Paucity of FOXP3+ cells in skin and peripheral blood distinguishes Sézary syndrome from other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas

ArticleinLeukemia 20(6):1123-9 · June 2006with35 Reads
DOI: 10.1038/sj.leu.2404182 · Source: PubMed
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are mainly comprised of two variants: mycosis fungoides (MF) with CD4(+) tumor cells confined to the skin and the leukemic Sézary syndrome with tumor cell spread to the blood. In this study, we investigated cutaneous expression of the regulatory T-cell (T(reg)) marker FOXP3 in 30 CTCL patients. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly lower numbers of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) cells within the dermal lymphomononuclear infiltrate of Sézary patients (16% FOXP3(+) cells of CD4(+) cells) in contrast to MF (43% FOXP3(+) cells (P<0.05)) and rare types of CTCL (45% FOXP3(+) cells). Furthermore, CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells were also markedly reduced in the CD4(+) population within the peripheral blood of Sézary patients compared to controls as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, quantitative PCR and functional analyses. The data support the conclusion that the neoplastic cells in CTCL do not express the T(reg) marker FOXP3. Our data also identify Sézary syndrome as, to our knowledge, the first reported neoplastic disease with a clear reduction in T(reg) numbers within the CD4(+) population. This lack of T(reg) might account for the more aggressive nature of Sézary syndrome compared with other CTCL.
    • "However, Treg perform their inhibitory function in the lymphoid and other target organs in vivo. We and others could detect Treg accumulation at sites of inflammation in several human inflammatory diseases [20], [21], a process potentially also initiated by cancer cells to attract Treg into human tumor tissue [25]. However, no studies of Treg in early MS lesions from brain biopsies of treatment-naïve patients with active MS are currently available. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impaired suppressive capacity of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) from peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported by multiple laboratories. It is, however, currently unresolved whether Treg dysfunction in MS patients is limited to reduced control of peripheral T cell activation since most studies analyzed peripheral blood samples only. Here, we assessed early active MS lesions in brain biopsies obtained from 16 patients with MS by FOXP3 immunohistochemistry. In addition, we used six-color flow cytometry to determine numbers of Treg by analysis of FOXP3/CD127 expression in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 17 treatment-naïve MS patients as well as quantities of apoptosis sensitive CD45RO(hi)CD95(hi) cells in circulating and CSF Treg subsets. Absolute numbers of FOXP3(+) and CD4(+) cells were rather low in MS brain lesions and Treg were not detectable in 30% of MS biopsies despite the presence of CD4(+) cell infiltrates. In contrast, Treg were detectable in all CSF samples and Treg with a CD45RO(hi)CD95(hi) phenotype previously shown to be highly apoptosis sensitive were found to be enriched in the CSF compared to peripheral blood of MS patients. We suggest a hypothetical model of intracerebral elimination of Treg by CD95L-mediated apoptosis within the MS lesion.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011
    • "Frequency of CD4 þ , CD25 þ and FoxP3 þ T cells in skin lesions of patients with DM compared to other inflammatory diseases We analyzed the frequency of CD4 þ and FoxP3 þ cells in a series of lesional skin biopsy specimens obtained from patients with DM using immunohistochemical methods (Fig. 1AeC). For control purposes, we included skin biopsy specimens from patients with CLE, psoriasis and AD as previously published [24,30]. The frequency of CD4 þ cells, expressed as the percentage of the total dermal infiltrate, was significantly reduced in DM specimens (median 30%, range 13e43%) compared to CLE (median 54%, range 30e60%, p < 0.0001), psoriasis (median 54%, range 39e64%, p < 0.0001) and AD (median 58%, range 52e78%, p ¼ 0.0002) (Fig. 2A). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize regulatory T cells (T(reg)) in skin lesions and peripheral blood from patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and to determine the serum levels of regulatory cytokines in the disease. In skin biopsy specimens from patients with DM, immunohistochemistry was performed for CD4(+), CD25(+), forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (FoxP3)(+), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(+) and interleukin (IL)-10(+) cells. Additionally, we defined the number of T(reg) subpopulations in peripheral blood by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies against CD4, CD25, FoxP3, CD45RO, CD95, CCR4 and CLA. The levels of TGF-β and IL-10 were also determined in serum samples from patients with DM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Controls included patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) as well as healthy donors. The frequency of FoxP3(+) cells was significantly reduced in skin lesions from patients with DM (p < 0.001) compared to psoriasis and AD. Moreover, the number of cells positive for TGF-β was lower in DM than in psoriasis and AD, while IL-10(+) cells were significantly reduced only compared to psoriasis. The number of CD4(+)CD25(++)FoxP3(+) T(reg) in the peripheral blood of patients with DM was significantly reduced compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05), whereas other cell populations showed no significant differences. Finally, TGF-β and IL-10 serum levels were significantly lower in patients with DM compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). These data suggest that the depletion of T(reg) and their main effector cytokines in the skin and the serum of patients with DM may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010
    E AntigaE AntigaC.C. KretzC.C. KretzR KlembtR Klembt+1more author...[...]
    • "FoxP3 expression can be found in activated non-regulatory T cells32333435. However, high numbers of FoxP3 + cells detected by immunohistochemistry in inflamed skin and cancer tissue most likely represent regulatory T cells [36,37] . In the present study, FoxP3 + cells increased following the third vaccination and persisted through week 12. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma vaccines have not been optimized. Adjuvants are added to activate dendritic cells (DCs) and to induce a favourable immunologic milieu, however, little is known about their cellular and molecular effects in human skin. We hypothesized that a vaccine in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) would increase dermal Th1 and Tc1-lymphocytes and mature DCs, but that repeated vaccination may increase regulatory cells. During and after 6 weekly immunizations with a multipeptide vaccine, immunization sites were biopsied at weeks 0, 1, 3, 7, or 12. In 36 participants, we enumerated DCs and lymphocyte subsets by immunohistochemistry and characterized their location within skin compartments. Mature DCs aggregated with lymphocytes around superficial vessels, however, immature DCs were randomly distributed. Over time, there was no change in mature DCs. Increases in T and B-cells were noted. Th2 cells outnumbered Th1 lymphocytes after 1 vaccine 6.6:1. Eosinophils and FoxP3+ cells accumulated, especially after 3 vaccinations, the former cell population most abundantly in deeper layers. A multipeptide/IFA vaccine may induce a Th2-dominant microenvironment, which is reversed with repeat vaccination. However, repeat vaccination may increase FoxP3+T-cells and eosinophils. These data suggest multiple opportunities to optimize vaccine regimens and potential endpoints for monitoring the effects of new adjuvants. Identifier: NCT00705640.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010
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