Hippocampal vulnerability following traumatic brain injury: A potential role for neurotrophin-4/5 in pyramidal cell neuroprotection

Laboratory for Traumatic Brain Injury, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
European Journal of Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.18). 04/2006; 23(5):1089-102. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.04642.x
Source: PubMed


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes selective hippocampal cell death, which is believed to be associated with cognitive impairment observed both in clinical and experimental settings. Although neurotrophin administration has been tested as a strategy to prevent cell death following TBI, the potential neuroprotective role of neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) in TBI remains unknown. We hypothesized that NT-4/5 would offer neuroprotection for selectively vulnerable hippocampal neurons following TBI. Measurements of NT-4/5 in rats subjected to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI revealed two-threefold increases in the injured cortex and hippocampus in the acute period (1-3 days) following brain injury. Subsequently, the response of NT-4/5 knockout (NT-4/5(-/-)) mice to controlled-cortical impact TBI was investigated. NT-4/5(-/-) mice were more susceptible to selective pyramidal cell loss in Ahmon's corn (CA) subfields of the hippocampus following TBI, and showed impaired motor recovery when compared with their brain-injured wild-type controls (NT-4/5(wt)). Additionally, we show that acute, prolonged administration of recombinant NT-4/5 (5 microg/kg/day) prevented up to 50% of the hippocampal CA pyramidal cell death following LFP TBI in rats. These results suggest that post-traumatic increases in endogenous NT-4/5 may be part of an adaptive neuroprotective response in the injured brain, and that administration of this neurotrophic factor may be useful as a therapeutic strategy following TBI.

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    • "An osmotic minipump (Alzet 2004, 0.25 μl/h) was loaded with saline (4 mice) or TLQP-62 (4 mice) (TLQP-62 C-terminal amidated peptide, Biopeptide Co., San Diego, CA) to deliver 15 μg/day intracerebroventricularly (ICV) for 28 days (Bartolomucci et al., 2007; Siuciak et al., 1997; Ullal et al., 2007; Woodside et al., 2002), connected to the cannula and implanted subcutaneously. A number of neuropeptides and neurotrophins have been shown to be stable for several weeks in the osmotic minipump (Hagg et al., 2005; Larsen et al., 2000; Royo et al., 2006; Sahu, 2002; Shibayama et al., 1998). Two weeks following implantation of cannula and mini-osmotic pump, the mice were injected with 5-ethynyl- 2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) (50 mg/kg) (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) and perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) 2 h later. "
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    ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic), which has antidepressant-like effects, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis as well as synaptic activity and plasticity in the hippocampus, however the interaction between these processes and the mechanism underlying this regulation remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that VGF-derived peptide TLQP-62 specifically enhances the generation of early progenitor cells in nestin-GFP mice. Specifically, TLQP-62 significantly increases the number of Type 2a neural progenitor cells (NPCs) while reducing the number of more differentiated Type 3 cells. The effect of TLQP-62 on proliferation rather than differentiation was confirmed using NPCs in vitro; TLQP-62 but not scrambled peptide PEHN-62 increases proliferation in a cell line as well as in primary progenitors from adult hippocampus. Moreover, TLQP-62 but not scrambled peptide increases Cyclin D mRNA expression. The proliferation of NPCs induced by TLQP-62 requires synaptic activity, in particular through NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The activation of glutamate receptors by TLQP-62 activation induces phosphorylation of CaMKII through NMDA receptors and protein kinase D through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Furthermore, pharmacological antagonists to CaMKII and PKD inhibit TLQP-62-induced proliferation of NPCs indicating that these signaling molecules downstream of glutamate receptors are essential for the actions of TLQP-62 on neurogenesis. We also show that TLQP-62 gradually activates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-receptor TrkB in vitro and that Trk signaling is required for TLQP-62-induced proliferation of NPCs. Understanding the precise molecular mechanism of how TLQP-62 influences neurogenesis may reveal mechanisms by which VGF-derived peptides act as antidepressant-like agents.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Stem Cell Research
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    • "This is also a crucial element in the neural circuitry underlying motor control (34). Most of studies reported that TBI causes selective hippocampal cell death, which is believed to be associated with cognitive impairment observed in clinical and experimental settings (2, 37) and TBI induced dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex causes many high level cognitive deficits including memory dysfunction (14, 17). A number of research groups have attempted to develop novel and innovative protocols to replicate closed traumatic brain injuries in animal models, but few experimental models have been successful (13, 27, 28). "
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    ABSTRACT: Closed traumatic brain injury (CTBI) leads to increase mortality rates in developing countries. However, a sustainable therapeutic approach has not been established yet. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of normabaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) on striatum associated Locomotor Activity (LA) in IntelliCage after Fluid-Percussion Injury (FPI). Animals were divided in four groups: Group I control (n=24), Group II sham (n=24), Group III FPI (n=24) and Group IV FPI with NBOT (n=24). Animals were habituated in IntelliCage for 4 days following transponder implanted in mice neck region on day 5. Then the LA of all groups was assessed 6hr daily for 5 days before inducing FPI. On day 6, cannula was implanted on the striatum, on day 7 FPI was performed in Group III (kept in normal environment) and IV (immediately exposed to NBOT for 3 hr). LA (in terms of number of visits in all four corners) was assessed 6 hr at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following FPI. After the animals were sacrificed to study the neuronal damage, dopamine receptors and transporters expression in striatum. The results suggested that the LA of FPI impaired mice as compared to the control and sham showed less number of visits in all four corners in IntelliCage. Morphological results revealed that FPI induced neuronal damage as compared to sham and control. Dopamine receptors and transporters were down regulated in the FPI group as compared to the control. Immediate exposure to NBOT improved LA in terms of increased number of visits in all four corners, reduced number of cell death and improved receptor expression as compared to FPI. In conclusion, NBOT exposure could improve the LA of mice following FPI through prevention of neuronal damage, improved dopamine receptors and transporters.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    • "NT-4 generates a variety of biological effects through combining with receptors in the membranes [10], [11]. Long-term use of NT-4 has been shown to inhibit hippocampal neuronal death by up to 50% [12]. Neurotrophin can also mediate neuroprotection of hippocampal neurons following traumatic brain injury [12], [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy can cause cerebral transient dysfunctions. Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has shown some antiepileptic effects in our previous studies. This was the first study of the effects of GLS on cultured primary hippocampal neurons, treated with Mg(2+) free medium. This in vitro model of epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons allowed us to investigate the anti-epileptic effects and mechanism of GLS activity. Primary hippocampal neurons from <1 day old rats were cultured and their morphologies observed under fluorescence microscope. Neurons were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining of neuron specific enolase (NSE). Sterile method for GLS generation was investigated and serial dilutions of GLS were used to test the maximum non-toxic concentration of GLS on hippocampal neurons. The optimized concentration of GLS of 0.122 mg/ml was identified and used for subsequent analysis. Using the in vitro model, hippocampal neurons were divided into 4 groups for subsequent treatment i) control, ii) model (incubated with Mg(2+) free medium for 3 hours), iii) GLS group I (incubated with Mg(2+) free medium containing GLS for 3 hours and replaced with normal medium and incubated for 6 hours) and iv) GLS group II (neurons incubated with Mg(2+) free medium for 3 hours then replaced with a normal medium containing GLS for 6 hours). Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin protein expression were detected using Western blot. The results showed that the number of normal hippocampal neurons increased and the morphologies of hippocampal neurons were well preserved after GLS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of neurotrophin-4 was significantly increased while the expression of N-Cadherin was decreased in the GLS treated group compared with the model group. This data indicates that GLS may protect hippocampal neurons by promoting neurotrophin-4 expression and inhibiting N-Cadherin expression.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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