Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition. Nutr Metab (London) 3, 16

Metabolic Research Laboratory and Section of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Nutrition, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Nutrition & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 3.26). 02/2006; 3:16. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-3-16
Source: PubMed


Over the past several years our research group has taken a systematic, comprehensive approach to determining the effects on body function (hormonal and non-hormonal) of varying the amounts and types of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet. We have been particularly interested in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes. Our objective has been to develop a diet for people with type 2 diabetes that does not require weight loss, oral agents, or insulin, but that still controls the blood glucose concentration. Our overall goal is to enable the person with type 2 diabetes to control their blood glucose by adjustment in the composition rather than the amount of food in their diet.
This paper is a brief summary and review of our recent diet-related research, and the rationale used in the development of diets that potentially are useful in the treatment of diabetes.
We determined that, of the carbohydrates present in the diet, absorbed glucose is largely responsible for the food-induced increase in blood glucose concentration. We also determined that dietary protein increases insulin secretion and lowers blood glucose. Fat does not significantly affect blood glucose, but can affect insulin secretion and modify the absorption of carbohydrates. Based on these data, we tested the efficacy of diets with various protein:carbohydrate:fat ratios for 5 weeks on blood glucose control in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. The results were compared to those obtained in the same subjects after 5 weeks on a control diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat ratio of 15:55:30. A 30:40:30 ratio diet resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose area and % total glycohemoglobin (%tGHb). A 30:20:50 ratio diet resulted in a 38% decrease in 24-hour glucose area, a reduction in fasting glucose to near normal and a decrease in %tGHb from 9.8% to 7.6%. The response to a 30:30:40 ratio diet was similar.
Altering the diet composition could be a patient-empowering method of improving the hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetes without weight loss or pharmacologic intervention.

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Available from: Mary Gannon, Jun 22, 2014
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    • "The remarkable decrease in total energy intake during 6 months, therefore, was almost certainly due to a great reduction in carbohydrate intake, not a reduction in fat intake. Under such circumstances, Δcarbohydrate (g/day) was correlated with ΔHbA1c independently of Δtotal energy intake [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A moderate low-carbohydrate diet has been receiving attention in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A fundamental issue has still to be addressed; how much carbohydrate delta-reduction (Δcarbohydrate) from baseline would be necessary to achieve a certain decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. We investigated the effects of three-graded stratification of carbohydrate restriction by patient baseline HbA1c levels on glycemic control and effects of Δcarbohydrate on decreases in HbA1c levels (ΔHbA1c) in each group. Research design and methods We treated 122 outpatients with T2DM by three-graded carbohydrate restriction according to baseline HbA1c levels (≤ 7.4% for Group 1, 7.5%-8.9% for Group 2 and ≥ 9.0% for Group 3) and assessed their HbA1c levels, doses of anti-diabetic drugs and macronutrient intakes over 6 months. At baseline, the mean HbA1c level and carbohydrate intake were 6.9 ± 0.4% and 252 ± 59 g/day for Group 1 (n = 55), 8.1 ± 0.4% and 282 ± 85 g/day for Group 2 (n = 41) and 10.6 ± 1.4% and 309 ± 88 g/day for Group 3 (n = 26). Following three-graded carbohydrate restriction for 6 months significantly decreased mean carbohydrate intake (g/day) and HbA1c levels for all patients, from 274 ± 78 to 168 ± 52 g and from 8.1 ± 1.6 to 7.1 ± 0.9% (n = 122, P < 0.001 for both) and anti-diabetic drugs could be tapered. ΔHbA1c and Δcarbohydrate were -0.4 ± 0.4% and -74 ± 69 g/day for Group 1, -0.6 ± 0.9% and -117 ± 78 g/day for Group 2 and -3.1 ± 1.4% and -156 ± 74 g/day for Group 3. Linear regression analysis showed that the greater the carbohydrate intake, the greater the HbA1c levels at baseline (P = 0.001). Also, the greater the reduction in carbohydrate intake (g/day), the greater the decrease in HbA1c levels (P < 0.001), but ΔHbA1c was not significantly influenced by changes in other macronutrient intakes (g/day). Three-graded stratification of carbohydrate restriction according to baseline HbA1c levels may provide T2DM patients with optimal objectives for carbohydrate restriction and prevent restriction from being unnecessarily strict.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Nutrition & Metabolism
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    • "A confounding factor of the studies conducted thus far is the use of single foods versus complete meals as the initial or first meal. The fat and protein quantity and quality are known to influence the rate of glucose absorption from a mixed meal [20, 21]. Therefore, the dynamics of immediate and subsequent meal glycemia are more complicated if the initial meal is a complete, mixed meal. "
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    ABSTRACT: Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of nutrition and metabolism
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    • "Previous studies have reported that diet composition particularly quantitatively important macronutrients influence postprandial glycemia by affecting the rate of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein in a single meal interact with each other to influence the rate of absorption [11]. Therefore, digestive enzyme inhibitors such as xylose may act differently when they are used as ingredients of specific food products. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic alterations including postprandial hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of obesity-related diseases. Xylose is a sucrase inhibitor suggested to suppress the postprandial glucose surge. The objectives of this study were to assess the inhibitory effects of two different concentrations of xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin responses and to evaluate its efficacy in the presence of other macronutrients. Randomized double-blind cross-over studies were conducted to examine the effect of D-xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin response following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In study 1, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 49) consumed a test sucrose solution (50 g sucrose in 130 ml water) containing 0, 5, or 7.5 g D-xylose powder. In study 2, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 50) consumed a test meal (50 g sucrose in a 60 g muffin and 200 ml sucrose-containing solution). The control meal provided 64.5 g of carbohydrates, 4.5 g of fat, and 10 g of protein. The xylose meal was identical to the control meal except 5 g of xylose was added to the muffin mix. In study 1, the 5 g xylose-containing solutions exhibited significantly lower area under the glucose curve (AUCg) and area under the insulin curve (AUCi) values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-60 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-90 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001) and 0-120 min (P = 0.0071, P = 0.0016). In study 2, the test meal exhibited significantly lower AUCg and AUCi values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0005), 0-60 min (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0025), and 0-90 min (P = 0.0396, P = 0.0246). In conclusion, xylose showed an acute suppressive effect on the postprandial glucose and insulin surges.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Nutrition research and practice
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