Article

Effect of a Tomato-Based Drink on Markers of Inflammation, Immunomodulation, and Oxidative Stress

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Regular consumption of tomato and its products is being consistently associated with lower risk of several types of cancer and, to a lesser extent, coronary heart disease. Among the many tomato components credited with healthful properties, carotenoids and particularly lycopene are being actively investigated. Given the recognized role of immune/inflammatory processes in atherogenesis, the effects of a tomato-based drink (Lyc-o-Mato), which was previously shown to afford DNA protection from oxidative stress, on the modulation of immune and inflammatory markers (by enzyme immunoessay), on basal lymphocyte DNA damage (by comet assay), and on F2-isoprostane excretion (by LC-MS/MS), were investigated in 26 healthy young volunteers. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, Lyc-o-Mato (5.7 mg of lycopene, 3.7 mg of phytoene, 2.7 mg of phytofluene, 1 mg of beta-carotene, and 1.8 mg of alpha-tocopherol) or a placebo drink (same taste and flavor, but devoid of active compounds) were given for 26 days, separated by a wash-out period. During the study subjects maintained their habitual, hence unrestricted, diet. TNF-alpha production by whole blood was 34.4% lower after 26 days of drink consumption, whereas the other parameters were not significantly modified by the treatment. In turn, modest effects of the regular intake of a tomato drink, providing small amounts of carotenoids, were found on the production of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-alpha, in young healthy volunteers. Future intervention trials in subjects with low carotenoid status and/or compromised immune system will resolve the issue of whether carotenoids modulate immune parameters in humans.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Six studies involved females only (12,39,28,41,53,54), whereas 3 focused on only males (24,31,32). Eleven of the studies were interventions with a placebo-controlled group (13,17,20,21,24,35,42,46,33,31,55), and 16 used a cross-over study design (14,16,22,23,25,35,37,40,49,51,26,38,39,30,29,41). ...
... A study by Colmán Martínez et al. (51) found that 400 mL of tomato juice 4 times/wk for 28 d resulted in significant improvements in intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). While a large number of the studies found significant improvements for OS outcomes (12,24,35,37,46,47,44,51,28,29,53,54,27) there were many OS marker studies that showed no improvement (13,14,23,34,40,42,45,49,52,39,38,32,30,41,43). Thus, there is insufficient evidence to determine what the effect of lycopene is with regard to OS markers. ...
... Randomization was used in 30 of the 42 studies, with most of these reporting allocation concealments. Thirteen articles were deemed to be of negative quality (14,25,36,37,40,49,52,39,32,30,43,27), 14 were neutral (12,17,21,22,45,46,51,33,31,38,41,53,54), and 17 were positive (3, 13, 16, 18-20, 23, 24, 34, 35, 42, 47, 50, 26, 28, 29, 48). Studies of negative and neutral quality often lacked information on intervening factors and, in some cases, biases and limitations of the studies. ...
Article
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally and the presence of ≥1 cardiovascular risk factors elevates total risk. Lycopene, a carotenoid with high antioxidant capacity, may be protective. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analyses is to determine the efficacy of consuming dietary and/or supplemental lycopene on cardiovascular risk factors. Using the PRISMA guidelines, 4 databases were systematically searched from inception: Medline, Cinahl, Proquest, and Scopus. Intervention trials assessing dietary or supplemental lycopene on CVD outcomes were included. The Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool was used to assess the quality of the included papers. Pooled analysis was conducted using outcomes with available data. Forty-three studies were included. Lycopene interventions were highly variable (supplement with or without food, based as tomato juice/paste/raw product, or combined with olive oil), the dose ranged from 1.44 to 75 mg lycopene/d and was not reported in 11 of 43 included studies. Studies reported conflicting findings for the effect of lycopene on cardiovascular risk factors, This was supported by meta-analyses where there were no significant differences between lycopene intervention and control groups for blood pressure and lipids (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides). This was observed for overall groups and in subgroup analyses for individuals with elevated risk factor concentrations at baseline. Lycopene interventions for cardiovascular risk factors were highly variable across studies in both the dosage provided and the mode of delivery (supplement or food based). As such, there are conflicting findings regarding the efficacy of lycopene to improve cardiovascular risk factors. This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42018112174.
... There is also recent evidence suggests that lycopene acts as an anti-inflammatory agent (Kim et al., 2004). It has been demonstrated that lycopene can inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines and reverse the loss of antioxidant enzymes induced by inflammation caused by either injecting lipopolysaccharide or exposure to iron (Riso et al., 2006). Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects and chemopreventive potential of lycopene on experimentally induced liver cancer in rats by diethylnitrosamine through evaluation of some serum liver biomarkers and molecular analysis of detoxification enzyme (CYP 2E1), tumor suppressor gene P53 and proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α gene expression in hepatic tissues. ...
... Lycopene is a bioactive compound of tomato exerting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Reifen et al., 2004). It has been demonstrated that lycopene can inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines and reverse the loss of antioxidant enzymes induced by inflammation (Riso et al., 2006). Also, Jamshidzadeh et al. (2008) reported that tomato supplementation ameliorates biochemical indices and oxidative parameters in induced liver injury. ...
... These results are agreement with Bhatia et al. (2015) who reported that, lycopene administration to DEN treated mice modulate the serum levels of these cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) by inhibiting their production and induction of apoptosis thus showing its antiinflammatory effect. Some literature also supported the amelioration of these inflammatory markers upon administration of lycopene (Riso et al., 2006;Feng et al., 2010). Also, Bahcecioglu et al. (2010) showed that TNF-α level was reduced after lycopene treatment, indicating the anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lycopene was shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective properties, and anticancer activity. This study was done to investigate the protective effects of Lycopene on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogensis in rats. Forty-five male albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I (normal control group): rats administered distilled water only. Group II: rats received diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg b.wt/i.p), two weeks later rats received (2 ml/kg b. wt) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) orally at 1:1 dilution in corn oil as a promoter of carcinogenic effect. DEN and CCl4 injections were repeated once again after 1 month from first DEN injection. Group III: rats received DEN+CCl4 as in group II then treated with lycopene at a dose of (20 mg/kg b.wt/orally) dissolved in tween-80% for 6 weeks. All animals were sacrificed after the end of experiment. DEN induced HCC showed significant increase in hepatic marker enzymes (ALT and ALP), total bilirubin and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) with marked decrease in serum albumin concentration. Also, the results of molecular analysis in liver tissue revealed significant up-regulation in TNF-α gene expression level. Conversely, down-regulation in tumor suppressor gene p53 and Cyp2E1 gene expression compared with control group. Treatment with lycopene to DEN induced HCC protects the liver cells from damage by regulating the biochemical parameters. Lycopene was able to mitigate liver tissue damage induced by DEN through increasing of Cyp2E1 and P53 in addition to decreasing TNF-α gene expression level and ameliorate all serum liver function parameters. These findings suggested, the potential efficacy of lycopene as an additional chemo preventive agent in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by modulating the apoptosis, anti-inflammatory and detoxification effects.
... Lycopene known to inhibit cytokine production by defeating ROS motivated NF-қ activation [15][16][17].Moreover, lycopene has been found to stimulate the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, which controls the inflammation and also inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-8 which increase the inflammatory response [18].Significant decreased levels of IL-6 were experiential in mice with adipose tissue inflammation when treated with lycopene [19].Lycopene can reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines and inverse the loss activity of antioxidant enzymes caused by inflammation, either by injecting with lipopolysaccharide or by exposure to iron [20,21].A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study on healthy human volunteers revealed that 5.7 mg of lycopene for 26 days effectively reduced inflammation and discourage the production of TNFқ [21]. Our result showed that administration of lycopene can significantly increase serum IL-6 level in STZ -induced rabbits, Our findings is in the line with Ojha et al. [22]. ...
... Lycopene known to inhibit cytokine production by defeating ROS motivated NF-қ activation [15][16][17].Moreover, lycopene has been found to stimulate the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, which controls the inflammation and also inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-8 which increase the inflammatory response [18].Significant decreased levels of IL-6 were experiential in mice with adipose tissue inflammation when treated with lycopene [19].Lycopene can reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines and inverse the loss activity of antioxidant enzymes caused by inflammation, either by injecting with lipopolysaccharide or by exposure to iron [20,21].A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study on healthy human volunteers revealed that 5.7 mg of lycopene for 26 days effectively reduced inflammation and discourage the production of TNFқ [21]. Our result showed that administration of lycopene can significantly increase serum IL-6 level in STZ -induced rabbits, Our findings is in the line with Ojha et al. [22]. ...
... ↓ TNF-α production [171] ↔ IFN-γ production (versus baseline, ↑ in placebo versus baseline) [171] ↔ lymphocyte proliferation [169,170], IL-2 and IL-4 production [169] ↑ TNF-α versus depletion (arm tomato juice-carrot juice) [169] ↑ IL-2 and IL-4 production versus depletion (↑) [170], ↑ NK activity [169] Elderly (RCT) [175,177,[179][180][181][182][183], and data from a recent meta-analysis does not support β-carotene supplementation for increased CD4 cell count in patients with HIV [184]. However, GALT resulted to be depleted of CD4 also after restoration of blood CD4 by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) [185]. ...
... ↓ TNF-α production [171] ↔ IFN-γ production (versus baseline, ↑ in placebo versus baseline) [171] ↔ lymphocyte proliferation [169,170], IL-2 and IL-4 production [169] ↑ TNF-α versus depletion (arm tomato juice-carrot juice) [169] ↑ IL-2 and IL-4 production versus depletion (↑) [170], ↑ NK activity [169] Elderly (RCT) [175,177,[179][180][181][182][183], and data from a recent meta-analysis does not support β-carotene supplementation for increased CD4 cell count in patients with HIV [184]. However, GALT resulted to be depleted of CD4 also after restoration of blood CD4 by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) [185]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetables and fruits contain non-provitamin A (lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) and provitamin A ( β -carotene, β -cryptoxanthin, and α -carotene) carotenoids. Within these compounds, β -carotene has been extensively studied for its health benefits, but its supplementation at doses higher than recommended intakes induces adverse effects. β -Carotene is converted to retinoic acid (RA), a well-known immunomodulatory molecule. Human interventions suggest that β -carotene and lycopene at pharmacological doses affect immune functions after a depletion period of low carotenoid diet. However, these effects appear unrelated to carotenoids and retinol levels in plasma. Local production of RA in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, as well as the dependency of RA-induced effects on local inflammation, suggests that personalized nutrition/supplementation should be considered in the future. On the other hand, the differential effect of RA and lycopene on transforming growth factor-beta suggests that lycopene supplementation could improve immune functions without increasing risk for cancers. However, such preclinical evidence must be confirmed in human interventions before any recommendations can be made.
... Consumption of tomatoes and their products at a regular basis has been shown to associate with a lower risk of several types of cancer [62]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 26 healthy young volunteers (age < 30 years) drank either a tomato-based drink (Lyc-o-Mato) (containing 5.7 mg of lycopene, 3.7 mg of phytoene, 2.7 mg of phytofluene, 1 mg of beta-carotene, and 1.8 mg of alpha-tocopherol) or a placebo drink for 26 days [62]. ...
... Consumption of tomatoes and their products at a regular basis has been shown to associate with a lower risk of several types of cancer [62]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 26 healthy young volunteers (age < 30 years) drank either a tomato-based drink (Lyc-o-Mato) (containing 5.7 mg of lycopene, 3.7 mg of phytoene, 2.7 mg of phytofluene, 1 mg of beta-carotene, and 1.8 mg of alpha-tocopherol) or a placebo drink for 26 days [62]. Meanwhile during the study, they maintained their original habitual diet. ...
Article
Full-text available
Berries and their phytochemicals have well documented chemopreventive roles, but understanding their ability to regulate cancer immunology is only beginning to be explored. The literature, including human studies, suggests that berry components can modulate our immune system to delay cancer development. Moreover, their wide spectrum of phytochemicals suggests that they might influence the functions of multiple immune cells and different aspects of cancer immunity. Cancer immune-therapies are showing promise for some types of cancer because they boost T cells' ability to recognize tumor cells - an essential prelude to destruction. Recognition occurs after dendritic cells present antigen, such as tumor antigen, to T cells, generating an adaptive response. Therefore, the potential of berries to aid cancer immune-therapies by, for example, regulating dendritic cells, warrants further investigation in animal and human studies. More information is also needed about berries' effects on the entire spectrum of immunity so that a comprehensive view can inform efforts to use berries to enhance immune responses during cancer prevention and treatment. This review summarizes the effects of berries as anti-tumor agents from the immunological perspective in tumor-bearing animals and humans.
... Naringenin chalcone (trans-2′4′6′4-tetrahydroxychalcone) is a flavonoid compound isolated from tomato skin with active anti-allergic properties and released histamine efficiently with an IC 50 value of 68 μg/ml [15]. The consumption of tomato juice was reported to decrease the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein [16]. ...
... The % increase in the GSH following 18 day daily intake of g tomato juice was 22% over the respective baseline level and din't attain significant level (P>0.05). Similar conclusion was also reported with Italian adults, whose blood GSH concentration didn't increase following the daily intakes of tomato juice for three weeks [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present study is to test the impact of nutritional intervention with natural tomato juice on health among preadolescent to adolescent males. The study was coupled with quantitative measurements of selected biomarkers to validate the observed links between the regular consumption of tomato juice and impact on selected biomarkers of health status. Design of the dietary intervention trial The study consisted of 25 boys (10.5 years old), who received tomato juice for a duration of 18 days with mean daily intake of 240 g tomato juice containing 2% corn oil, which supplied 22.3 mg trans lycopene and 1.32 mg β-carotene. Blood samples were collected from the anticubital vein at 7 different time intervals according to a predetermined schedule for the analysis. Carotenoid pigments, immunoglulin E and C- reactive protein were analyzed in the plasma amples, while glutathione (GSH) was de-termined in the whole blood. The results showed that the plasma lycopene increased gradually with a peak at day 8, which was 2.55 fold in excess of the prefeeding period (day zero). The increases in the plasma concentrations of α and β -carotene reached a peak, which was 1.43 fold. The plasma immunoglobuline E (Ig E) a biomarker of allergy or the effect of infection on the immune system decreased but the level didn’t reach significant level (P>0.05). The plasma C-reactive protein levels in all children except one child were below the detection limit (< 6 mg/L), Therefore, the analysis was not repeated after the tomato feeding. With respect to blood GSH, the increases in its concentration peaked on day 14, but the increase was not significant (P>0.05). Thus, tomato juice could be considered as a potential functional product with a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties but additional studies for longer period of times are warranted.
... Supplementation of NDEA mice with LycT modulated the serum levels of these cytokines by inhibiting their production and induction of apoptosis thus showing its anti-inflammatory effect. Literature also supported the amelioration of these inflammatory markers upon administration of lycopene [47][48][49] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the modulatory role of lycopene enriched tomato extract (LycT) during initiation of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Female Balb/c mice were divided into 4 groups: control, NDEA (200 mg NDEA/kg b.wt, cumulative dose), LycT (5 mg/kg b.wt, thrice a week) and LycT + NDEA. LycT administration was commenced 2 weeks prior to NDEA administration in LycT + NDEA group. Results: NDEA treatment caused histopathological alterations in hepatic tissue and was associated with enhanced serum levels of inflammatory markers, i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-β. NDEA treatment also induced functional alterations in liver as evident by slow 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatic excretion. LycT administration to NDEA mice showed improved hepatic functional status as demonstrated by normal 99mTc-mebrofenin excretion. NDEA treatment also caused alterations in the hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelets and total leucocyte counts. A significant increase in plasma lipid peroxidation and decrease in reduced glutathione levels with alterations in various enzymatic antioxidants were observed upon NDEA treatment. LycT pre-treatment aided in boosting the antioxidant defense system and ameliorated the inflammatory and hematological alterations. Conclusion: As evident by improved functional, hematological and biochemical markers, it may be inferred that LycT has the potential to delay HCC initiation.
... Previous studies have shown that in vitro inflammation triggered through the aforementioned pathways might be alleviated by treatments with plant-based dietary bioactives [23,29,30]. Tomatoes have been shown to reduce the in vitro and in vivo expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines [45,46]. Hence, tomatoes might have the potential to regulate inflammation initiated through the TLR2, TLR4, and NOD2-mediated pathways. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tomatoes have been associated with various health benefits, including the prevention of chronic diseases. The cis-isomers of lycopene occurring in tangerine tomatoes were, through clinical trials, proven to be more bioavailable than the all-trans lycopene found in red tomatoes. Nonetheless, scientific evidence regarding the bioactivities of the tangerine tomatoes is lacking. In this article, the antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties of extracts prepared from four different tomato varieties, namely Alfred, Olga’s Round Golden Chicken Egg, Golden Green, and Golden Eye, were investigated. While the antioxidant capacities of the extracts were measured through the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, their anti-proliferative properties in prostate cancer cell lines were examined through the Sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were assessed through the toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein 2 (NOD2)-mediated inflammatory pathways. Our results show that the tangerine tomatoes had lower IC50 values in both the anticancer and anti-inflammatory assays compared to the red tomatoes. Specifically, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the tangerine tomatoes in LNCaP cells were approximately two to three fold lower than the red tomato (IC50: 14.46, 5.62, and 8.08 mg dry tomato equivalent/mL from Alfred hexane-acetone, Olga’s Round Golden Chicken Egg hexane, and Golden Green hexane, respectively). These findings indicate that the tangerine varieties, Olga’s Round Golden Chicken Egg and Golden Green, possess greater potential to be used in conjunction with treatment and for the prevention of cancer and inflammatory-related diseases than the Alfred (red) and Golden Eye (high beta-carotene) varieties.
... If we consume tomato in any form like raw tomatoes, tomato sauce or tomato sauce with refined olive oil, it decreases plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides level and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, besides it increased plasma HDL cholesterol (Riso et al., 2006). Adding oil to the tomato sauce caused greater changes of plasma and vascular cell adhesion molecules. ...
Article
Full-text available
Red color foods and their impact on human health are always positive and beneficial. Lycopene is a carotenoid while citrulline lowers the hypertension. Strawberries have a photochemical fight against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The outcomes of sweet fruits as wellbeing promoters, especially their antimicr anticancer, hostile to neuro described in this study. Cherries as an antioxidant have blood cancer prevention agent capacity. Cherry "greasy liver product shows antibacterial, mitigating, antiviral, and against cancer activities. Pomegranate counteracts diabetes, dental conditio brokenness, bacterial contaminations, anti brought about by bright. Aftereffects of a creature study demonstrated that both lycopene and tomato powder supplementation given independently were similarl successful and advantageous in lessening provocative and metabolic issues that happen with a high anthocyanin. An investigation on humans show drink of strawberry diminished feast evoked postprand (hs-CRP) and IL Solidified strawberries refreshment seems to have a calming reaction. Beet root contains contingents, a rich c and dyslipidemia. Various constituents in red lessening foundational irritation and fortifying safe status by diminishing diseases.
... Magnolia officinalis [181] o r a n y w h e r e . [165][166][167], anti-cancer and anti-proliferative properties [168]. Lycopene decreased the expression of chemokine (Fig. 3) in macrophages and pro-inflammatory chemokines [169,170]. ...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irrevocable chronic brain disorder featured by neuronal loss, microglial accumulation, and progressive cognitive impairment. The proper pathophysiology of this life-threatening disorder is not completely understood and no exact remedies are found yet. Over the last few decades, research on AD has mainly highlighted in pathomechanisms linked to a couple of the major pathological hallmarks, including extracellular senile plaques, made of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), made of tau proteins. Aβ can induce apoptosis, trigger an inflammatory response, and inhibit the synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus, which ultimately contributes to reducing cognitive functions and memory impairment. Recently, a third disease hallmark, the neuroinflammatory reaction that is mediated by cerebral innate immune cells, has become a spotlight in the current research area, assured by pre-clinical, clinical, and genetic investigations. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a cytokine producer, is significantly associated with physiological inflammatory proceedings and thus showing a promising candidate for inflammation-based AD therapy. Recent data reveal that phytochemicals mainly polyphenols compounds exhibit potential neuroprotective functions and it may be considered as a vital resource for discovering several drug candidates against AD. Interestingly, phytochemicals can easily interfere with the signaling pathway of NF-κB. This review represents the anti-neuroinflammatory potential of polyphenols as inhibitors of NF-κB to combat AD pathogenesis.
... There is also recent evidence suggests that lycopene acts as an anti-inflammatory agent (Kim et al., 2004). Lycopene can inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines and reverse the loss of antioxidant enzymes induced by inflammation caused by either injecting lipopolysaccharide or exposure to iron (Riso et al., 2006).This study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of lycopene against deleterious effect of diabetic nephropathy induced in male rats through investigation of blood glucose, kidney functions, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important microvascular complication of diabetes and one of the main causes of end stage renal disease. The protective effect of lycopene against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy and oxidative stress in rats was evaluated. Seventy two male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I (normal group): rats administered buffer citrate. Group II (DN group): rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injected dose of STZ (50 mg/kg b.wt). Group III (DN + insulin treated group): diabetic nephropathy rats treated with insulin (2U/rat/day/i.p). Group IV (DN + lycopene treated group): diabetic nephropathy rats treated with lycopene (20 mg/kg b.wt/day/orally). The obtained results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, urea, creatinine and kidney tissue L-MDA concentrations with upregulation of NF-kB gene expression in diabetic nephropathy induced rats. However, SOD activity and GSH level of kidney tissues were markedly decreased. Administration of lycopene to DN induced rats caused a significant improvement of all previous parameters towards their normal range. These results suggested that, lycopene treatment may have a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy and oxidative stress in rats through free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity as well as regenerating endogenous antioxidant defense system mechanisms.
... Compared with the control group and with baseline, serum concentrations of IL-8 and TNF-α decreased significantly in overweight and obese female subjects [76]. Other studies using tomato juice [77] or tomato-based drinks [78] have shown beneficial effects on inflammation. In another study with tomato juice, individuals with metabolic syndrome had a significant improvement in inflammation status and endothelial dysfunction after having tomato juice four times a week over a period of two months compared with the control group [79]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decades, thousands of published studies have amassed supporting recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables for physiological and psychological health. Newer research has emerged to suggest that these plant-based foods contain a plethora of not only vitamins and minerals, but perhaps, most importantly, phytonutrients. These phytonutrients have known pleiotropic effects on cellular structure and function, ultimately resulting in the modulation of protein kinases and subsequent epigenetic modification in a manner that leads to improved outcomes. Even though eating fruits and vegetables is a well-known feature of a healthy dietary pattern, population intakes continue to be below federal recommendations. To encourage consumers to include fruits and vegetables into their diet, an “eat by color” approach is proposed in this review. Although each individual food may have numerous effects based on its constituents, the goal of this simplified approach was to identify general patterns of benefits based on the preponderance of scientific data and known mechanisms of food-based constituents. It is suggested that such a consumer-oriented categorization of these plant-based foods may lead to greater recognition of their importance in the daily diet throughout the lifespan. Other adjunctive strategies to heighten awareness of fruits and vegetables are discussed.
... For example, it has been shown that spiral ganglion cell damage can be induced by the macrophage-mediated immune response [33], while inflammationassociated vascular changes may induce the vasospasm of stria vascularis [19]. Several controlled interventions have demonstrated that inflammatory markers could be decreased by a change in dietary pattern or of single foods [34][35][36]. However, the utility of dietary supplements to preserve hearing remains to be determined. ...
Article
Full-text available
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a major and rapidly growing public health problem thatcauses disability, social isolation, and socioeconomic cost. Nutritional status is known to cause manyaging-related problems, and recent studies have suggested that there are interaction effects betweenARHL and dietary factors. We aimed to investigate the association between ARHL and dietaryassessment using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,which is a nationwide cross-sectional survey that included 5201 participants aged≥50 years from2010 to 2012. All participants had normal findings on otoscopic examination and symmetric hearingthresholds of <15 dB between both sides. Nutritional survey data included food consumption andnutrient intake using the 24 h recall method. Data were analyzed using multiple regression modelswith complex sampling adjusted for confounding factors, such as age, sex, educational level, andhistory of diabetes. Higher intake of seeds and nuts, fruits, seaweed, and vitamin A were positivelyassociated with better hearing. Our findings suggest that dietary antioxidants or anti-inflammatoryfood may help reduce ARHL
... On the other hand, tomato and its derivatives have also shown to be beneficial in reducing inflammation as well as thrombosis incidence. In fact, some experiments have revealed the effects of tomato juice consumption, constituted of definite amounts of lycopene and vitamin C, on inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) decrease, as well as of total cholesterol levels in the studied individuals [43,44]. Moreover, tomato extracts were shown to have some antithrombotic activities that affect platelet functions and platelet aggregation. ...
Article
Tomato and its derived products have a very interesting nutritional value in addition to prominent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In terms of tomatoes are generally quite safe to eat. However, overall consumption varies from individual to individual. Indeed, either beneficial or harmful effects of plants or their derived products are closely related to quality, including the presence of biologically active compounds. On the other hand, the synthesis and accumulation of these bioactive molecules depends on many other factors, such as environmental conditions. In this sense, this review briefly highlights the relationship between the chemistry of tomato and its derived products and their beneficial or harmful effects on human health, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or heartburn, allergies, kidney and cardiovascular disorders, prostate cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, lycopenodermia, body aches, arthritis, and urinary problems.
... Tomatoes contain 94 to 95 % water and 5 to 6 % is constituted by inorganic compound, ascorbic acid, pectin among others (Kalibbala, 2011), Tomatoes are a major source of Vitamin A, vitamin C, carotenoids, potassium, thiamin, vitamin B6, lycopene and good source of dietary fibers (Visioli et al., 2009). Vitamin A is a fat which is good for eye sight as well as cell development and vitamin C which plays a vital role in mineral absorption as well as cellular functions. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Pine bark is locally available in Zimbabwe and is widely in vegetable seedling production. However, it lacks essential nutrients for seedling growth. Goat manure was used to supplement nutrients when pine bark is used as growing media. The main object of the study was to determine the effect of pine bark amended with goat manure on tomato seedling emergence and seedling quality parameter which were stem diameter and stem length. The study was carried out at the Tobacco Research Board which is located 15 kilometers East of Harare at an altitude of latitude 17 0 55' S and longitude 31 0 08' E. The experiment was laid out in a 3 X 3 Factorial in a Completely Randomized Design with three replicates. The experiment had nine treatments with three different growing media which were un-amended pine bark, pine bark amended with goat manure and pine bark amended with Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3). It also had three fertilizer rates which were 0 ppm, 75 ppm and 150 ppm float fertilizer. Results from this study showed that the different media and fertilizer combinations had a significant effect (P<0.05) on seedling emergence, stem diameter and stem length. From the results pine bark amended with goat manure significantly increase seedling emergence, stem diameter and stem length compared to un-amended pine bark and pine bark amended with CaCO 3. A combination of pine bark amended with goat manure and 75 ppm float fertilizer had a significantly high emergence percentage, stem length and stem diameter compared to other media and fertilizer combinations. ii Dedication This project is dedicated to my parents Mr and Mrs Madziwa. iii
... However, some studies did not find improvement of oxidative DNA damage [3,4] and lipid peroxidation markers [4] after the consumption of 600-800 g/d of fruits and vegetables for 24/28 days in healthy nonsmokers. In healthy subjects, results are conflicting when both antioxidant and inflammatory markers were measured in the same study after consumption of carrot juice [5], tomato juice [6], and Lyc-o-Mato in the form of drink [7] or supplement [8,9]. In healthy nonsmoking men, 8 servings/d of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruit for 4 wk did not change immunologic markers, including the number and activity of natural killer cells, secretion of cytokines, and lymphocyte proliferation [10] However, it must be taken into account that some of the intervention studies with vegetable-derived products (including juices and extracts) were not controlled for placebo and/ or were conducted on healthy subjects [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
High intakes of vegetables have been associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, the effect of vegetables on immune function and antioxidant status in human studies have provided contrasting results. In the present study, after a week of run-in period, 38 subjects at risk of CVD were randomly assigned to one of the following 4-week interventions: low vegetable consumption (800 g of vegetables/week) or high vegetable consumption (4200 g of vegetables/week). Vegetables included carrots, topinambur (Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus ), tomatoes, red cabbage, and sweet peppers. Blood and salivary samples were collected before and after intervention periods. In addition to clinical, immunological, and antioxidant markers, leukocyte and lymphocyte expression of the gut-homing β 7 integrin was evaluated. No significant changes were detected in clinical, immunological, and antioxidant markers in biological samples, except for an increase in white blood cell count for the low vegetable consumption group ( p<0.05 ). The study provides additional evidence about the uncertainty of providing a clear evidence for vegetables in modulating markers of immune function and antioxidant status. Further studies are needed in order to unravel the mechanism of effect of vegetable consumption in cardiovascular prevention.
... The observed TNF-α reduction seems to be consistent with some other human studies which reported that vegetable consumption was associated with decreased production of TNF-α in whole blood [33] as well as with decreased TNF-α gene expression in PBMCs [12]. These results are also in agreement with the findings in animal studies. ...
Article
The health benefits of vegetable and fruit (VF) intake include benefits for diseases that have an inflammatory component, although the relationship between VF intake and systemic inflammatory status is unclear due to the lack of comprehensive analysis of inflammatory markers in most studies. Therefore, our hypothesis was that the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits in the diet would have a beneficial effect on systemic inflammation status. In this study we determined the association between varying doses of carotenoid-rich VF intake, plasma carotenoids, and a broad array of markers including 26 cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Data were derived from a single-arm controlled clinical feeding trial in which healthy, non-obese individuals received a low-carotenoid prescription for 6 weeks and then consumed a provided high-VF diet for 8 weeks. Proinflammatory cytokines and plasma carotenoids were measured at baseline, at 6 weeks and at the end of the 8-week feeding period. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate overall correlations between total plasma carotenoid concentrations and the cytokines. Plasma carotenoids decreased during the low-carotenoid treatment and increased during the feeding treatment. Of the inflammatory markers measured, we found increased plasma concentrations of interferon α-2 (P = 0.003), and decreased macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (P = 0.027) and tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.012) after consumption of the carotenoid-rich diet. These results indicate that consumption of VF may be important in the maintenance of beneficial inflammatory homeostasis.
... Higher lycopene concentrations of 35 mg to 75 mg per day could be appropriate for reducing risk of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders (Heath et al., 2006). Tomato products intake anti-inflammatory properties outweigh the lycopene in a single compound (Hazewindus et al., 2012;Riso et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is suitable for the manufacture of drugs, especially for oral delivery; it is a popular vegetable. Lycopene is one of the most strong, naturally and abundantly occurring antioxidants in tomato. It has unique structural and chemical characteristics that contribute to the biological characteristics and pharmacologic actions for lower risk of different chronic diseases, such as cancer and different cardiovascular diseases. Tomato fruit consumption can be associated with various beneficial effects on health. Tomato is an important source of biopsy compounds, having vitamin antioxidants and anticancer substances. A group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic acid, and phenolic compounds, are antioxidant metabolites found in tomato that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals and these unstable molecules associated with the growth of a range of degenerative diseases and conditions. This review paper summarizes the pharmacological actions of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, lycopene, β –carotene, lutein, and vitamins) and their chemistry. This reviewed information may be valuable source for nutritionist, health workers and tomato growers. [Fundam Appl Agric 2021; 6(2.000): 210-224]
... Tomatoes are 95% composed of water, essential nutrients and bioactive components (United States Department of Agriculture 2021) such as high amounts of vitamin A, C, fibers, potassium, and various chemoprotective components that can promote the maintenance of redox homeostasis (Burton-Freeman and Sesso 2014), such as polyphenols and carotenoids, among which LYC, phytoene, phytofluene, beta-carotene, naringenin, quercetin, rutin and others (Marti, Rosello, and Cebolla-Cornejo 2016) (Table 1). (Riso et al. 2006). LYC concentrations in human body tissues -particularly in the liver, lungs, prostate gland, colon, and skin -are superior to that of other carotenoids (Srivastava and Srivastava 2015). ...
Article
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress is a major factor in aging and is implicated in the pathogenesis of tumors, dia- betes mellitus, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer Disease (AD). Bioactive constituents of tomato as polyphenols and carotenoids, among which lycopene (LYC) are effective in reducing markers of oxidative stress, and appear to have a protective modulator role on the pathogenetic mechanisms, cognitive symptoms and behavioral manifestations of these diseases in cell cultures and animal models. Epidemiological evidence indicates a consistent associ- ation between the intake of tomatoes and reduced cardiovascular and neoplastic risk. LYC defi- ciency is common in elders and AD patients and it is strongly predictive of mortality and poor cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Dietary intake of tomatoes seems to be more effective than tomato/LYC supplementation. Limited evidence from human intervention trials suggests that increasing tomato intake, besides improving CV markers, enhances cognitive performances. In this narrative review, we analyze the existing evidence on the beneficial effects of tomatoes on AD- related processes or risk factors. Results support the development of promising nutritional strat- egies to increase the levels of tomato consumption for the prevention or treatment of AD and other dementias. Extensive well-structured research, however, is mandatory to confirm the neuro- protective effects of tomato/LYC in humans.
... The use of lycopene can promote the function of endothelial cells, as indicated by preclinical studies. Lycopene has the ability to improve the NO bioavailability, endothelium-regulated vasodilation [170], reduce the damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids, and improve mitochondrial functioning, through its antioxidant activity [171]. Lycopene supplementation boosted mitochondrial gene expression and lowered mitochondrial dysfunction [6,172]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Bin-Jumah, M.N.; Nadeem, M.S.; Gilani, S.J.; Mubeen, B.; Ullah, I.; Alzarea, S.I.; Ghoneim, M.M.; Alshehri, S.; Al-Abbasi, F.A.; Kazmi, I. Lycopene: A Natural Arsenal in the War against Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Diseases.
... The use of lycopene can promote the function of endothelial cells, as indicated by preclinical studies. Lycopene has the ability to improve the NO bioavailability, endothelium-regulated vasodilation [170], reduce the damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids, and improve mitochondrial functioning, through its antioxidant activity [171]. Lycopene supplementation boosted mitochondrial gene expression and lowered mitochondrial dysfunction [6,172]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Bin-Jumah, M.N.; Nadeem, M.S.; Gilani, S.J.; Mubeen, B.; Ullah, I.; Alzarea, S.I.; Ghoneim, M.M.; Alshehri, S.; Al-Abbasi, F.A.; Kazmi, I. Lycopene: A Natural Arsenal in the War against Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Diseases.
... The use of lycopene can promote the function of endothelial cells, as indicated by preclinical studies. Lycopene has the ability to improve the NO bioavailability, endothelium-regulated vasodilation [170], reduce the damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids, and improve mitochondrial functioning, through its antioxidant activity [171]. Lycopene supplementation boosted mitochondrial gene expression and lowered mitochondrial dysfunction [6,172]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lycopene is a bioactive red pigment found in plants, especially in red fruits and vegetables, including tomato, pink guava, papaya, pink grapefruit, and watermelon. Several research reports have advocated its positive impact on human health and physiology. For humans, lycopene is an essential substance obtained from dietary sources to fulfil the body requirements. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative stress and downstream complications include one of the major health concerns worldwide. In recent years, oxidative stress and its counter strategies have attracted biomedical research in order to manage the emerging health issues. Lycopene has been reported to directly interact with ROS, which can help to prevent chronic diseases, including diabetes and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the present review article was written to provide an accumulative account of protective and ameliorative effects of lycopene on coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension, which are the leading causes of death worldwide. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that fights ROS and, subsequently, complications. It reduces blood pressure via inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme and regulating nitrous oxide bioavailability. It plays an important role in lowering of LDL (low-density lipoproteins) and improving HDL (high-density lipoproteins) levels to minimize atherosclerosis, which protects the onset of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Various studies have advocated that lycopene exhibited a combating competence in the treatment of these diseases. Owing to all the antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive properties, lycopene provides a potential nutraceutical with a protective and curing ability against coronary artery disease and hypertension.
... The use of lycopene can promote the function of endothelial cells, as indicated by preclinical studies. Lycopene has the ability to improve the NO bioavailability, endothelium-regulated vasodilation [170], reduce the damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids, and improve mitochondrial functioning, through its antioxidant activity [171]. Lycopene supplementation boosted mitochondrial gene expression and lowered mitochondrial dysfunction [6,172]. ...
... The immunomodulatory effect of carrot-extracted carotenoid was later confirmed by the Ekam, Udosen, and Chigbu (2006). Reduced risk of various kinds of cancers and, to some extent, coronary heart disease is being consistently associated with the routine intake of tomato and its products (Riso et al., 2006). Though the effect of vitamins and minerals on immune system is well proven, the focus of this review is to draw attention towards the immunomodulatory activities and phytochemicals present in certain vegetables other than the vitamins and minerals for their therapeutic uses. ...
Article
Reorientation of life style becomes necessary for staying healthy, especially during the challenging times as it is prevailing at present. Consumption of ample plant-based foods like vegetables could be an important step towards it. However, certain vegetables hold more significance as they boost immunity. Daily intake of vegetables with immunomodulation properties (modification of the immune response or the functioning of the immune system) seems promising. The immunomodulatory properties of these vegetables are attributed to the presence of certain phytoconstituents like polysachharides (e.g. RG-I in bell pepper; CMDP-4b in pumpkin; MOP-3 in drumstick), lectins (ASA I & ASA II in garlic; BOL in cauliflower), isothiocynates (Sulforaphane in broccoli), unsaturated fatty acids (pumpkin seeds), bryonolic acid (acorn squash), ribosomes inactivating protein (Lagenin in bottle gourd), glycoprotein (Luffaculin in ridge gourd), trypsin inhibitor (MoFTI in drumsticks) etc. The aim of this review is to highlight results of work done on immunomodulatory activity of vegetables. The roles of various vegetables and their phytoconstituents, which are accountable for immunomodulation and reduction in the risk of infectious as well as non-communicable diseases, have been discussed. Such information may be encouraging for researchers to carry out further advanced research on vegetables with potential immunomodulatory properties.
... The amount of tomato products was variable (e.g., from 80 g tomato sauce up to 300 g raw tomatoes; amount of lycopene rarely provided), as was the duration of the interventions (from 7 days up to 16 weeks). The health effects of tomatoes and tomato-based products have been evaluated in numerous dietary intervention studies in our laboratory: we showed their capacity to counteract oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy individuals [37,38], in line with other studies [21,39]. For example, in a metaanalysis of 17 studies, Cheng and colleagues [21] reported that tomato consumption was associated with significant reductions in LDL:cholesterol and inflammatory markers (IL-6), and an improvement in vascular function. ...
Article
Full-text available
Carotenoids have been the object of numerous observational, pre-clinical and interventional studies focused on elucidating their potential impacts on human health. However, the large heterogeneity among the trials, in terms of study duration and characteristics of participants, makes any conclusion difficult to draw. The present study aimed to explore the current carotenoid research trends by analyzing the characteristics of the registered clinical trials. A total of 193 registered trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and ISRCTN were included in the revision. Eighty-three studies were performed with foods, one-hundred-five with food supplements, and five with both. Among the foods tested, tomatoes and tomato-based foods, and eggs were the most studied. Lutein, lycopene, and astaxanthin were the most carotenoids investigated. Regarding the goals, 52 trials were focused on studying carotenoids’ bioavailability, and 140 studies investigated the effects of carotenoids on human health. The main topics included eye and cardiovascular health. Recently, the research has focused also on two new topics: cognitive function and carotenoid–gut microbiota interactions. However, the current research on carotenoids is still mostly focused on the bioavailability and metabolism of carotenoids from foods and food supplements. Within this context, the impacts/contributions of food technologies and the development of new carotenoid formulations are discussed. In addition, the research is still corroborating the previous findings on vision and cardiovascular health. Much attention has also been devoted to new research areas, such as the carotenoid–microbiota interactions, which could contribute to explaining the metabolism and the health effects of carotenoids; and the relation between carotenoids and cognitive function. However, for these topics the research is still only beginning, and further studies are need.
... On the contrary, lycopene supplementation failed to decrease MDA and hydroxyl nonenal (HNE) levels, as reported by two placebo-controlled RCTs in healthy populations [54,61]. The 8-iso-PGF2α level was also unaltered with supplementation of a lycopenerich tomato-based drink [64]. However, a decreased MDA was evident in postmenopausal females with the lycopene supplementation [65]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Carotenoids are natural pigments generally with a polyene chain consisting of 9–11 double bonds. In recent years, there has been increasing research interest in carotenoids because of their protective roles in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). While the consumption of carotenoids may have a beneficial effect on CVDs, the literature shows inconsistencies between carotenoid consumption and reductions in the risk of CVDs. Therefore, this review aims to provide a summary of the association between dietary carotenoid intake and the risk of CVDs from published epidemiological studies. Meanwhile, to further elucidate the roles of carotenoid intake in CVD protection, this review outlines the evidence reporting the effects of carotenoids on cardiovascular health from randomized controlled trials by assessing classical CVD risk factors, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers and vascular health-related parameters, respectively. Given the considerable discrepancies among the published results, this review underlines the importance of bioavailability and summarizes the current dietary strategies for improving the bioavailability of carotenoids. In conclusion, this review supports the protective roles of carotenoids against CVDs, possibly by attenuating oxidative stress and mitigating inflammatory response. In addition, this review suggests that the bioavailability of carotenoids should be considered when evaluating the roles of carotenoids in CVD protection.
... The anti-inflammatory activity of tomato and lycopene might also contribute to beneficial effects in cardiovascular health. It was shown to reduce tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations in healthy individuals [145]. Lycopene alleviated chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in a rat model, presumably due to its anti-inflammatory properties: cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, and interleukin-6 were downregulated; phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) decreased, while phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) increased [146]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urinary diseases affecting men, generally after the age of 50. The prevalence of this multifactorial disease increases with age. With aging, the plasma level of testosterone decreases, as well as the testosterone/estrogen ratio, resulting in increased estrogen activity, which may facilitate the hyperplasia of the prostate cells. Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the activity of the enzyme 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to DHT. In older men, the activity of this enzyme increases, leading to a decreased testosterone/DHT ratio. DHT may promote prostate cell growth, resulting in hyperplasia. Some medicinal plants and their compounds act by modulating this enzyme, and have the above-mentioned targets. This review focuses on herbal drugs that are most widely used in the treatment of BPH, including pumpkin seed, willow herb, tomato, maritime pine bark, Pygeum africanum bark, rye pollen, saw palmetto fruit, and nettle root, highlighting the latest results of preclinical and clinical studies, as well as safety issues. In addition, the pharmaceutical care and other therapeutic options of BPH, including pharmacotherapy and surgical options, are discussed, summarizing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each therapy.
... These results follow others reported with literature, whereas authors attributed the anti-inflammatory activity mainly to lycopene from the tomato juice. Riso et al. [54], exhibited modest effects on the production of TNF-α, due to tomato drink by young, healthy volunteers. Mohri et al. [55] study the anti-inflammatory activity of different compounds extracted from tomatoes on obese people. ...
Article
Full-text available
A nutrient-rich diet is a key to improving the chemical signals, such as antioxidants, which modulate pathogens’ resistance in the gut and prevent diseases. A current industrial problem is the generation of undervalued by-products, such as tomato bagasse, which are rich in bioactive compounds and of commercial interest (carotenoids and phenolic compounds). This work analyzed the effect of gastrointestinal digestion on the bioactivity and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from tomato bagasse extracts. Thus, the extraction by ohmic heating (OH) technology was compared with conventional (organic solvents). The results showed that the main phenolic compounds identified by UPLC-qTOF-MS were p-coumaric acid, naringenin, and luteolin. A higher recovery index for total phenolic compounds throughout the gastrointestinal digestion was observed for OH while for carotenoids, a strong reduction after stomach conditions was observed for both extracts. Furthermore, colon-available fraction exhibited a prebiotic effect upon different Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but a strain-dependent and more accentuated effect on OH. Thus, the extraction technology highly influenced bioaccessibility, with OH demonstrating a positive impact on the recovery of bioactive compounds and related health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, prebiotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Of these properties, the last is demonstrated here for the first time.
... Higher lycopene concentrations of 35 mg to 75 mg per day could be appropriate for reducing risk of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders (Heath et al., 2006). Tomato products intake anti-inflammatory properties outweigh the lycopene in a single compound (Hazewindus et al., 2012;Riso et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) is an excellent source of many nutrients and secondary metabolites that are important for human health. Its fruits are rich in antioxidant compounds, which are important for human metabolism. Lycopene is one of the abundantly occurring antioxidants found in tomato. Lycopen is beneficial in preventing various chronic diseases such as can- cer, cardiovascular diseases etc. Tomato is an important source of bioactive compounds which have antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-proliferative, anti- inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activities. A group of vitamins (ascorbic acid and vitamin A), phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids), carotenoids (lycopene, α, and β carotene), and glycoalkaloids (tomatine) are found in tomato. These compounds can provide protection to our health by neutralizing free radicals which are responsible for the growth of a range of degenerative diseases. The present review provides collective informa- tion on the pharmacological actions and chemistry of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, lycopene, β –carotene, lutein, and vitamins) found in tomato along with discussing possible health benefits.
... In addition, Kirkil et al. [37] have reported that lycopene supplementation can significantly lower TNF-a levels in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Furthermore, RISO et al. [38] have reported the beneficial effects of tomato drink on Values are weighted mean differences with 95% CIs determined with the use of random-effects models. The heterogeneity was assessed by using the I2 statistic, and values > 50% were considered as substantial heterogeneity between studies. ...
Article
Summary Background and aims Inflammation is a major cause of chronic diseases. Several studies have investigated the effects of tomato intake on inflammatory biomarkers; however, the results are equivocal. Therefore, the present study aimed to systematically review and analyses randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of tomato intake on inflammatory biomarkers in adults. Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases to find RCTs related to the effect of tomato intake on inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), up to November 2021. Meta-analyses were performed using the random-effects model. Results A total of 465 subjects sourced from seven eligible RCTs (8 treatment arms) were entered into the analysis. Pooled effect size of articles indicated that tomato intake was not significantly effective on CRP (WMD: 0.13 mg/dL, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.36; P=0.23, I2: 83.9%) and IL-6 (Hedges’ g= -0.12; 95% CI -0.36, 0.13; P=0.34, I2: 0.0%) levels compared to the control group. But it can significantly reduce TNF-α (Hedges’ g= -0.45; 95% CI -0.76, -0.13; P=0.005, I2: 0.0%) levels. Conclusion Generally, the present study showed that tomato intake has no significant effect on serum CRP, and IL-6 concentrations, but can reduce serum TNF-α levels significantly. However, additional well-designed studies that include more diverse populations and longer duration are warranted.
... The aspects of productivity and sensory quality have attracted most attention, but recently, there has been increasing interest in the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables [14], as consumers demand products with a high content of health-promoting constituents. In this respect, tomato is an important source of carotenoids such as β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A; lycopene, which has been associate to a reduction in the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease and macular degeneration [15]; lutein, which plays a fundamental role in the protection of vision [16] and in preventing age-related maculopathy [17]; others that have been less well studied, such as phytoene and phytofluene, which may contribute to inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis [18]. Furthermore, tomato is also a source of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and vitamins such as ascorbic acid. ...
Article
Full-text available
In light of foreseen global climatic changes, we can expect crops to be subjected to several stresses that may occur at the same time, but information concerning the effect of long-term exposure to a combination of stresses on fruit yield and quality is scarce. This work looks at the effect of a long-term combination of salinity and high temperature stresses on tomato yield and fruit quality. Salinity decreased yield but had positive effects on fruit quality, increasing TSS, acidity, glucose, fructose and flavonols. High temperatures increased the vitamin C content but significantly decreased the concentration of some phenolic compounds (hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanones) and some carotenoids (phytoene, phytofluene and violaxanthin). An idiosyncrasy was observed in the effect of a combination of stresses on the content of homovanillic acid O-hexoside, lycopene and lutein, being different than the effect of salinity or high temperature when applied separately. The effect of a combination of stresses may differ from the effects of a single stress, underlining the importance of studying how stress interactions may affect the yield and quality of crops. The results show the viability of exploiting abiotic stresses and their combination to obtain tomatoes with increased levels of health-promoting compounds.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids might be inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but little data came from longitudinal studies. We prospectively examined the associations between serum-carotenoid levels and NAFLD severity and the intermediary effects of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), HOMA insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), and serum triglycerides in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. Methods: This prospective study included 3336 Chinese adults (40-75 years). We assessed serum concentrations of carotenoids at baseline and determined serum RBP4, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR levels at year 3. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted to assess the presence and degree of NAFLD at years 3 and 6. Results: The 2687 subjects who completed both NAFLD tests were classified into stable, improved and progressed groups according to changes in the degree of NAFLD between two visits. Analyses of covariance showed that ln-transformed serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and total carotenoids were positively associated with NAFLD improvement (all p-trend < 0.05). After multivariable adjustment, mean differences in serum carotenoids were higher by 29.6% (β-carotene), 18.2% (α-carotene), 15.6% (β-cryptoxanthin), 11.5% (lycopene), 8.9% (lutein/zeaxanthin), and 16.6% (total carotenoids) in the improved vs. progressed subjects. Path analyses indicated the carotenoid-NAFLD association was mediated by lowering serum RBP4, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and BMI, which were positively associated with the prevalence and progression of NAFLD. Conclusions: In middle-aged and elderly adults, higher serum-carotenoid concentrations were favorably associated with NAFLD improvement, mediated by reducing serum RBP4, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and BMI. Trial registrations: This study has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03179657.
Chapter
Understanding how nutrition has evolved and influenced inflammation over time is essential for placing current knowledge into context and for informing future action. Focusing on the natural history of nutrition and inflammation brings us to the time that life began on our planet—when all the raw ingredients and nutrients necessary for biological functioning were made available and primitive organisms began developing the ability to mount inflammatory, and related innate immune, responses. This review of the ancient history of nutrition and inflammation sets the stage for explaining observations made on the role of nutrition in inflammation during the course of human history. References to the role of nutrition in health extend back into ancient Greek, Indian, and Chinese historical literature. Beginning with classical studies such as the trial conducted by Lind among sailors in the British Royal Navy that established ascorbic-rich foods as a cause of scurvy, we explore the evidence that has accumulated regarding the effect of specific nutrients in relation to inflammation-related diseases. In so doing, we also present evidence for linking deficiencies in other specific nutrients, such as niacin, thiamin, and vitamin D to diseases such as pellagra, beriberi, and rickets that have been important in the history of public health. We then describe evidence implicating combinations of nutrients and dietary patterns that are strongly related to inflammation-related outcomes, including a wide range of chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss the role of nutrition and public health problems that have emerged in the modern era that are linked with overconsumption of energy-dense foods and related macronutrients rather than deficiencies of specific micronutrients. This provides a foundation for subsequent chapters in this book, culminating with the synthesis of where we stand and recommendations for future action, in terms of both research challenges and public health action.
Article
Full-text available
Coronary heart disease is marked as the third–fourth largest global deaths worldwide by addressing the attributes of high increase hazard ratios across multiple variables: Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, Elevated cholesterol, chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome expressing the unawareness of risk assessment. Lycopene as a superior carotenoid with antiatherogenic effect can be used consequently in preventions of long term cardiovascular risk reduction strategies. Clinical trials on animals and human studies indicate the antioxidant property in lycopene is beneficial on carotid plaques and aortic intima media thickness in vivo by stabilizing the effectiveness on extraneous factors in behaving equally to statin drugs but act alternatively natural reflex adjuvant therapy. The present review article support the therapeutic efficacy about lycopene in reducing coronary events significantly with respect to its protective role in cardiovascular health. KEYWORDS: Lycopene, Carotenoid, Antioxidant, Coronary heart disease, Risk factors, Safety.
Chapter
Our inflammatory response and innate immune systems started evolving two billion years ago—long before we humans—and our adaptive immune system—came into being. While the look back in time is useful and productive, epidemiologists and other scientists, who typically follow “lagging indicators,” now must do a better job of anticipating where problems will emerge and, to the extent possible, devising means for preventing them from developing. Unlike the 300,000 years since our emergence as a species and the hundreds of millions of years preceding that, during the Anthropocene epoch, humans have been the primary agents of massive ecological change. Global climate change has resulted in extreme pressure on means of food production. The consequent increase observed in the inflammatory capacity of ultraprocessed foods parallels the rising temperatures globally. With this as background, we make specific recommendations for additional research in areas we believe represent frontiers in the effort to understand and control chronic systemic inflammation including: deep emotional issues related to the chemical senses; amelioration of pain—both physical and mental; discrimination and other psychosocial stress; losses in agricultural productivity and nutrient adequacy in a hotter world; autoimmune diseases and food allergies; how coevolution with microbes can provide additional insight into inflammatory and immune responses; and looking outward and connecting back to global environmental crises to consider the Gaia Hypothesis as a framework for ecological regulation and homeostasis for a more sustainable world with lower overall inflammatory potential. Finally, we discuss the need to engage governmental actors, nongovernment organizations, and commercial entities in order to affect policy changes, marketing decisions, and even methods of conflict resolution in order to optimize making nutrition recommendations regarding both public health and personalized medicine.
Chapter
Several authors have pointed out valorization of food wastes and by-products as a solution to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of the food production chain. Numerous valorization schemes have been proposed to explore food wastes and by-products as biomass suppliers to obtain different bio-based products. Among them, integrated value chains have been identified as one of the most promising pathways to achieve the zero-waste goal and accelerate the transition of the food industry to a circular bioeconomy. This chapter applies a mixed-method review methodology to identify the main food waste and by-product streams and to recognize the most promising value-added uses and integrated valorization approaches developed to date for the application of food wastes and by-products. The proposal of new valorization schemes and the indication of the main challenges that need to be addressed to guarantee their implementation in the food industry are also pointed out.
Article
Full-text available
Carotenoids include C30, C40 and C50 terpenoid-based molecules, many of which constitute coloured pigments. However, >1100 of these are known to occur in nature and only about a dozen are known to play a role in our daily diet. Carotenoids have received much attention due to their proposed health benefits, including reducing the incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many of these diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation co-occurring with oxidative stress, characterized by, for example, enhanced plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxyguanosine. Though carotenoids can act as direct antioxidants, quenching, for example, singlet oxygen and peroxide radicals, an important biological function appears to rest also in the activation of the body’s own antioxidant defence system, related to superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-peroxidase expression, likely due to the interaction with transcription factors, such as nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Though mostly based on small-scale and observational studies which do not allow for drawing conclusions regarding causality, several supplementation trials with isolated carotenoids or food items suggest positive health effects. However, negative effects have also been reported, especially regarding beta-carotene for smokers. This review is aimed at summarizing the results from human observational studies/intervention trials targeting carotenoids in relation to chronic diseases characterized by oxidative stress and markers thereof.
Chapter
Hypertension and diabetes are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the current world population, especially in Western societies. These two pathological conditions are key risk factors for the onset and progression of many cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, thrombosis, and heart failure. In general, hypertension and diabetes mellitus coexist in most patients with metabolic disorders. Both pathologies usually develop concomitantly or consecutively in the same individual due to different underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are shared between them. Some of these mechanisms include inadequate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, insulin resistance, dysfunctional immune response, inflammation, oxidative stress, abnormal sodium renal management, exacerbated sympathetic nervous system activation, and endothelial dysfunction, among others.
Chapter
Full-text available
Fruits come in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and flavors. This chapter will cover selected fruits that are known to be healthy and highly nutritious. These fruits were chosen due to their common usage and availability. Since it is not possible to cover all health benefits or essential nutrients and important phytochemicals of the fruit composition, this chapter will focus on the key valuable constituents and their potential health effects.
Article
Controversial results exist about the effect of N availability on tomato yield and the subsequent increase or decrease in fruit quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of reducing the optimum N dose (14 mM) on tomato yield and composition, depending on when the reduction was imposed. Treatments consisted of three N doses (14, 7 and 3 mM) imposed from transplant or when the first trusses began to flower. The decrease in the N dose from transplant only affected the yield in the most drastic treatment (3 mM) but a decrease in sugar and carotenoid concentrations were observed from 7 mM N. By contrast, lowering the N dose from anthesis did not affect the total yield or the concentration of most of the studied carotenoids, except lycopene and phytoene. Finally, the concentration of vitamin C and the main phenolic groups increased as the dose of N decreased, regardless of the time of application of the treatment. The results show the feasibility of reducing the dose of N in tomato without compromising the yield, and the importance of choosing the most appropriate stage to impose this reduction without affecting, or even improving, the nutritional quality of the fruit.
Thesis
Dietary patterns are changing rapidly all over the world. The body of available local food knowledge, which forms the basis of many local traditions, is decreasing dramatically. In rural areas throughout the Mediterranean, vegetables and salads made from wild plants have been particularly important as local foods since ancient times. However, very little is known about the use of these wild food plants (WFPs) and about their contribution to health, while numerous clinical and pharmacological-biochemical studies have shown beneficial effects for major components of Mediterranean diets. This research project studied WFPs used in the Graecanic area in Calabria, Southern Italy as components of the local diet with potential antioxidant activity. It was embedded in an EU-funded project entitled "Local Food - Nutraceuticals". The research approach adopted for this interdisciplinary research combined ethnobotanical methods with pharmacology and nutritional sciences. The gathering, processing and consumption of these plants were studied using participant observation techniques and semi-structured interviews. Local perceptions about WFPs (beneficial health effects, health risks) and nutritional data were obtained through a socio-nutritional study conducted in Italy, Spain and Greece. More than 40 WFPs are used as condiments, or vegetables, including edible greens, called ta chòrta in the local language. Many are considered to be healthy because of their bitterness (e.g. Reseda alba). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of WFPs from Italy, Spain and Greece, was evaluated using in vitro assays. Crude extracts were tested for free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO). Only a small number of plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. However, some extracts had promising activity in the XO-system. This interdisciplinary research contributed not only to the understanding of locally used WFPs as a promising source of natural antioxidants, but also to the safeguarding of this rapidly vanishing local knowledge.
Chapter
Research in the area of diet-associated inflammation is growing at a very rapid rate, with the literature size approximately doubling every 5 years. The wide expanse and general consistency of the literature provide abundant evidence for describing what antiinflammatory diets taste, look, and feel like. Fortunately, naturally colorful foods with the most interesting flavor profiles also are the ones that are most antiinflammatory. The organoleptic, or sensual, properties of natural food, while very rarely a specific focus of epidemiologic study, are consistent with recommendations that we can make—and education we can bestow—regarding consumption of an antiinflammatory diet. As we discuss, the most antiinflammatory diets consist of whole foods, primarily of plant origin. These foods also are the most nutrient-dense and have the lowest concentration of calories per unit weight or volume. By contrast, diets that are proinflammatory tend to be naturally white or colorless and have little natural flavor, even though some may have strong taste (e.g., sucrose or high fructose corn syrup, which tastes sweet). Rather than trying to limit portion sizes of proinflammatory, calorie-dense, nutrient-sparse ultraprocessed foods, including confectioneries and candy, snack items, sugar-sweetened beverages, and meat products, the preferred strategy is to displace consumption of these proinflammatory foods with nutrient-rich, antiinflammatory foods. Because these antiinflammatory foods also are relatively low in calories, they can be eaten in relatively large quantities without undue concern regarding energy balance. Though evidence behind these recommendations is solid, there are structural, societal barriers that must be overcome in order to create environments in which these healthy, antiinflammatory foods are made readily available and consumption is encouraged in societies that are committed to improving population health.
Chapter
Full-text available
Cardiovascular disease alarmingly increases day by day due to malnutrition and unhealthy lifestyle. Dietary intervention may be the initial step for CVD prevention but great importance should be attributed to the life style improvement: increase of physical activity, avoidance of tobacco exposure, limiting alcohol intake and consumption of healthy diet containing monounsaturated fats, vegetables fiber, cereals, essential oils and fruits. It is generally considered that “prevention is better than cure” and recent scientific data suggested the carotenoids as preventing agent for several chronic disorders. Carotenoids are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Clinical trials displayed a decrease in inflammatory disease risk after carotenoids supplementation. Oxidative pressure and irritation is major contributor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Numerous epidemiologic studies reveled that cheap means to prevent and treat cardiac problems is the use of antioxidants. Mixed results have been found from interventional trials which are effective and many are invalid findings. These findings also suggested danger in certain vulnerable populations. The purpose of this section is to review the works existing around the practice of carotenoids in the action of cardiovascular disease.
Chapter
Carotenoids possess strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions in addition to a plethora of other properties. These actions of carotenoids are primarily due to their structure which dictate their functions. Because of their protective potential in disease states, carotenoids are associated with prevention and/or treatment of various neurological diseases. In this chapter, the role(s) of carotenoids in various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, mild cognitive impairment, neurological trauma, brain tumor, schizophrenia, depression, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis, have been reviewed. A number of studies report associations of low levels of carotenoids with higher likelihood of neurological diseases. Other investigations describe beneficial and protective effects of pharmacological or dietary interventions which lead to enhancement of carotenoids levels in the body. However, further validation of these beneficial actions is required both in clinical and animal studies. Development of good animal models of neurological diseases will help.
Chapter
Diabetes, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases are alarmingly increasing day by day due to malnutrition and unhealthy lifestyle. Dietary life style may be the initial step for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some other factors are also associated with life style like physical exercises, daily intake of vegetable, fruit, cereal, omega-3 fats, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. It is a common quote that eats healthy to stay healthy. Same is suggested by scientific data that carotenoids are important in the prevention of these diseases because of antioxidant and antiinflammatory action. Carotenoids have been proved by epidemiological studies to be protective against cardiovascular disease. All these reports need in vitro and intervention studies in well-controlled conditions so that these results will be more valid. Mixed results have been reported from interventional trials with some positive and many insignificant outcomes. These discoveries also recommended some harm in certain high-risk populations. The objective of this chapter is to summarize the writings accessible about the consumption of carotenoids in the management of cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, and diabetes.
Article
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia. The exact pathophysiology of this disease remains incompletely understood and safe and effective therapies are required. AD is highly correlated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in brain causing neuronal loss. Nuclear factor of activated B-cells (NF-κB) is involved in physiological inflammatory processes and thus representing a promising target for inflammation-based AD therapy. Phytochemicals are able to interfere with the NF-κB pathway. They inhibit the phosphorylation or the ubiquitination of signaling molecules, and thus, inhibit the degradation of IκB. The translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus and subsequent transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines are inhibited by the actions of phytochemicals. Additionally, natural compounds preventing the interaction of NF-κB can block NF-κB’s transcriptional activity by inhibiting its binding to target DNA. Many polyphenols including curcumin, resveratrol, pterostilbene, punicalagin, macranthoin G, salidroside, 4-O-methylhonokiol, lycopene, genistein, obovatol and gallic acid were reported as potent NF-κB inhibitors for AD treatment. Several alkaloids such as galantamine, glaucocalyxin B, tetrandrine, berberine, oridonin, anatabine have been shown anti-inflammatory effects in AD models in vitro as well as in vivo. Besides, vitamins, tanshinone IIA, artemisinin, dihydroasparagusic acid, geniposide, xanthoceraside, l-theranine, 1,8-cineole and paeoniflorin were described as promising NF-κB inhibitors. In conclusion, natural products from plants represent interesting candidates for AD treatment. They may qualify as promising compounds for the development of derivatives providing enhanced pharmacological features.
Article
Full-text available
Human lymphocytes were either exposed to X-irradiation (25 to 200 rads) or treated with H2O2 (9.1 to 291 μM) at 4 °C and the extent of DNA migration was measured using a single-cell microgel electrophoresis technique under alkaline conditions. Both agents induced a significant increase in DNA migration, beginning at the lowest dose evaluated. Migration patterns were relatively homogeneous among cells exposed to X-rays but heterogeneous among cells treated with H2O2. An analysis of repair kinetics following exposure to 200 rads X-rays was conducted with lymphocytes obtained from three individuals. The bulk of the DNA repair occurred within the first 15 min, while all of the repair was essentially complete by 120 min after exposure. However, some cells demonstrated no repair during this incubation period while other cells demonstrated DNA migration patterns indicative of more damage than that induced by the initial irradiation with X-rays. This technique appears to be sensitive and useful for detecting damage and repair in single cells.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of antioxidants and various other modifying agents on oxygen-radical-generated DNA damage in human lymphocytes have been investigated using the COMET assay. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and bleomycin (BLM) have produced clear dose-related responses. In 38 independent experiments, there was consistency between the two donors used in the study for the negative and positive control data. The endogenous antioxidant catalase abolished effects with H2O2, but only slightly affected the response with BLM. Superoxide dismutase did not alter the response with H2O2 and only slightly affected BLM. The exogenous antioxidant vitamin C produced a clear dose-related response on its own. In combination with H2O2, there were small protective effects at low doses and exacerbating effects at high doses, but these were within the inter-experimental variability range. Vitamin E (trolox) produced no effects with either H2O2 or BLM, or on its own. Silymarin protected against the effect due to H2O2. Other modifying agents such as apo-transferrin and deferoxamine mesylate produced a clear dose-related protection of effects due to BLM. This protection was less due to H2O2. In the presence of ferrous chloride, the effect due to BLM was exacerbated. In a small sample of 6 smokers and 6 non-smokers, responses from smokers approached borderline significance (P = 0.054) by comparison with non-smokers. These observations would suggest that the COMET assay is a useful tool for examining issues related to oxidative stress in human lymphocytes.
Article
Full-text available
The immunomodulatory potential of carotenoids has been investigated thoroughly only for beta-carotene. Data on the immunomodulatory activity of other carotenoids such as lycopene are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged tomato juice consumption on cell-mediated immunity of well-nourished healthy elderly persons. In an intervention study, 33 female and 20 male subjects (aged 63-86 y) consumed 330 mL/d tomato juice (47.1 mg/d lycopene) or mineral water for 8 wk. Immune status was assessed by measuring number and lytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells, secretion of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] by activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymphocyte proliferation, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses. Tomato juice consumption resulted in significantly increased plasma lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations over time. In both treatment groups, TNF-alpha and IL-4 secretion were increased at the end of the intervention period, whereas IL-2 secretion was decreased. Tomato juice consumption had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, DTH or the number of NK cells. Lytic activity of NK cells was increased in both groups at the end of the intervention period. In conclusion, these results show that prolonged tomato juice consumption increased plasma lycopene concentrations without significantly affecting cell-mediated immunity in well-nourished elderly subjects.
Article
Full-text available
Antioxidant properties of carotenoids are thought to be at least partly responsible for the protective effects of fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids against colon cancer. There are large amounts of in vitro data supporting this hypothesis. But there is little known about the antioxidant effects of carotenoid-rich food in vivo particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. In a randomized, crossover trial, healthy men (n = 22) who were consuming a low-carotenoid diet drank 330 mL/d tomato juice or carrot juice for 2 wk. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by the "lag time" of ex vivo LDL oxidation induced by copper and lipid peroxidation as determined by measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma and feces using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Although consumption of both carotenoid-rich juices for 2 wk increased the carotenoid level in plasma and feces (P < 0.001), the antioxidant capacity of LDL tended to be increased by only approximately 4.5% (P = 0.08), and lipid peroxidation in the men's plasma and feces was not affected. Thus, processes other than lipid peroxidation could be responsible for the preventive effects of tomatoes and carrots against colon cancer.
Article
Full-text available
In this overview to a new thematic series on the immune system and atherogenesis, I provide a very brief summary of current conceptions of atherogenesis, of the innate and adaptive immune systems, and of the participation of the latter in atherogenesis, with particular emphasis on studies of the involvement of the immune system in atherosclerosis reported in the last 2 years. This is followed by a short outline of the eight reviews that will make up this thematic series. The overview is concluded with some caveats that should be considered in the analysis of atherosclerosis in experimental animals.
Article
Full-text available
The salutary characteristics of the tomato are normally related to its content of carotenoids, especially lycopene, and other antioxidants. Our purpose was to verify whether the daily intake of a beverage prototype called Lyc-o-Mato((R)) containing a natural tomato extract (Lyc-o-Mato((R)) oleoresin 6 %) was able to modify plasma and lymphocyte carotenoid concentrations, particularly those of lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene and beta-carotene, and to evaluate whether this intake was sufficient to improve protection against DNA damage in lymphocytes. In a double-blind, cross-over study, twenty-six healthy subjects consumed 250 ml of the drink daily, providing about 6 mg lycopene, 4 mg phytoene, 3 mg phytofluene, 1 mg beta-carotene and 1.8 mg alpha-tocopherol, or a placebo drink. Treatments were separated by a wash-out period. Plasma and lymphocyte carotenoid and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were determined by HPLC, and DNA damage by the comet assay. After 26 d of consumption of the drink, plasma carotenoid levels increased significantly: concentrations of lycopene were 1.7-fold higher (P<0.0001); of phytofluene were 1.6-fold higher (P<0.0001); of phytoene were doubled (P<0.0005); of beta-carotene were 1.3-fold higher (P<0.05). Lymphocyte carotenoid concentrations also increased significantly: that of lycopene doubled (P<0.001); that of phytofluene was 1.8-fold higher (P<0.005); that of phytoene was 2.6-fold higher (P<0.005); that of beta-carotene was 1.5-fold higher (P<0.01). In contrast, the alpha-tocopherol concentration remained nearly constant. The intake of the tomato drink significantly reduced (by about 42 %) DNA damage (P<0.0001) in lymphocytes subjected to oxidative stress. In conclusion, the present study supports the fact that a low intake of carotenoids from tomato products improves cell antioxidant protection.
Article
Full-text available
This review will focus on the role of cytokines in the behavior of macrophages, a prominent cell type of atherosclerotic lesions. Once these macrophages have immigrated into the vessel wall, they propagate the development of atherosclerosis by modifying lipoproteins, accumulating intracellular lipids, remodeling the extracellular environment, and promoting local coagulation. The numerous cytokines that have been detected in atherosclerosis, combined with the expression of large numbers of cytokine receptors on macrophages, are consistent with this axis being an important contributor to lesion development. Given the vast literature on cytokine-macrophage interactions, this review will be selective, with an emphasis on the major cytokines that have been detected in atherosclerotic lesions and their effects on properties that are relevant to lesion formation and maturation. There will be an emphasis on the role of cytokines in regulating lipid metabolism by macrophages. We will provide an overview of the major findings in cell culture and then put these in the context of in vivo studies.
Article
Full-text available
Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries, is characterized by chronic inflammation in the artery wall. It has been appreciated for decades that this disease is linked to hypercholesterolemia and the accumulation of macrophages in the artery wall, yet the exact mechanisms underlying this inflammatory process remain unclear. The role of innate and adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been an area of intense study. It now appears that activation of innate immune signaling pathways designed to protect us from microbes may be responsible for initiating and feeding the chronic inflammatory cascade that characterizes this disease. In this review, we discuss the recent identification of Toll-like receptors and their downstream signaling pathways as critical contributors to atherosclerosis. Unraveling the contribution of individual Toll-like receptors and identifying the ligands that activate these pathways will be a central focus of atherosclerosis research in the next few years. The involvement of these pathways in atherogenesis will not only open up new avenues of investigation, but it also provides new targets for therapeutic manipulation that could ameliorate the atherosclerotic inflammatory response directly.
Article
Early studies demonstrating the ability of dietary carotenes to prevent infections have left open the possibility that the action of these carotenoids may be through their prior conversion to vitamin A. Subsequent studies to demonstrate the specific action of dietary carotenoids have used carotenoids without provitamin A activity such as lutein, canthaxanthin, lycopene and astaxanthin. In fact, these nonprovitamin A carotenoids were as active, and at times more active, than beta-carotene in enhancing cell-mediated and humoral immune response in animals and humans. Another approach to study the possible specific role of dietary carotenoids has used animals that are inefficient converters of carotenoids to vitamin A, for example the domestic cat. Results have similarly shown immuno-enhancement by nonprovitamin A carotenoids, based either on the relative activity or on the type of immune response affected compared to beta-carotene. Certain carotenoids, acting as antioxidants, can potentially reduce the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, and therefore carotenoids, have been implicated in the etiology of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Recent studies on the role of carotenoids in gene regulation, apoptosis and angiogenesis have advanced our knowledge on the possible mechanism by which carotenoids regulate immune function and cancer.
Article
Context Oxidative stress may play a role in the development or exacerbation of many common diseases. However, results of prospective controlled trials of the effects of antioxidants such as vitamin E are contradictory.Objective To assess the effects of supplemental vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in vivo in healthy adults.Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted March 1999 to June 2000.Setting A general clinical research center in a tertiary referral academic medical center.Participants Thirty healthy men and women aged 18 to 60 years.Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or α-tocopherol dosages of 200, 400, 800, 1200, or 2000 IU/d for 8 weeks (n = 5 in each group), followed by an 8-week washout period.Main Outcome Measures Three indices of lipid peroxidation, urinary 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 2 isoprostanes, iPF2α-III and iPF2α-VI, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared among the 6 groups at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, and 1, 3, and 8 weeks after discontinuation.Results Circulating vitamin E levels increased in a dose-dependent manner during the study. No significant effect of vitamin E on levels of urinary 4-HNE or either isoprostane was observed. Mean (SEM) baseline vs week 8 levels of iPF2α-III were 154 (20.1) vs 168 (22.3) pg/mg of creatinine for subjects taking placebo; 165 (19.6) vs 234 (30.1) pg/mg for those taking 200 IU/d of vitamin E; and 195 (26.7) vs 213 (40.6) pg/mg for subjects taking 2000 IU/d. Corresponding iPF2α-VI levels were 1.43 (0.6) vs 1.62 (0.4) ng/mg of creatinine for subjects taking placebo; 1.64 (0.3) vs 1.24 (0.8) ng/mg for those taking 200 IU/d of vitamin E; and 1.83 (0.3) vs 1.94 (0.9) ng/mg for those taking 2000 IU/d. Baseline vs week 8 levels of 4-HNE were 0.5 (0.04) vs 0.4 (0.05) ng/mg of creatinine for subjects taking placebo; 0.4 (0.06) vs 0.5 (0.02) ng/mg with 200 IU/d of vitamin E; and 0.2 (0.02) vs 0.2 (0.1) ng/mg with 2000 IU/d.Conclusions Our results question the rationale for vitamin E supplementation in healthy individuals. Specific quantitative indices of oxidative stress in vivo should be considered as entry criteria and for dose selection in clinical trials of antioxidant drugs and vitamins in human disease.
Article
To study the role of carotenoids in the antioxidant defense against oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, human LDL rich in β-carotene and lycopene was prepared from a healthy volunteer following long-term supplementation with tomato juice. This carotenoid-supplemented LDL accumulated cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) more slowly than the LDL prepared before supplementation when the suspensions containing these LDL were subjected to a singlet oxygen-generating system. However, there was no significant difference in the rate of CE-OOH accumulation between the two suspensions when they were exposed to a water-soluble radical generator. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that supplementation of LDL with carotenoids mainly improves the antioxidant defense against the attack of singlet oxygen. Keywords: Carotenoids; singlet oxygen; low-density lipoprotein; atherosclerosis
Article
Since cis or trans isomers of carotenoids may have different biological reactivities, the isomeric composition of lycopene and β-carotene was measured in serum and seven human tissues. In addition to all-trans lycopene, at least three cis-isomers (9-, 13-, and 15-cis) were present, accounting for more than 50% of total lycopene. 13-and 15-cis-β-carotene, however, were present at only 5% of the all-trans isomer. In addition, 9-cis-β-carotene was present in tissue samples but not in serum. There were interindividual differences in carotenoid levels of the different tissue types, but liver, adrenal gland, and testes always contained significantly higher amounts of the carotenoids than kidney, ovary, and fat; carotenoids in brain stem tissue were below the detection limit. β-Carotene was the major carotenoid in liver, adrenal gland, kidney, ovary, and fat, whereas lycopene was the predominant carotenoid in testes.
Article
Lycopene, a biologically occurring carotenoid, exhibits the highest physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen (kq = 31 X 10(9) M-1 s-1), and its plasma level is slightly higher than that of beta-carotene (kq = 14 X 10(9) M-1 s-1). This is of considerable general interest, since nutritional carotenoids, particularly beta-carotene, and other antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol (kq = 0.3 X 10(9) M-1 s-1) have been implicated in the defense against prooxidant states; epidemiological evidence reveals that such compounds exert a protective action against certain types of cancer. Also, albumin-bound bilirubin is a known singlet oxygen quencher (kq = 3.2 X 10(9) M-1 s-1). Interestingly, those compounds with low kq values occur at higher plasma levels. When these differences are taken into account, the singlet oxygen quenching capacities of lycopene (0.7 microM in plasma), beta-carotene (0.5 microM in plasma), albumin-bound bilirubin (15 microM in plasma), and alpha-tocopherol (22 microM in plasma) are of comparable magnitude.
Article
Several human studies have observed a direct association between retinol (vitamin A) intake and risk of prostate cancer; other studies have found either an inverse association or no association of intake of beta-carotene (the major provitamin A) with risk of prostate cancer. Data regarding carotenoids other than beta-carotene in relation to prostate cancer risk are sparse. We concluded a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between the intake of various carotenoids, retinol, fruits, and vegetables and the risk of prostate cancer. Using responses to a validated, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire mailed to participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in 1986, we assessed dietary intake for a 1-year period for a cohort of 47,894 eligible subjects initially free of diagnosed cancer. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the entire cohort in 1988, 1990, and 1992. We calculated the relative risk (RR) for each of the upper categories of intake of a specific food or nutrient by dividing the incidence rate of prostate cancer among men in each of these categories by the rate among men in the lowest intake level. All P values resulted from two-sided tests. Between 1986 and 1992, 812 new cases of prostate cancer, including 773 non-stage A1 cases, were documented. Intakes of the carotenoids beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin were not associated with risk of non-stage A1 prostate cancer; only lycopene intake was related to lower risk (age- and energy-adjusted RR = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-0.99 for high versus low quintile of intake; P for trend = .04). Of 46 vegetables and fruits or related products, four were significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk; of the four--tomato sauce (P for trend = .001), tomatoes (P for trend = .03), and pizza (P for trend = .05), but not strawberries--were primary sources of lycopene. Combined intake of tomatoes, tomato sauce, tomato juice, and pizza (which accounted for 82% of lycopene intake) was inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer (multivariate RR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.44-0.95, for consumption frequency greater than 10 versus less than 1.5 servings per week; P for trend = .01) and advanced (stages C and D) prostate cancers (multivariate RR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.22-1.00; P for trend = .03). No consistent association was observed for dietary retinol and risk of prostate cancer. These findings suggest that intake of lycopene or other compounds in tomatoes may reduce prostate cancer risk, but other measured carotenoids are unrelated to risk. Our findings support recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption to reduce cancer incidence but suggest that tomato-based foods may be especially beneficial regarding prostate cancer risk.
Article
The reproducibility of three questions, related to fullness, satiety and desire to eat, rated on an unmarked triangle was verified. In four sessions 12 volunteers ate pasta with tomato sauce (520 kcal) and were asked to rate the sensations felt. There was no difference in rating scores of the replications so the proposed questionnaire provides a stable measure of sensations related to satiety. Subsequently three satiety conditions were studied. Two foods, one rich in carbohydrate, pasta (baked macaroni) and the other in protein, polpette (meatballs), were used as loads at two calorie levels and as preload before an "ad libitum" meal. All the three questions proved useful in discriminating between the different satiety conditions. The food intake underlines the specificity of satiety: subjects, after eating a preload which previously had satiated them, ate other foods in different amounts depending on the kind of preload eaten. Food intake was significantly higher after the pasta preload, furthermore "fullness" and "satiety" ratings were significantly highest after the meatball preload, suggesting that in our experimental conditions, meatballs were more satiating than pasta. In conclusion, this study highlights the validity of using several quite different questions to study hunger and satiety, together with the actual food intake.
Article
The present study is a biochemical validation of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with optical reading, i.e. containing food portion photographs to help to assess quantities. Forty-four healthy subjects, non-smokers and not taking vitamin supplements, were recruited for the study. After completion of the questionnaire, subjects were asked to keep a 7 d weighed dietary record (7DR). Three 24 h urine samples were collected on 3 different days over the week of food recording for the analysis of urea-N, P and K. On the 4th day of food recording, blood was collected for determination of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid. N, P and K determined in urines and from 7DR were significantly correlated (Spearman rank correlation test), r values being 0.77, 0.57 and 0.42 respectively. The correlations with the FFQ were significant only for N (r 0.45) and P (r 0.39). Blood ascorbic acid and beta-carotene concentrations correlated with dietary intake when determined from 7DR (both r 0.44), but not when determined from FFQ. No correlation was found for alpha-tocopherol. The data obtained seem to prove the validity of the FFQ in defining eating patterns in terms of some nutrients, but not vitamins, at least as far as non-supplemented subjects are concerned. The way in which foods were grouped in the questionnaire could account for these results.
Article
An improved semiquantitative self-administered food frequency questionnaire has been designed in order to investigate possible associations between diet and health, to plan nutrition education programmes, and to examine dietary compliance. The questionnaire consists of 16 printed forms and 16 pages with coloured photos of the most common foods and courses from the Italian diet. Instructions and other questions are included. The questionnaire uses optical reading from a scanner connected to a personal computer. The questionnaire was validated by comparing it with the seven-day weighed record method using 46 healthy adult volunteers. Significant correlations were found for all nutrients tested (Spearman rank correlation procedure), r ranging from 0.33 for ascorbic acid to 0.84 for alcohol. The two methods gave comparable results (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test) for all nutrients except riboflavin and alcohol. Similarity of the two methods in classifying relative intakes was examined by determining the frequency of similar classification into tertiles. Half of the subjects were correctly classified for most nutrients and for frequency of consumption of 18 food groups.
Article
The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay is a rapid, simple, visual and sensitive technique for measuring DNA breakage in individual mammalian cells. Here we review the development of the SCGE assay (with particular reference to the alkaline version), existing protocols for the detection and analysis of comets, the relevant underlying principles determining the behaviour of DNA, and the potential applications of the technique.
Article
A physical chemistry technique based on singlet oxygen luminescence at about 1270 nm and a biological cell membrane technique were used to study the quenching of singlet oxygen by four carotenoids bound to the surface of lymphoid cells. All the carotenoids studied showed a beneficial effect in cell protection, but there were subtle differences between them.
Article
In view of the persisting uncertainty concerning possible mechanisms by which high vegetable and fruit intake decreases cancer risk, foods with divergent values for potentially important micronutrients are a priority for investigation. Tomatoes are low in beta-carotene, but high in lycopene, an active antioxidative agent. In order to assess the effect of tomatoes on risk of cancers of the digestive tract, data were analyzed from an integrated series of case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 1991 in northern Italy, where tomato intake is high but, also, heterogeneous. The overall dataset included the following histologically confirmed cancer cases: oral cavity and pharynx, 314; esophagus, 85; stomach, 723; colon, 955; and rectum, 629; and a total of 2,879 controls admitted to hospital for acute non-neoplastic or non-digestive conditions, unrelated to long-term dietary modifications. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for subsequent quartiles of intake of raw tomatoes were derived, after allowance for age, sex, study center, education, smoking and drinking level, and tertile of total caloric intake. There was a consistent pattern of protection for all sites (OR in the upper quartile ranging between 0.4 and 0.7), most notably for gastrointestinal neoplasms. All trends in risk were highly significant. The beneficial effect of raw tomatoes in this population may be partly due to the fact that they constitute perhaps the most specific feature of the Mediterranean diet. However, if it is true that tomatoes protect against digestive-tract cancers, this is of interest from both a scientific and a public health viewpoint.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the relative antioxidant activities of a range of carotenes and xanthophylls through the extent of their abilities to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical cation. The results show that the relative abilities of the carotenoids to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical cation are influenced by the presence of functional groups with increasing polarities, such as carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, in the terminal rings, as well as by the number of conjugated double bonds.
Article
A human intervention study with vegetable products has been performed in twenty three healthy, non smoking males aged 27-40. It was the aim of the study to assess whether consumption of vegetables containing different carotenoids could protect against DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage. The subjects consumed their normal diets, but abstained from vegetables high in carotenoids throughout the study period. After a 2 week depletion period, they received daily 330 ml tomato juice with 40 mg lycopene (weeks 3 and 4), 330 ml carrot juice with 22.3 mg beta-carotene and 15.7 mg alpha-carotene (weeks 5 and 6), and 10 g dried spinach powder (in water or milk) with 11.3 mg lutein (weeks 7 and 8). Blood was collected weekly and DNA damage was detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes with the 'COMET' assay. Oxidised DNA bases were detected by including an incubation step with endonuclease III. The supplementation of the diet with tomato, carrot or spinach products resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous levels of strand breaks in lymphocyte DNA. Oxidative base damage was significantly reduced during the carrot juice intervention. These findings support the hypothesis that carotenoid containing plant products exert a cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative and other damage to DNA in humans.
Article
Elderly persons are more susceptible to bacterial and virus infections and neoplasias than young adults. This is related to an impaired immune response. Lymphocytes of the elderly show a decreased proliferation after induction with mitogens. The decreased proliferation is correlated to a decreased release of interleukin (IL)-2 and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). However, IL-2R expression on the cell surface is normal. Interferon (IFN)-gamma as the main T-helper-1 (TH1) cytokine is produced less by lymphocytes of the elderly, whereas the TH2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 are produced in higher amounts as compared to stimulated lymphocytes of young donors. The decreased production of IFN-gamma is correlated to a decreased number of CD45RO+/CD8+ T cells. Therefore in the elderly there seems to be a dysregulation in the TH1/TH2-system which is predominated by TH2-functions. Monocyte function seems to be increased in the elderly. Leukocytes of elderly persons produce higher amounts of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha after induction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than leukocytes from young donors. In contrast, in vitro induction of IFN-alpha by viruses is decreased in the elderly compared to the young. In conclusion, there are cellular defects and dysfunctions in the elderly resulting in an altered immune response.
Article
To study the relationship between lycopene intake and plasma concentration, ten healthy female subjects were given one or more portions of tomato purée or fresh raw tomato containing 16.5 mg total lycopene (all-trans + cis forms). In Expt 1 subjects (n 9) were randomly assigned the single portions of the two tomato products and blood samples were collected to follow the change in plasma carotenoid concentrations within the first 12 h and on each of the following 5 d (104 h). In Expt 2 subjects (n 10) were divided into two groups of five each receiving daily dietary portions of tomato purée or fresh raw tomato containing 16.5 mg total lycopene for 7 d. Fasting blood samples were collected daily. In Expt 1 the plasma total lycopene (all-trans + cis forms) concentration, after the single portions of tomato purée and raw tomato, varied significantly over time, with a first peak reached after 6 h, a further increase after 12 h and a slow decrease until 104 h. In Expt 2, when the tomato products were given daily, there was a day-by-day increase in the plasma total lycopene concentration, and through the following week of a diet without tomato there was a gradual decrease. However, values did not return to basal concentrations. Plasma total lycopene concentration was higher after the tomato purée intake than after the raw tomato in both the first (F(1,8) 7.597; P < 0.025) and the second experiments (F(1,8) 12.193; P < 0.01) demonstrating a significant effect of food matrix on absorption.
Article
Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important etiologic factor in atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction. Antioxidants may inhibit atherogenesis and improve vascular function by two different mechanisms. First, lipid-soluble antioxidants present in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), including alpha-tocopherol, and water-soluble antioxidants present in the extracellular fluid of the arterial wall, including ascorbic acid (vitamin C), inhibit LDL oxidation through an LDL-specific antioxidant action. Second, antioxidants present in the cells of the vascular wall decrease cellular production and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit endothelial activation (i.e., expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte chemoattractants), and improve the biologic activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) through a cell- or tissue-specific antioxidant action. alpha-Tocopherol and a number of thiol antioxidants have been shown to decrease adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial interactions. Vitamin C has been demonstrated to potentiate EDNO activity and normalize vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease and associated risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking.
Article
Many epidemiological studies have shown an association between diets rich in carotenoids and a reduced incidence of many forms of cancer, and it has been suggested that the antioxidant properties of these compounds are a causative factor. Attention has focused on the potential role of one specific carotenoid, beta-carotene, in preventing cancer, and numerous publications have described in vitro experiments and animal studies which suggest that not only can this carotenoid protect against the development of cancer, but also several other chronic diseases. Since the immune system plays a major role in cancer prevention, it has been suggested that beta-carotene may enhance immune cell function. Several human trials, using dietary beta-carotene supplementation with a wide range of intakes, have been undertaken to address this hypothesis. The general conclusion of these studies is that this compound can enhance cell-mediated immune responses, particularly in the elderly. The present article will review some of these human studies and, hopefully, complement the reviews of other authors associated with the present symposium, some of whom will also describe work in this area. Potential mechanisms for the effects of carotenoids on immune function will also be reviewed. Finally, possible reasons for the failure of three major prospective studies to demonstrate a beneficial effect of beta-carotene supplementation on lung cancer risk will be discussed.
Article
Oxidative stress may play a role in the development or exacerbation of many common diseases. However, results of prospective controlled trials of the effects of antioxidants such as vitamin E are contradictory. To assess the effects of supplemental vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in vivo in healthy adults. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted March 1999 to June 2000. A general clinical research center in a tertiary referral academic medical center. Thirty healthy men and women aged 18 to 60 years. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or alpha-tocopherol dosages of 200, 400, 800, 1200, or 2000 IU/d for 8 weeks (n = 5 in each group), followed by an 8-week washout period. Three indices of lipid peroxidation, urinary 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 2 isoprostanes, iPF(2alpha)-III and iPF(2alpha)-VI, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared among the 6 groups at baseline, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, and 1, 3, and 8 weeks after discontinuation. Circulating vitamin E levels increased in a dose-dependent manner during the study. No significant effect of vitamin E on levels of urinary 4-HNE or either isoprostane was observed. Mean (SEM) baseline vs week 8 levels of iPF(2alpha)-III were 154 (20.1) vs 168 (22.3) pg/mg of creatinine for subjects taking placebo; 165 (19.6) vs 234 (30.1) pg/mg for those taking 200 IU/d of vitamin E; and 195 (26.7) vs 213 (40.6) pg/mg for subjects taking 2000 IU/d. Corresponding iPF(2alpha)-VI levels were 1.43 (0.6) vs 1.62 (0.4) ng/mg of creatinine for subjects taking placebo; 1.64 (0.3) vs 1.24 (0.8) ng/mg for those taking 200 IU/d of vitamin E; and 1.83 (0.3) vs 1.94 (0.9) ng/mg for those taking 2000 IU/d. Baseline vs week 8 levels of 4-HNE were 0.5 (0.04) vs 0.4 (0.05) ng/mg of creatinine for subjects taking placebo; 0.4 (0.06) vs 0.5 (0.02) ng/mg with 200 IU/d of vitamin E; and 0.2 (0.02) vs 0.2 (0.1) ng/mg with 2000 IU/d. Our results question the rationale for vitamin E supplementation in healthy individuals. Specific quantitative indices of oxidative stress in vivo should be considered as entry criteria and for dose selection in clinical trials of antioxidant drugs and vitamins in human disease.
Article
Antioxidants may prevent atherosclerosis by interfering with endothelial activation, which involves the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between plasma levels of some lipid-soluble antioxidants (gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, beta-carotene, and ubiquinone), carotid maximum intima-media thickness (IMTmax), an index of atherosclerotic extension/severity, and soluble adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], and E-selectin), which are taken as a reflection of vascular cell expression of adhesion molecules. We studied 11 healthy control subjects, 11 patients with uncomplicated hypertension (UH), and 11 patients with essential hypertension plus peripheral vascular disease (PVD) who were matched for age, sex, smoking habit, and body mass index. Patients with PVD had elevated IMTmax (2.7 [1.1-3.1] mm, median [range]) compared with both patients with UH(1.2 [0.8-2.4] mm) and control subjects (1.0 [0.6-2] mm). In patients with PVD, soluble (s)VCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were also significantly higher than in the 2 other categories. Plasma levels of lycopene had a trend toward lower values in patients with PVD compared with other groups (P =.13). A statistically significant correlation was found between lycopene and IMTmax (r = 0.42, P =.014) at univariate analysis, which persisted at multivariate analysis (P <.05) and was independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine clearance, and plasma insulin. Plasma lycopene did not significantly correlate with any of the soluble adhesion molecules tested. We conclude that the inverse relationship of plasma lycopene with IMTmax is compatible with a protective role of this natural dietary antioxidant in atherosclerosis, although the mechanism of protection does not apparently involve a decrease in endothelial activation measured through soluble adhesion molecules.
Article
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a family of inducible transcription factors found virtually ubiquitously in all cells. Since its discovery by Sen and Baltimore in 1986, much has been discovered about its mechanisms of activation, its target genes, and its function in a variety of human diseases including those related to inflammation, asthma, atherosclerosis, AIDS, septic shock, arthritis, and cancer. Due to its role in a wide variety of diseases, NF-kappaB has become one of the major targets for drug development. Here, we review our current knowledge of NF-kappaB, the possible mechanisms of its activation, its potential role in cancer, and various strategies being employed to target the NF-kappaB signaling pathway for cancer drug development.
Article
Epidemiology suggests that Mediterranean diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Because monocyte adhesion to the endothelium is crucial in early atherogenesis, we evaluated whether typical olive oil and red wine polyphenols affect endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adhesion. Phytochemicals in olive oil and red wine, including oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, elenolic acid, and resveratrol, with or without antioxidant activity, were incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells for 30 minutes, followed by co-incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or cytokines to trigger adhesion molecule expression. At nutritionally relevant concentrations, only oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and resveratrol, possessing a marked antioxidant activity, reduced monocytoid cell adhesion to stimulated endothelium, as well as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA and protein by Northern analysis and cell surface enzyme immunoassay. Reporter gene assays with deletional VCAM-1 promoter constructs indicated the relevance of nuclear factor-kappaB, activator protein-1, and possibly GATA binding sites in mediating VCAM-1 transcriptional inhibition. The involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 was finally demonstrated at electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols at nutritionally relevant concentrations transcriptionally inhibit endothelial adhesion molecule expression, thus partially explaining atheroprotection from Mediterranean diets.
Article
It has been suggested that regular consumption of tomato products improves antioxidant defenses due to their endogenous antioxidant compounds, notably lycopene. We evaluated the effects of tomato consumption on parameters of lipid oxidation in healthy human volunteers. Twelve females (enrolled at T-7), after a one-week of carotenoid-poor diet (T0), were instructed to supplement the same diet with different tomato products (raw, sauce, and paste), thereby providing approximately eight mg lycopene/day for three weeks (T21). Blood samples were periodically collected in order to evaluate plasma carotenoid concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity, and susceptibility of LDL to metal ion-induced oxidation. Furthermore, 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), a marker of in vivo oxidative stress, was analyzed in the 24-hour urine. Carotenoid concentrations decreased significantly during the carotenoid-poor diet (P < 0.05), while lycopene concentrations increased significantly after tomato consumption (P < 0.001). The antioxidant capacity of plasma did not vary during the study. Conversely, LDL oxidizability decreased after tomato consumption, as demonstrated by a shortening of the lag phase (P < 0.001). This parameter was significantly correlated with lycopene concentration (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The excretion of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) in urine was also significantly lower (-53%, P < 0.05 compared with T0) after tomato supplementation. These results further support a role for tomato products in the prevention of lipid peroxidation, a risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
Article
Early studies demonstrating the ability of dietary carotenes to prevent infections have left open the possibility that the action of these carotenoids may be through their prior conversion to vitamin A. Subsequent studies to demonstrate the specific action of dietary carotenoids have used carotenoids without provitamin A activity such as lutein, canthaxanthin, lycopene and astaxanthin. In fact, these nonprovitamin A carotenoids were as active, and at times more active, than beta-carotene in enhancing cell-mediated and humoral immune response in animals and humans. Another approach to study the possible specific role of dietary carotenoids has used animals that are inefficient converters of carotenoids to vitamin A, for example the domestic cat. Results have similarly shown immuno-enhancement by nonprovitamin A carotenoids, based either on the relative activity or on the type of immune response affected compared to beta-carotene. Certain carotenoids, acting as antioxidants, can potentially reduce the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, and therefore carotenoids, have been implicated in the etiology of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Recent studies on the role of carotenoids in gene regulation, apoptosis and angiogenesis have advanced our knowledge on the possible mechanism by which carotenoids regulate immune function and cancer.
Article
Isoprostanes (iP's), a new class of natural products isomeric with prostaglandins, are formed as the result of free radical oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. We have identified these iP's and developed analytical methodology to measure them in biological fluids. The approach we took, which led to the discovery and measurement of iP's, is as follows: (1) based on some biochemical and chemical considerations, we proposed possible structures for these isoprostanes; (2) we performed the total syntheses of some of these iP's, in particular Groups III through VI, and used them as markers for their discovery in biological fluids and developed a GC/MS and an LC/MS methodologies based on iPF2alpha-III, iPF2alpha-VI, and 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-VI; (3) with the help of these assays, we measured elevated levels of iP's in Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis.