Total Arterial Revascularization is Safe: Multicenter Ten-Year Analysis of 71,470 Coronary Procedures

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.85). 04/2006; 81(4):1243-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.12.005
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to assess the use of arterial revascularization and to compare the in-hospital mortality with other CABG grafting strategies.
A total of 71,470 CABG patients (1992-2001) in 27 centers in the United Kingdom were studied. The proportion of patients with arterial revascularization was compared. In-hospital mortality was compared for various grafting strategies: all-arterial (n = 5,401), all non-all-arterial patients (n = 66,069), one artery any number of veins (n = 49,801). The groups were compared for in-hospital mortality using multivariate logistic regression to assess the independent effect of the grafting strategies on mortality; logistic EuroSCORE-predicted mortality was compared to actual mortality, and all arterial and one artery and veins patients were compared with propensity score analysis.
There was a significant increase in the proportion of all-arterial patients over time (3.2% to 11.7%, p < 0.001) with evidence of variability across centers. Crude mortality for all-arterial patients was 2% vs 3% for all non-all-arterial patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, all-arterial was associated with a slight but insignificant increase in in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.13; [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.86-1.48], p = 0.36). There was a trend toward higher mortality in the all-arterial group when compared with the one artery and veins group (OR 1.19 [95% CI 0.91-1.56], p = 0.10). The one artery and veins group was the only group where actual mortality was significantly lower than predicted by EuroSCORE (p < 0.001). In propensity analysis the mortality was 1.51% for one artery and veins and 1.74% of all-arterial patients (p = 0.56).
The use of arterial grafting has increased over time, varies by center, and appears to be safe in terms of in-hospital mortality.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    • "Those that have compared the two grafting strategies have reported mixed short-term results (16 – 20), and data describing long-term outcomes, where one would expect to see the greatest impact of TAG, is lacking [16-19]. Taken together TAG does not appear to have gained wide acceptance as the standard of care which is best exemplified by the relative low proportion (~10%) of CABG patients receiving exclusive arterial grafts[21,22]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While it is believed that total arterial grafting (TAG) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) confers improved long-term outcomes when compared to conventional grafting with left internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafts (LIMA+SVG), to date, this has not become the standard of care. In this study, we assessed the impact of TAG on medium-term outcomes after CABG. Peri-operative data was prospectively collected on consecutive first-time, isolated CABG patients between 1995 and 2005. Patients were divided into two groups based on grafting strategy: TAG (all arterial grafts no saphenous veins) or LIMA+SVG. Patients who had an emergent status or underwent fewer than two distal bypasses were excluded. Medium term univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between TAG and LIMA+SVG cases were performed. A total of 4696 CABG patients were included with 1019 patients undergoing TAG (22%). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was 1.5% for TAG patients compared to 2.0% for LIMA+SVG (p = 0.31). The mean follow-up was 4.8 +/- 2.0 years for TAG patients compared to 6.1 +/- 3.0 years for LIMA+SVG patients (p < 0.0001). At follow-up total mortality (8% vs 19%; p < 0.0001), and the incidence of readmission to hospital for cardiac reasons (29% vs 38%; p < 0.0001) were significantly lower in TAG compared to LIMA+SVG patients. However, after adjusting for clinical covariates, TAG did not emerge as a significant independent predictor of long-term mortality (HR 0.92; CI 0.71-1.18), readmission to hospital (HR 1.02; CI 0.89-1.18) or the composite outcome of mortality and readmission (HR 1.00; CI 0.88-1.15). Risk adjusted survival was better than 88% in both TAG and LIMA-SVG patients at 5 years follow-up. Patients undergoing TAG appear to experience lower rates of medium-term all-cause mortality and readmission to hospital for any cardiac cause when compared to patients undergoing LIMA+SVG. However, after adjusting for clinical variables, this difference no longer persists suggesting that at median follow-up there are no mortality or morbidity benefit based on the choice of conduit.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The CONAREC and the ESMUCICA studies are the largest multicenter registries performed in Argentina more than 10 years ago. The clinical and surgical advances achieved during the last decade have obliged us to carry out a new national, prospective and multicenter registry to become aware of the characteristics, outcomes, complications and predictors of mortality of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives To recognize the epidemiologic profile, surgical approach and postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Argentina. Material and Methods This is a prospective, consecutive and multicenter registry performed by residents in Cardiology in 49 centers with cardiovascular surgery facilities. A total of 2553 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included between September 2007 and October 2008, distributed as follows: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 1465 patients (57.4%); aortic valve replacement, 359 (14.1%); mitral valve surgery, 169 (6.6%); combined procedure (revascularization-valve surgery), 312 (12.2%); other procedures, 248 (9.7%). Results There were more men (74.9%) than women; mean age was 63±11 years. The prevalence of diabetes was 24.9%, of hypertension 76.3% and of heart failure 17%. Preoperative moderate to severe left ventricular dysfunction was 23.8%, and 19.8% of surgeries were done on an urgent or emergency basis. A 41.9% of coronary artery bypass graft surgeries were done without cardiopulmonary bypass and a mammary artery bypass graft was used in 89%. Mitral valve surgery was indicated due to mitral regurgitation in 81.7% of cases and 63.6% of aortic valve surgeries were due to aortic valve stenosis. Mechanical heart valve prostheses were used in 58% of cases. Patients were hospitalized for a median of 6 days. Major complications occurred in 31.7% of cases (25% in revascularization surgeries and 49.36% in combined procedures) and global mortality was 7.7% (4.3% and 49.36%, respectively). Conclusions This registry demonstrates the real facts in cardiovascular surgery in centers with cardiovascular residents in Cardiology. Mortality and major complications are lower than those reported by previous registers, yet they are still high.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · Revista argentina de cardiología
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The superiority of the internal thoracic artery (ITA) compared with venous conduits in terms of late graft patency is nowadays well documented. The inferior epigastric artery (IEA) was recently proposed as an alternative conduit for coronary artery surgery with good early clinical and angiographic results. To improve the benefits from myocardial revascularization, we expanded the use of these arterial conduits. From June 1988 to December 1991, 615 patients underwent coronary surgery in our institute. In 138 of them (22.4%) we performed total arterial myocardial revascularization placing 2 or more coronary anastomoses. An average of 2.37 anastomoses per patient were placed with the maximum number of 6 in one case. Only one patient died of cardiac related causes (0.72%). Perioperative morbidity included myocardial infarction and sternal dehiscence in 5 patients each (3.6%). No stroke or reoperation for bleeding occurred. No rectus muscle necrosis was recorded. Accurate preoperative planning of graft placement allows for the performance of as many as 6 distal anastomoses using bilateral ITA and single IEA grafts only, thus completely revascularizing most of the hearts with three-vessel disease. In our series this procedure was not reflected in an increase in the perioperative morbidity. We choose an elective total arterial revascularization in younger (under 65 years) patients who, while showing a lower incidence of complications in our study, are likely to derive the highest benefits from the good durability of ITA and hopefully IEA grafts.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1993 · European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Show more