Peer and Teacher Bullying/Victimization of South Australian Secondary School Students
This study examined the nature and prevalence of bullying/victimization by peers and teachers reported by 1,284 students (mean age = 15.2 years) drawn from a representative sample of 25 South Australian government and private schools. Students completed a self-report survey containing questions relating to teacher and peer-related bullying, measures of psychosocial adjustment, and personality. The results showed that students could be clearly differentiated according to the type of victimization they had experienced. Students reporting peer victimization typically showed high levels of social alienation, poorer psychological functioning, and poorer self-esteem and self-image. By contrast, victims of teacher victimization were more likely to be rated as less able academically, had less intention to complete school and were more likely to be engaged in high-risk behaviours such as gambling, drug use and under-age drinking. Most bullying was found to occur at school rather than outside school and involved verbal aggression rather than physical harm. Boys were significantly more likely to be bullied than girls, with the highest rates being observed amongst boys attending single-sex government schools. Girls were more likely to be subject to bullying if they attended coeducational private schools. The implications of this work for enhancing school-retention rates and addressing psychological distress amongst adolescent students are discussed.
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- "Most studies of school (Smith, 2011) and workplace (Coyne, 2011) bullying define bullying by means of three criteria: (1) bullying is when someone directs aggressive behavior towards another or intentionally hurts and harms target person; (2) bullying occurs repeatedly over a lengthy period of time; and (3) there exists an imbalance of power with the person being subjected to bullying cannot defend him-or herself. Workplace bullying in schools overwhelms complex dynamics (Parsons, 2005): at one side, teachers may be bullied by: other teachers, students, staff, principals, parents; and on the other side, teachers may bully other teachers, staff, principals, parents and students (e. g. teachers bullying students: Delfabbro et al, 2006; McEvoy, 2005; Twemlow & Fongy, 2005). Teacher-targeted bullying at workplace is a issue of international studies providing evidence about its overall prevalence: in Spain study among five different working populations (included teachers) indicated that about onefifth respondents defined themselves as victims (Jennifer, Cowei & Ananiadou, 2003); in South Africa an half of the secondary school teachers reported that they were victims of bullying (De Wet; 2006); in Turkey it was revealed that 50% of primary school teachers experienced victimization due to bullying at work (Cemaloglu, 2007); in Ireland about 31% of principals reported that educators in their nursery, primary, secondary and special school had reported being the victim of bullying behavior (McGuckin & Lewis, 2008); in Croatia 22% teachers have exposed to bullying by others and 32% have witnessed it at least once in the previous 12 months at workplace (Russo et al., 2008); in Australian schools nearly all (about 99%) of teachers have experienced some forms of bullying during their employment (Riley, Duncan, Edwards (2011); in Estonia about one-fifth of teachers reported of repeated workplace bullying experience (Kõiv, 2011); national report in UK (NASUWT, 2012) among teachers indicated that 67% of respondents had either experienced or witnessed adult workplace bullying during the prior 12 months; in US findings indicate that approximately half of all teachers reported at least one form of victimization within the current or previous year (McMahon et al., 2014). "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe changes in the prevalence of teacher multi-targeted workplace bullying in Estonia by means of a repeated cross-sectional design comparing two studies conducted 10 years apart. A comparison was conducted between participants from teachers’ self reports (n=573) in 2003 and those of (n=564) in 2013. The findings show a substantial increase during ten years in the prevalence of teacher targeted bullying in the teacher-pupil, teacher-teacher, teacher-school administrative staff, teacher-school maintenance staff, and teacher-parent relationships across different categories of victimization: Threat to professional status, threat to personal standing, isolation, and physical aggression.
Available from: Liming Chen
- "With regard to gender differences in bullying involvement, our results showed that male students have higher prevalence rates in bullying, victimization, witness to bullying, and bully/victim status than female students. These results are consistent with previous studies (Currie et al., 2008, Delfabbro et al., 2006; DeSouza & Ribeiros, 2005; Smith & Gross, 2006; Solberg & Olweus, 2003). However, Craig et al. (2009) found that males reported higher rates of bullying in all countries, whereas victimization was higher for girls in 29 of 40 countries. "
Available from: Liming Chen
- "Results indicated that more male than female students were involved in bullying and victimization. These results, which were consistent with previous findings (Delfabbro et al. 2006; Fleming and Jacobsen 2010), suggested that gender differences in bullying and victimization are found in both Eastern and Western cultures. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution, however, because of the low effect sizes. "
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