Genetics and Genomics of Core Short Tandem Repeat Loci Used in Human Identity Testing

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8311, USA.
Journal of Forensic Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.16). 04/2006; 51(2):253-65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00046.x
Source: PubMed


Over the past decade, the human identity testing community has settled on a set of core short tandem repeat (STR) loci that are widely used for DNA typing applications. A variety of commercial kits enable robust amplification of these core STR loci. A brief history is presented regarding the selection of core autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR markers. The physical location of each STR locus in the human genome is delineated and allele ranges and variants observed in human populations are summarized as are mutation rates observed from parentage testing. Internet resources for additional information on core STR loci are reviewed. Additional topics are also discussed, including potential linkage of STR loci to genetic disease-causing genes, probabilistic predictions of sample ethnicity, and desirable characteristics for additional STR loci that may be added in the future to the current core loci. These core STR loci, which form the basis for DNA databases worldwide, will continue to play an important role in forensic science for many years to come.

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    • "Later, core loci were defined with broad overlap among international legislations[6]. Allele categories have been identified by PCR-based amplicon sizing methods and gel or capillary electrophoretic (CE) systems[3]following simple nomenclature convention789. Size categories were operationally called relative to sequenced alleles that made up the allelic ladders, with integer values indicating the number of complete repeat motifs and additional nucleotides (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that provide a precise description of the repeat allele structure of a STR marker and variants that may reside in the flanking areas of the repeat region. When a STR contains a complex arrangement of repeat motifs, the level of genetic polymorphism revealed by the sequence data can increase substantially. As repeat structures can be complex and include substitutions, insertions, deletions, variable tandem repeat arrangements of multiple nucleotide motifs, and flanking region SNPs, established capillary electrophoresis (CE) allele descriptions must be supplemented by a new system of STR allele nomenclature, which retains backward compatibility with the CE data that currently populate national DNA databases and that will continue to be produced for the coming years. Thus, there is a pressing need to produce a standardized framework for describing complex sequences that enable comparison with currently used repeat allele nomenclature derived from conventional CE systems. It is important to discern three levels of information in hierarchical order i) the sequence, ii) the alignment, and iii) the nomenclature of STR sequence data. We propose a sequence (text) string format the minimal requirement of data storage that laboratories should follow when adopting MPS of STRs. We further discuss the variant annotation and sequence comparison framework necessary to maintain compatibility among established and future data. This system must be easy to use and interpret by the DNA specialist, based on a universally accessible genome assembly, and in place before the uptake of MPS by the general forensic community starts to generate sequence data on a large scale. While the established nomenclature for CE-based STR analysis will remain unchanged in the future, the nomenclature of sequence-based STR genotypes will need to follow updated rules and be generated by expert systems that translate MPS sequences to match CE conventions in order to guarantee compatibility between the different generations of STR data.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Forensic Science International: Genetics
    • "This is the least polymorphic locus with the highest frequency of homozygosity in our study, resulting in a significant HWE deviation, probably caused by their heterozygote deficiency. From all the CODIS markers, TPOX shows the least variation between individuals [14]. The same happens here to this marker. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this work consisted of the updating of allele frequencies and other relevant forensic parameters for the 17 autosomal STR loci provided by the combination of the two types of kits used routinely in our laboratory casework: AmpF/STR Identifiler(®) and the Powerplex(®) 16 Systems. This aim was of significant importance, given that the last study on these kits within the southern Portuguese population dates back to 2006, and, as a consequence, it was necessary to correct the deviation caused by population evolution over the last ten years so that they might be better applied to our forensic casework. For this reason genetic data from 5362 unrelated Caucasian Portuguese individuals from the south of Portugal who were involved in paternity testing casework from 2005 to 2014 was used. Of all the markers, TPOX proved to be the least polymorphic, and Penta E the most. Secondly, this up-to-date southern Portuguese population was compared not only with the northern and central Portuguese populations, but also with that of southern Portugal in 2006, along with populations from Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania, Morocco, Angola and Korea in order to infer information about the relatedness of these respective populations, and the variation of the southern Portuguese population over time.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Forensic Science International: Genetics
    • "DNA extracted from these hard tissues has been used extensively in missing persons investigations, disaster victim identification (DVI) projects, and human rights investigations. Its utility is particularly valuable when human remains are fragmentary, burned, commingled or otherwise compromised [1] [2] [17]. In such cases, DNA analysis may provide the only means to establish a positive identification. "
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying human remains often begins with cleaning and imaging the material. Hot water maceration is used to remove adherent soft tissue from bone and radiographs are taken to better visualize osseous details. Heat and radiation are known to have harmful effects on DNA, but their ability to degrade DNA when used for cleaning and imaging has not been well studied. To better understand their individual and combined effects on the recoverability of DNA from bone, skeletal samples were subjected to (1) hot water maceration (62°C for 45min); (2) CT scanning (0.6mm slices, 120kV, 10.4s); (3) X-ray (50kVp, 150mA, 0.03s, 40in); and (4) all 3 treatments combined. Forty-eight DNA samples were extracted, quantified and amplified with the AmpFLSTR(®) Identifiler(®) system. Nearly all of the processed samples had reduced RFU values relative to the unprocessed samples, indicating some amount of genetic loss. This loss did not always translate into loss of profile completeness, since only a few samples had a reduction in the number of loci detected after processing. DNA yields were not significantly reduced by any one of the processing methods, however the results indicate that the damaging effects are additive. It is possible that processing may reduce a bone's DNA reservoir and as more procedures are preformed, the pool of available genetic information might be diminished. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect the recoverability of DNA from bone. Collecting a DNA sample prior to processing avoids the negative effects from hot water maceration and radiological imaging.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Forensic science international
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