Associations among perceptions of social support, negative affect, and quality of sleep in caregivers and noncaregivers

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 04/2006; 25(2):220-5. DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.25.2.220
Source: PubMed


The authors used structural equation modeling to examine associations among perceptions of negative affect, social support, and quality of sleep in a sample of caregivers (n = 175) and noncaregiver control participants (n = 169). The authors hypothesized that caregiver status would be related to sleep quality directly and also indirectly by way of negative affect and social support. This hypothesis was partially supported in that caregiving was found to be indirectly related to sleep quality. However, after accounting for the indirect effects of negative affect and social support, the direct effect of caregiving on sleep quality was no longer statistically significant. The structural model accounted for approximately 43% of the variance in sleep quality. The present findings may be useful in the development of successful sleep interventions for caregivers.

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    • "In one recent study, Zawadzki et al. (2013) found that loneliness was a significant concurrent predictor of both rumination and anxiety among their sample of university students. Among adult workers, perceived support from supervisor, coworkers, and family members were all significantly correlated with lower depressive symptomatology (Nakata et al. 2004), while lower levels of perceived social support were found to predict higher negative affect among a community sample of adults (Brummett et al. 2006). Furthermore, lower levels of perceived social support have been significantly linked to more depressive symptoms, higher levels of stress (Jackson 2006), higher levels of neuroticism and hostility, and lower levels of positive affect (Pressman et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the growing body of research linking sleep problems and social ties, research investigating the direction of effects between these two constructs is lacking. Furthermore, there remains a dearth of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the association between sleep problems and social ties within a longitudinal design. The present 3-year longitudinal study addressed two research questions: (1) Is there a bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university? and (2) Does emotion regulation mediate the association between sleep problems and social ties at university? Participants (N = 942, 71.5 % female; M = 19.01 years at Time 1, SD = 0.90) were university students who completed annual assessments of sleep problems, social ties, and emotion regulation, for three consecutive years. Results of path analysis indicated that the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties was statistically significant (controlling for demographics, sleep-wake inconsistency, sleep duration, and alcohol). Analyses of indirect effects indicated that emotion regulation mediated this link, such that better sleep quality (i.e., less sleep problems) led to more effective emotion regulation, which, subsequently, led to more positive social ties. In addition, more positive social ties led to more effective emotion regulation, which, in turn, led to less sleep problems. The findings highlight the critical role that emotional regulation plays in the link between sleep problems and social ties, and emphasize the need for students as well as university administration to pay close attention to both the sleep and social environment of university students.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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    • "Social support has generally been found to be inversely related to depression and anxiety in such parents (Gray & Holden, 1992; Weiss, 2002). Further, in older caregivers of dementia patients poor sleep quality was found to be associated with both social support and negative affect (Brummett et al., 2006). Not only do these studies highlight the existence of different patterns of support between such caregiving parents, but also suggest that sleep quality could vary with levels of social support. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2013
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    • "Although we found comparable prevalence of sleep problems in caregivers and noncaregivers, we observed fewer sleep problems among high PA than low PA caregivers in multivariable models. Several studies reported poorer sleep among caregivers to a relative with dementia compared with noncaregivers , but controlling for depressive symptoms eliminated these associations (Brummett et al., 2006;Rowe, McCrae, Campbell, Benito, & Cheng, 2008). In contrast, another study found that older women caregivers and noncaregivers who were not depressed did not differ in sleep quality; however , caregivers who were depressed had more sleep problems than nondepressed noncaregivers (Kochar et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the study: Older adults who are depressed or are caregivers experience more sleep problems, whereas recent studies suggest that adults with high positive affect (PA) have fewer sleep problems. This study examined whether the associations of PA and depressive symptoms with sleep problems differed between caregivers and noncaregivers. Design and methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 92 caregivers to a relative or friend with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease, and 137 noncaregivers aged 60 years and older (mean 73.8±7.9 years) from the Boston, Massachusetts, metropolitan area. Sleep problems were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Respondents were categorized as high PA (n = 122), low PA (n = 69), and depressive symptoms (n = 38) based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Results: The mean PSQI score was 5.19 (SD = 3.26) and did not differ by caregiving status. In multivariable linear regression analyses among caregivers, those with high PA had significantly fewer sleep problems than their counterparts with low PA (adjusted mean PSQI score was 4.16 [SE = 0.50] vs. 5.69 [SE = 0.58], p = .05), whereas caregivers with depressive symptoms reported slightly more problems (adjusted mean 6.92 [SE = 0.80], p = .22). High PA and depressive symptoms were not associated with sleep problems among noncaregivers (adjusted mean PSQI scores were 4.88 [SE = 0.35], 5.38 [SE = 0.51], and 5.99 [SE = 0.73], respectively). Similar associations were found with PSQI scale components. Implications: Results suggest that routine screening and interventions to increase PA may reduce sleep problems among older caregivers.
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