Circadian changes in CSF dopaminergic measures in restless legs syndrome
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States Sleep Medicine
(Impact Factor: 3.15).
05/2006; 7(3):263-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2005.09.006
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has a circadian component with symptoms being prominent at night. The dopaminergic (DAergic) system, which plays a role in RLS, entails circadian changes that parallel RLS symptom changes. The aim of this study was to look for relative and diurnal differences in DAergic activity.
All RLS subjects were treated prior to their enrollment in the study but were all drug-free for at least 2 weeks prior to evaluation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at 10 p.m. was used to determine DA-related co-factors and metabolites. These were compared to CSF values collected in a previous study at 10 a.m.
The only significant finding from the 10 p.m. samples (30 RLS; 22 control) was increased 3-ortho-methyldopa (3OMD) for RLS compared to controls. A comparison of the 10 p.m. to 10 a.m. values (16 RLS; 9 controls) showed small, non-significant diurnal changes for controls but large diurnal changes in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), HVA:5HIAA ratio and 3OMD for RLS, with the 10 a.m. sample showing increases in all three CSF factors compared to the 10 p.m. sample.
The greater diurnal changes in RLS suggest greater fluctuations than normal in DAergic circadian dynamics. The increased 3OMD concentration in the absence of concurrent exogenous levodopa (l-dopa) suggests changes in synthesis or metabolism of l-dopa in RLS.
Available from: Andrew A. Hicks
- "The involvement of the dopaminergic system in RLS is supported by numerous lines of evidence, including lower concentrations of dopamine metabolites and homovanillic acid levels in nocturnal urinary excretion from subjects with PLMS,82 significant differences in CSF dopamine metabolite concentrations between morning and evening from RLS patients compared with healthy controls,83 and the dramatic improvement of RLS symptoms with dopaminergic agents. "
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ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by a circadian variation of symptoms involving an urge to move the limbs (usually the legs) as well as paresthesias. There is a primary (familial) and a secondary (acquired) form, which affects a wide variety of individuals, such as pregnant women, patients with end-stage renal disease, iron deficiency, rheumatic disease, and persons taking medications. The symptoms reflect a circadian fluctuation of dopamine in the substantia nigra. RLS patients have lower dopamine and iron levels in the substantia nigra and respond to both dopaminergic therapy and iron administration. Iron, as a cofactor of dopamine production and a regulator of the expression of dopamine type 2-receptor, has an important role in the RLS etiology. In the management of the disease, the first step is to investigate possible secondary causes and their treatment. Dopaminergic agents are considered as the first-line therapy for moderate to severe RLS. If dopaminergic drugs are contraindicated or not efficacious, or if symptoms are resistant and unremitting, gabapentin or other antiepileptic agents, benzodiazepines, or opioids can be used for RLS therapy. Undiagnosed, wrongly diagnosed, and untreated RLS is associated with a significant impairment of the quality of life.
Available from: umontreal.ca
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ABSTRACT: Le Syndrome d’Impatiences Musculaires de l’Éveil (SIME) est une maladie neurologique caractérisée par un besoin urgent de bouger les jambes. C’est également l’une des causes les plus fréquentes d’insomnie. C’est une maladie très répandue, avec une prévalence de presque 15 % dans la population générale. Les maladies multifactorielles comme le SIME sont souvent le résultat de l’évolution d’une composante génétique et d’une composante environnementale. Dans le cadre du SIME, les études d’association génomique ont permis l’identification de 4 variants à effet modéré ou faible. Cependant, ces quatre variants n’expliquent qu’une faible partie de la composante génétique de la maladie, ce qui confirme que plusieurs nouveaux variants sont encore à identifier. Le rôle des déséquilibres génomiques (Copy Number Variations ou CNVs) dans le mécanisme génétique du SIME est à ce jour inconnu. Cependant, les CNVs se sont récemment positionnés comme une source d’intérêt majeur de variation génétique potentiellement responsable des phénotypes. En collaboration avec une équipe de Munich, nous avons réalisé deux études CNVs à échelle génomique (biopuces à SNP et hybridation génomique comparée (CGH)) sur des patients SIME d’ascendance germanique. À l’aide d’une étude cas-contrôle, nous avons pu identifier des régions avec une occurrence de CNVs différentes pour les patients SIME, comparés à différents groupes contrôles. L’une de ces régions est particulièrement intéressante, car elle est concordante à la fois avec des précédentes études familiales ainsi qu’avec les récentes études d’associations génomiques. Restless Legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by the urge to move one’s limbs. It is also one of the most frequent causes of insomnia. The prevalence of RLS is estimated to be around 15% in the general population. Complexes disorders like RLS are often the result of the evolution of genetic and environmental components. For RLS, recent Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) have identified four variants with mild to moderate effects. However, those four variants explain only a small part of the disease heritability and thus, we expect that many new variants are still to be found. The impact of Copy-Number Variation (CNV) in the genetic mechanism of RLS is still unknown. However, many studies have recently position the CNVs as a significant source of genetic variation potentially responsible of phenotypes. In collaboration with a team from Munich, we conducted two genome-wide CNVs studies (Genome Wide SNP chips and Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH)) on RLS patients from Germany. Using cases-controls studies, we identified regions with a different occurrence of CNVs for RLS patients, compared to different groups of controls. One of these regions is particularly interesting, as it has already been identified by both linkage and association studies.
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ABSTRACT: The author considers infinite horizon stochastic differential games with an autonomous structure and steady branching payoffs. While the introduction of additional stochastic elements via branching payoffs offers a fruitful alternative to modeling game situations under uncertainty, the solution to such a problem is not known. A theorem on the characterization of a Nash equilibrium solution for this kind of game is presented. An application in renewable resource extraction is provided to illustrate the solution mechanism
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