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Lünemann, J. D. et al. Increased frequency and broadened specificity of latent EBV nuclear antigen-1-specific T cells in multiple sclerosis. Brain 129, 1493-1506

Neuroimmunology Branch, Cellular Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Brain (Impact Factor: 9.2). 07/2006; 129(Pt 6):1493-506. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awl067
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that patients with multiple sclerosis are almost universally infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and that the risk of developing the disease increases with the level of EBV-specific antibody titers. The EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) maintains the viral episome in replicating infected human B cells, and EBNA1-specific CD4+ T cells have been identified as a crucial part of the EBV-specific immune control in healthy individuals. We studied 20 untreated EBV seropositive patients with multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy EBV carriers matched demographically and for the expression of multiple sclerosis-associated HLA-DR alleles for their immunological control of EBV latency at the level of EBNA1-specific T cells. Using 51 overlapping peptides covering the C-terminal of EBNA1 domain of EBNA1 (amino acids 400-641), peptide-specific CD4+ memory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis were found to be strikingly elevated in frequency, showed increased proliferative capacity and an enhanced interferon-gamma production. In contrast to EBNA1, T-cell responses to three other latent and three other lytic immunodominant EBV antigens and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) epitopes did not differ between patients and controls, indicating a distinct role for EBNA1-specific T-cell responses in multiple sclerosis. CD4+ T cells from healthy virus carriers preferentially recognized multiple epitopes within the centre part of the C-terminal, whereas the stimulatory epitopes in multiple sclerosis patients covered the entire sequence of this domain of EBNA1. Quantification of EBV viral loads in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed higher levels of EBV copy numbers in some patients with multiple sclerosis, although the overall difference in viral loads was not statistically significant compared with healthy virus carriers. We suggest that the accumulation of highly antigen-sensitive EBNA1-specific Th1 cells in multiple sclerosis is capable of sustaining autoimmunity by cross-recognition of autoantigens or by TCR-independent bystander mechanisms.

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    • "as we (Ben Fredj et al., 2012) and other investigators have recently reported (Levin et al., 2003; Giovannoni et al., 2006; Haahr & Hollsberg, 2006; Lunemann et al., 2006; Lindsey et al., 2009). Correale and collaborators demonstrated that the serum concentration of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D was lower in patients with MS than those in controls (Correale et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Summary The vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, evidence remains conflicting. In this report, we investigated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TaqI and ApaI of VDR gene and risk development of MS. TaqI and ApaI SNPs were detected by PCR-RFLP from the DNA of 60 Tunisian patients with MS and 114 healthy controls. Our results show a significant difference of the allelic frequency distribution between the case and control groups for TaqI SNP (P = 0.01), but genotype frequencies were not significantly different (P = 0.07 and 0.23). When adjusting frequency distribution of different alleles and genotypes by age, we found that the difference between the T allele frequencies of this SNP in the group of patients age [15˗24] in comparison with the control group of the same age group was statistically significant (P = 0.026). Moreover, frequency of the T allele was significantly higher in male patients compared with controls of the same sex (P = 0.017). However, neither the genotype nor the allele frequency distribution was significantly different between the MS and control populations for the ApaI SNP. Our preliminary results indicate that VDR gene polymorphism could be associated with susceptibility to MS. The role of VDR gene polymorphism should be further studied in other large populations, and the distribution of other polymorphism, such as FokI and BsmI, should be also analysed to confirm another susceptibility polymorphisms gene for MS and to obtain more adequate strategies for treatment of MS.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Immunogenetics
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    • "as we (Ben Fredj et al., 2012) and other investigators have recently reported (Levin et al., 2003; Giovannoni et al., 2006; Haahr & Hollsberg, 2006; Lunemann et al., 2006; Lindsey et al., 2009). Correale and collaborators demonstrated that the serum concentration of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D was lower in patients with MS than those in controls (Correale et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, evidence remains conflicting. In this report, we investigated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TaqI and ApaI of VDR gene and risk development of MS. TaqI and ApaI SNPs were detected by PCR-RFLP from the DNA of 60 Tunisian patients with MS and 114 healthy controls. Our results show a significant difference of the allelic frequency distribution between the case and control groups for TaqI SNP (P = 0.01), but genotype frequencies were not significantly different (P = 0.07 and 0.23). When adjusting frequency distribution of different alleles and genotypes by age, we found that the difference between the T allele frequencies of this SNP in the group of patients age [15-24] in comparison with the control group of the same age group was statistically significant (P = 0.026). Moreover, frequency of the T allele was significantly higher in male patients compared with controls of the same sex (P = 0.017). However, neither the genotype nor the allele frequency distribution was significantly different between the MS and control populations for the ApaI SNP. Our preliminary results indicate that VDR gene polymorphism could be associated with susceptibility to MS. The role of VDR gene polymorphism should be further studied in other large populations, and the distribution of other polymorphism, such as FokI and BsmI, should be also analysed to confirm another susceptibility polymorphisms gene for MS and to obtain more adequate strategies for treatment of MS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · International Journal of Immunogenetics
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    • "Cepok et al. reported a high percentage of IgG antibodies against protein epitopes BRRF2 and EBNA-1 of the virus, in the serum and CSF samples from MS patients [50]. Lünemann et al. isolated from MS patients in 2006 [51] highly specific T-cells for the epitope EBNA-1. Recently, infection of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells has been reported, initiating disruption mechanisms, as well as proinflammatory cytokines production [52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: During the last decades, the effort of establishing satisfactory biomarkers for multiple sclerosis has been proven to be very difficult, due to the clinical and pathophysiological complexities of the disease. Recent knowledge acquired in the domains of genomics-immunogenetics and neuroimmunology, as well as the evolution in neuroimaging, has provided a whole new list of biomarkers. This variety, though, leads inevitably to confusion in the effort of decision making concerning strategic and individualized therapeutics. In this paper, our primary goal is to provide the reader with a list of the most important characteristics that a biomarker must possess in order to be considered as reliable. Additionally, up-to-date biomarkers are further divided into three subgroups, genetic-immunogenetic, laboratorial, and imaging. The most important representatives of each category are presented in the text and for the first time in a summarizing workable table, in a critical way, estimating their diagnostic potential and their efficacy to correlate with phenotypical expression, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, disability, and therapeutical response. Special attention is given to the "gold standards" of each category, like HLA-DRB1∗ polymorphisms, oligoclonal bands, vitamin D, and conventional and nonconventional imaging techniques. Moreover, not adequately established but quite promising, recently characterized biomarkers, like TOB-1 polymorphisms, are further discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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