E24 MAM-treated organotypic slices are exposed to reelin or NRG1, the severely disrupted vimentin+ radial glial processes are repaired but the slightly disordered BLBP+ processes are not. The realignment of vimentin+ processes was linked with an increase of their BLBP expression. BLBP expressing radial glia are distinguished by being both less affected by MAM treatment and by attempts at repair. We further investigated the effects induced by reelin and found that signaling was mediated via VLDLR/Dab1/Pi3K activation while NRG1 signaling was mediated via erbB3/erbB4/Pi3K. We then tested whether radial glial repair correlated with improved neuronal migration. Repairing the radial glial scaffold is not sufficient to restore neuronal migration; although reelin improves migration of neurons toward the cortical plate signaling through ApoER2/Dab1/PI3K activation, NRG1 does not.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Echocardiography has become the primary imaging tool in the diagnosis and assessment of cardiological disorders in children. The purposes of this paper are to describe indications for paediatric echocardiography, define optimal instrumentation and laboratory setup for paediatric echocardiographic examinations and establish a baseline list of recommended measurements to be performed in a complete pediatric echocardiogram.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interventional cardiac catheterization in children and adolescents is traditionally performed with the patient under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. However, percutaneous closure of atrial septum defect (ASD) without general anaesthesia is currently being attempted in a growing number of children. The study objective was to evaluate the success and complication rate of percutaneous ASD closure in spontaneously breathing children under deep sedation. Retrospective single centre cohort study of consecutive children undergoing percutaneous ASD closure at a tertiary care pediatric cardiology centre. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and percutaneous ASD closure were performed with the patient under deep sedation with intravenous bolus of midazolam and ketamine for induction and propofol continuous infusion for maintenance of sedation in spontaneously breathing children. One hundred and ninety-seven patients (median age 6.1 years [minimum 0.5; maximum 18.8]) underwent TEE and ASD balloon sizing. Percutaneous ASD closure was attempted in 174 patients (88 %), and device implantation was performed successfully in 92 %. To achieve sufficient deep sedation, patients received a median ketamine dose of 2.7 mg/kg (0.3; 7) followed by a median propofol continuous infusion rate of 5 mg/kg/h (1.1; 10.7). There were no major cardiorespiratory complications associated with deep sedation, and only two patients (1 %) required endotracheal intubation due to bronchial obstruction immediately after induction of sedation. Seventeen patients (8 %) had minor respiratory complications and required frequent oral suctioning or temporary bag-mask ventilation. TEE and percutaneous ASD closure can be performed safely and successfully under deep sedation in spontaneously breathing children of all ages.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.